Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / Merosi adabii SHohin

Merosi adabii SHohin

Ba navishtan natavon sheri maro kard tamom,

Garchi z-oshuftadili zavqi sukhan kam doram.

Osori SHamsuddin SHohin ba tavri nisbatan jome tanho pas az 42 soli vafoti shoir girdovari shudaast. Dar merosi adabii lirikii SHohin joi asosiro, pesh az hama gazal ishgol menamoyad. Pas az gazal qasida, ruboi, qita, musammati mukhammas, tarjeot tarkibi devoni uro faroham ovardaand. Inchunin, osori dostoni: «Layli va Majnun», «Tuhfai duston» va asari mansuri «Badoe-us-sanoe»-i adib to kunun dastras shudaast.

 

Gazaliyoti SHohin

Kunad ba sheri tu, SHohin, akiDai komil,

Kase, ki mukhlisi ashori tabi mavzun ast.

Dar lirikai SHamsuddin makhdumi SHohin gazal mavqei markazi dorad. U dar in joda davomdihandai ananahoi nazmi besh az hazorsolai tojik meboshad. Hidmati tarikhii u hamchun shoir az on iborat ast, ki dar zaminai sunnat navpardozivu tozakoriho kard. Az in ru, dar lirikai SHohin va khususan dar gazaliyoti u ishqu oshiqi, nozu jafoi mahbuba, vasfi husnu jamoli mashuqa, isyonhoi qalbivu sadoi dilhoi labrezi muhabbat, holati oshiqi hayronu istignoi mahbubai bemehr, poydoriyu ustuvorii oshiqu noshikeboiyu ahdshikanihoi mahbuba, muhabbati qalbiyu sadoqati oshiq va nosaburivu jafopeshagii dilbar, azobi hijronu firoq, nozbardorivu purtoqatii oshiqu kibru gurur, fakhru tannozii mahbuba az mavzuhoi avvalindarajai gazaliyoti SHohin ast. Ba in mani, «man»-i qahramoni liriki manii vasetar megirad. Ba mavzuhoi ijtimoi: quvvat giriftani zulm, peshgiriii noadolatiho, himoyai benavoyonu bechoragon, sofdilivu rahmkhori, durandeshivu nazarbalandi va gayra beshtar vorid meshavad. Dar barobari mavzuhoi mazkur: vasfi tabiat va makhsusan manzaranigori, sitoishi bahoron va juziyoti purnafosati in fasli zeboi sol: abrhoi nilgunu murgobipaykar, pakhtamonandu kuhjussa, rezishi boroni naysonu shildir-shildiri obhoi juyboron, vazidani nasimi subhu nakhati gulhoi muattari bahori, chah – chahi bulbulonu nagmai gunjishkho, damidani sabzahoi makhmalinu gulhoi gunogunrangi darakhton va gayra, ki in hama dar gazaliyoti SHohin janbahoi qavii ijtimoi megirand, ifodagari hadafhoi muayyanu rozhoi gunogunand. In mavzuhoro juziyoti digar: mayu bodagusori – hamchun ramzi khushguzaronii umr, bahrabardori az hayot, duri az gamu kulfat va nojurihoi ruzgoron va gayra purra megardonad.

Dar barobari inho mavzuhoi boz ham qavitari ijtimoi: shikoyat az zulmu zolimi, norizoi az noadolatihovu noodilii zimomdoron, notavonbiniyu hasudkhuriho, nayrangbozivu mardumfirebi, kibru gurur, buhtonu duruggui va gayra niz sakht mahkum karda meshavad, ki SHohin dar juziyoti ifodavu tasviri onho niz tozakoriho dorad.

Albatta, dar gazaliyoti SHamsuddin SHohin ishqu oshiqi, vasfi jamoli mahbuba bo kulli juziyot, holati oshiq va sarguzashti purpechutobi u dar joi avval meistad, ki shoir dar in joda khele qavipanja va sohibhunar ast. CHunonchi, ba in gazali ishqii shoir ru meorem:

Ay, ki az qaddi raso goyati sarvi chamani,

Sarvi, ay moh, ba qad, lek ba oraz sumani.

Labu dandoni tu, ay sarvqadi simandom,

 Behtar az lali Badakhshonivu duri adani.

 Guftamash shonasifat panja ba zulfi tu zanam,

Handa zad, guft: Ilohi ba balo panja zani.

Turki man dush gazab kardu biguft: «ulduraman»,

Guftam ohista ba gushash, ki kiro?

Guft: Sani. Kard khosiyati lali labi jonon,

SHohin, Tutii tabi maro shuhra ba shakkar shikani.

Gazali bolo ishqi buda, dar on simoi mahbuba az har jihat: ruy, labu dandon, qadu bast, muyu zulf, inchunin olami botinii dilbar: otashin shudanu gazab kardan, khandai zohiri namudanu qasdi jon doshtan va gayra baso zeboyu dilkash, guvorovu jolib, jazzobu nazarrabo ba tasvir girifta shudaast. Tasvirho niz uhdabaroyona va muvofiqi hadafand.

Bo maqsadi kor giriftan az khususiyathoi shakli niz gazali zikrshuda hunarmandona meboshad. Gazal radif nadorad, vale qofiyahoi on khele joliband va hatto kalimai uzbeki niz hamqofiya ovarda shudaast, ki az zabondonii shoir darak medihad.

Dar gazali bolo kalimahoi chamani, sumani, adani, zani, sani, shakkarshikani hamqofiyaand. Reshai qofiya dar shakli –ani buda, «n» harfi ravi va harfi «i» vasl ast. Qofiya az nigohi navii on mutlaq meboshad.

Az nigohi korgiri az vazn boshad, gazali mazkur dar bahri Ramali musammani makhbuni mahzuf insho shudaast va shakli afoili on chunin ast:

  • V – – / V V – – / V V – – / V V –
  • V – – / V V – – / V V – – / V V –

yane, foilotun, failotun, failotun failun.

Az nigohi jiloi hunari boshad, shoir bo yorii sanathoi sheri: tanosubi sukhan-chaman, sarv, suman; dahon, lab, dandon, guftan, lali labi jonon, shakkarshikani va gayra istiora-ey moh, turki man, sarvi va monandi inho. Umuman sanathoi tashbeh, nido, tavsif, muboliga, shiru shakar, suolu javob, tashkhis va gayra istifoda gardidaand, ki khele guvorovu maqbulu matluband. Onho baroi tasviri zeboihoi dilbar, juziyoti husni u, olami botini, ofaridani khulqu atvor, munosibatu guftori vay, adabi muomila va shakhsiyati qahramoni liriki va gayra istifoda shudaand.

Az mutoliai gazal malum meshavad, ki shoir khele mahoratu donish, istedodu hunar, zavqu saliqa, tabu tavoni volo doshta, az in sunnati adabi va tarikhi paydoishu rushdu inkishofi gazal va saromadani on: Sadii SHerozi, Hojui Kirmoni, Husravi Dehlavi, Hasani Dehlavi, Hofizi SHerozi, Kamoli Hujandi, Jomi, Hiloli va Bedil baso khub bekhabar meboshad.

Dar gazaliyoti SHohin mahbuba beshtar yaklukht baho doda nameshavad. SHoir in obrazi lirikiro khele ehtiyotkorona va bo juziyoti simoi zohiri va olami manavii u ba tasvir megirad. Baroi misol ba gazali zerin ru meorem va mebinem, ki qahramoni liriki-man, mani ejodkor, mushohidakor, hunarmand, donishmand niz hast.

Hama ajzoi tu khubu khama azoi tu khush,

Hama joi tu ba khubi zi hama soi tu khush.

 Nest sarve ba chaman chun qadi ranoi tu khub,

Nest mohe ba falak chun rukhi zeboi tu khush.

Hushtar az jon nabuvad tuhfa agar farmoi,

Kunam in tuhfai khush nazri kafi poi tu khush.

Z-on chunon zindagie, k-az tu ba hirmon guzarad,

 Ba tu savgand, ki murdan ba tamannoi tu khush.

Hush buvad tami shakar, lek ba komi man az ust,

Zahrkhande zi labi lali shakarkhoi tu khush.

Hama dilbastagii khush ba yake doradu man,

Bastaam dil ba hama zulfi sumansoi tu khush.

Peshi on moh bineh jonu dilu sar, SHohin,

To kadomin kunad az in hama koloi tu khush.

Gazali zikrshuda bo taqozoi mavzu, mazmunu muhtavo ishqi buda, dar on simoi mahbuba ham kulli va ham juz-juz vasf karda meshavad. Hadaf az azo juziyoti azost. Zero har azo dar navbati khud, az majmui juzho iborat ast. Az in ru, shoir juzhoro alohida va uzvhoro judogona ba tasvir giriftaast. Na mohi osmon misli rui yor astu na sarvi chaman monandi qadi u. SHakar sarchashmai shirinihost, vale komi shoir na az u, balki az lali labi yor shirin ast. Kason bo har chize dilbastagie dorand, vale shoir ba zulfayni sumansoi yor dilbasta meboshad. Az in ru, az jon khushtare baroi inson va aziztare digar vujud nadorad. Qahramoni lirikii sher-oshiq rozest, ki onro nisori kafi poi mahbuba sozad. Zero zindagi biduni u bemanost. Baytulavji sher bo bayti takhallus yakjo ejod gardida (dar gazali bolo), shoir zimni on se uzve, ki be har kadomi onho inson nametavonad zinda boshad, ba mahbuba peshnihod mesozad, to kadomi onhoro ikhtiyor kunad. In ast, ki gazali mazkur dar goyati shevoiyu ravoni, salisivu shirini, guvoroivu dilnishini, margubivu maqbuli ejod shudaast.

Az nigohi korgirii hunar niz gazal baso hunarmandona meboshad. SHoir tasvirhoi lirikiro tavassuti sanathoi sherii tanosubi sukhan, tashbeh, istiora, muboligavu igroqu guluv, majozu ramzu kinoya, tavsif va gayra khele va khele uhdabaroyona ba kor mebarad. Dar natija bayonash- guvoro, tasvirho-zebovu dilnishin, jobajoguzorii kalimaho, iboraho muvofiqi tab va mazmunsozivu maniofarini baso ustodona meboshad. CHunin hunari ejod, albatta na ba har adibi qatori dast medihad. Na har ejodkori khohishdoshta metavonad bo chunin sanatu bo chunin hunari ejodi asari sanatu adabiyotro talif namoyad. Az tarafi digar, agar SHamsuddin SHohin shoiri kamhunaru pastistedod mebud, bo saromadoni janri gazal, shoironi darajai avvali tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik payravi namekard. Hol on ki khudi payravi, dar navbati avval omuzish, mutolia, justuju ast. SHoir baroi on ki payravi kunad, onro khub meomuzad.

Az jihati khususiyathoi shakli niz gazali bolo jolib meboshad. Gazali zikrshuda muraddaf buda, radifi on murakkab («tu khush») ast. Radif dar in gazal dar barobari takidi manovu maqsad, beshtaru ziyodtar bori goyavi mekashad. Maqsadi shoir dar haddi baland vasf namudani mahbuba buda, azovu ajzoi vasfshavandaro bo behtarin shabehot, jolibtarin qiyosho, nakutarin khisol mekhohad jilva bidihad, to pisandi omma boshad. Az in ru, beshtar mejuyad, meomuzad, muqoisa mekunad va natija megirad. Dar mantiqi oddii ifoda hunaru donish, mahoratu istedod, sanatu zakovati khudro ba namoish meguzorad. To khonanda qazovat kunad, ki asari sanat baroi u chi arzishe dorad va oyo qalbi uro taskhir mekunad?! Radifi murakkabe, ki SHohin baroi gazali bolo paydo kardaast, ana hamin guna janbaho, takidhoro faro giriftaast. Az in ru, mahz radifi mazkur ba gazal ohangi khubu margub niz doda tavonistaast. Daryofti qofiyaho niz dar gazali mazkur khele jolib va hunarmandona meboshad. Dar gazal kalimahoi azoi, joi, zeboi, poi, tamannoi, shakarkhoi, sumansoi, koloi bo hamdigar hamqofiya shudaand. Kofiyaho az rui nav mutlaq buda, dar kalimahoi hamqofiya harfi ravi «o» meboshad va pas az ravi unsuri digar – vasl omadaast. Hadaf vahdati mavzu va tamini adoi khush dar gazal ast. Gazali mazkur az nigohi intikhobi vazn ham khele jolib meboshad. Zero dar bahri Ramali musammani makhbuni mahzuf insho shudaast, ki shakli afoili on chunin ast:

  • V – – / V V – – / V V – – / V V –
  • V – – / V V – – / V V – – / V V –

YAne: foilotun/ failotun/ failotun/ failun

YAke az tozakorihoi SHohin dar mavzu va mazmunu muhtavoi gazalsaroi on ast, ki bayoni shoir dar pursuztarin gazalho ham, to andozae janbai zarofat kasb mekunad. U gazalhoi baso pursuzu ohro bo yak tarzu usuli ba khud khosi shukhiangezu zarifona mavridi ejod qaror medihad, ki dar goyati salosatu jazolat va dilkashivu gushnavozi meboshand. CHunin tarzi bayoni shoir to ba hadde ustodona ast, ki ba mavzui markazii gazal-ishqu isyonhoi qalbi zarrae ham mukholif nest, hadafi qahramoni lirikiro khalaldor namekunad. Masalan, gazali zerin daleli guftahoi bolost:

Qurboni labi lali shakarkhoi tu gardam,

Maftuni khati goliyapiroi tu gardam.

Lab megazi, ay shukh, nadonam, ki chi gui,

Az nozukii tarzi adohoi tu gardam.

YAk joi tu takhsis ba gashtan natavon kard,

 Ay, man ba tu shaydo, zi hama joi tu gardam.

Jon nazri saropoi tu guftam ba shabi vasl,

Rukhsat bideh aknun zi saropoi tu gardam.

Gufti, ki ba SHohin zanadam dardu baloho,

Kay mezanad, az dardu balohoi tu gardam.

Gazali mazkur az nigohi mavzu va mazmunu muhtavo ishqi buda, simoi mahbuba hamchun obrazi liriki az kalimai nakhustini misrai avval malum meshavad. Oshiq tanho baroi labi lal khudro qurbon kardan mekhohad. Zero maftuni abruvonu gesuvoni goliyapirost. Lab gazidani mahbuba – kinoya az rondani oshiq va ogahi az agyor ast. Vale inro oshiq nazokati ado mehisobad. Umuman, mahbuba tannozu sarkash, bemehru bemuruvvat ast. Oshiq bovafovu ustuvor, rostqavlu fidoi meboshad, vale hanuz sohibikhtiyor nest. CHunin holati qahramoni liriki khosi gazali asr buda, dar janrhoi dostoni ( hatto dar ejodiyoti khudi SHohin) vaziyat digarkheltar ast. YAne oshiq nisbatan beparvo va har chi bodobod ast.

Az jihati khususiyathoi shakli niz gazali bolo jolibu matlub ast. Radifi gazal murakkab buda, az du kalima faroham omadaast: «Tu gardam». Az mohiyati manoii radif paydost, ki oshiq sargardonu ovora ast. Pas radifi gazali bolo dar barobari tamini khushohangiyu ravoni, inchunin bori goyavi bar dush dorad. Qofiyahoi gazali bolo niz jolib buda, kalimahoi shakarkho, goliyapiro, adoho, jo, saropo, baloho hamqofiya shudaand. Hamai kalimahoi hamqofiyai bolo bandaki izofii «i» dorand. Dar kalimahoi mazkur harfi reshagii qofiya «o» buda, az rui khelhoi qofiya mutlaq ast. Gazali mazkur dar bahri Hazaji musammani akhrabi makfufi mahzuf insho shudaast. SHakli afoili gazal chunin ast:

  • – V / V – – V / V – – V / V – –
  • – V / V – – V / V – – V / V – –

yane: mafulu mafoilu mafoilu faulun.

Vazni mazkur yake az mamultarin avzon dar ejodi gazal va ba khusus gazalhoi ishqi ba shumor meravad.

Digar az khususiyathoi gazalhoi SHohin az on iborat ast, ki vobasta ba avzoi siyosi-tarikhii zamon ohanghoi shikvoi, hasbiholi nisbatan quvvat megirad. Albatta, balandtarin nuqtai chunin ohangho hanuz dar asri XIII ba nazar merasand. Ejodiyoti Sayfi Isfarangi, Sayfi Fargoni, Kamoli Ismoil va digaron ohanghoi bisyor qavii ijtimoi dorand. Vale bunyodi ohanghoi ijtimoii in davra dar ejodiyoti SHamsuddin SHohin komilan digar khel ast.

Tozakorihoi SHohin pesh az hama az on iborat ast, ki nojurihoi ruzgor, noadolatihoi zimomdoron, zulmu zolimi, bukhlu hasad, yasu noumediho, nokomiho va gayra dar omezish bo mavzuhoi ishqi khele dilnishinu guvoro va baso hunarmandona rui kor omadaand. Muhimtar on ast, ki oshiq nokom va mahbuba komyob meboshad. CHunonchi:

Kase chu man nabuvad dar jahon nishoni firoq,

Hazor tiri balo khurda az kamoni firoq.

Nakhust ruz, ki oshiq shudam ba zavqi visol,

Nabud dar dili man hej az in gumoni firoq.

CHi son ba gunchai tabam shukuftagi bakhshad,

Bahori vasl, ki dorad zi pay khazoni firoq.

Hayoti man hama vobasta bar visoli tu bud,

Ajal, biyo, ki kunun merasad zamoni firoq.

Hamon navolai zahri ajal buvad, SHohin,

Nakhust tuma, ki giri agar zi khoni firoq.

Dar gazali bolo ba joi visol firoq pesh omadaast, ki khele jongudoz, dilkharosh, jigarsuzu sinakabob ast. In hama shuridagiyu suzi oshiqro balandtar namuda, baraks mahbuba hamfikru qarini raqib meboshad. Oshiq jonibdori visol ast, vale mahbuba dustdori hajru firoq. Oshiq jiddu jahd dorad, ki visolro daryobad, vale mahbuba gurezpo va firoqjuvu hijronkhoh ast. Az in ru, oshiq garqi yasu nokomiho va navmedivu nomurodihost, vale mahbuba berahmu zolimtabiat va bemehru bevafo meboshad. Oshiq yagona iloji voqearo dar shikvayu noiloji darmeyobad, vale mahbuba beparvoyu forigbol ast. In ast, ki SHamsuddin SHohin bahri takidi mano va tasirpazirii mazmuni gazal firoqro hamchun radif intikhob kardaast. U firoqro khazoni umr va visolro bahori hayot menomad, ki dar maniofari padidai tozavu jolib ast.

Az nigohi badeiyot va janbahoi hunari niz gazali bolo khele khushoyanda ast. Dar gazali zikrshuda sanathoi badeii tanosubi sukhan, tazod, muboliga, igroqu guluv, tashbeh, tavsif, kinoya, majoz va gayra baso hunarmandona istifoda shudaand.

Unsurhoi shaklii gazali zikrshuda: qofiya, radif, matla, maqta, istifodai takhallus, intikhobi vazn va gayra niz matlub ast. Gazal dar bahri Mujtassi musammani makhbuni mahzuf yo maqsur insho shudaast, ki afoili on chunin meboshad:

V – V – / V V – – / V – V – / V V ~

yane: mafoilun, failotun, mafoilun, failon.

Az nigohi radifu qofiya boshad gazali bolo boz ham jolibtar ast. Zero gazali muraddaf bo on kharakternok ast, ki dar matla alakay mazmunu muhtavo va mohiyatu maqsad az ejodi on baroi khonanda komilan malum megardad. CHunki tavassuti radif takidi mano va shahomati goyavii gazal ba namoish guzoshta meshavad.

Radifi gazali bolo az nigohi shakl radifi soda ast.

Gazali mazkur az nigohi qofiya ham jolib meboshad. Dar on kalimahoi nishoni, kamoni, gumoni, khazoni, zamoni, khoni hamqofiya buda, shakli qofiya muqayyad meboshad. Dar kalimahoi qofiyashuda harfi ravi «n» buda, pas az ravi harfi digare naomadaast. Kalimahoi qofiyashavanda ham hadafi muayyan dorand, ki holati qahramoni lirikiro ifoda menamoyand. Zero nishoni firoq, kamoni firoq, gumoni firoq, khoni firoq hamagi iborahoe hastand, ki holati ruhi va hadafu maqsadi qahramoni lirikiro ifoda kardaand. Holati mazkur qarib dar hamai gazalhoi SHohin ba mushohida merasand. Vobasta ba avzoi zamon va muhiti zindagii SHohin qahramoni lirikii gazalhoi u, khususan oshiq pareshonu notavon, noiloju shikastadil ast. SHikoyati SHohin tadrijan dar baze holatho ohanghoi etirozi niz giriftaand:

Hama chun kushtai tegi tu shud inak,

SHohin, Binihod az sari taslim ba poyat gardan.

Hamaro kushti, agar mekushiyam, zud bikush,

To bubinam, ki maro kushta chi khohi kardan.

SHikoyati qahramoni liriki az omilhoi siyosiyu ijtimoii jomea, az nouhdabaroii zimomdoron nest, boshad ham khele juzi ast. U beshtar az taqdiru az sarshavisht, az charkhi gardun shikva dorad. CHunonchi:

To kay, ay charkhi muarbad, zi pai kinai man,

Fitnai dahr barangezivu oshubi zamon.

YO khud:

Bar daleli donishi man gush nanhod osmon,

Varna bar davii khud chandin rivoyat doshtam.

Dar baze mavridho shoir zindagii kheshro dar haddi intiho mebinad, ki nishoni lashkari gamu kulfathoi ruzgor shudaast. Dar chunin holat ba Ofaridgor murojiat mekunad, ki digar ba zimomdoron bovari nadorad:

Jahonparvardigoro, notavonam,

YAgona notavone dar jahonam.

YAke murgam judo az oshyona,

Zi har su novaki gamro nishona.

Ba dusham baski bori gam nishastast,

Saram bar dushi zonu naqsh bastast.

CHi badbakhtam, ki har sue niham ruy,

Zi obi dida binam peshi ru chuy…

CHunin ohanghoi qavii ijtimoi dar ashori SHohin kam nestand. Qarib dar hamai shaklhoi sherii ejodkardai shoir shikva az gardishi ayyomu charkhi tezrav ba nazar merasad.

Z-in son, ki khohishi dahr juz shuru shar naboshad,

Badtar dar in zamona ayb az hunar naboshad.

Dar baze holatho andeshahoi u to andozae ba aqidahoi Ahmadi Donish shabohat paydo mekunad. Az in monandi metavon chunin natija girift, ki in holat pas az mutoliai «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» rukh dodaast:

Har davlate, ki binam, omodai zavol ast,

 Dar dahr bo chunin hol budan base mahol ast.

Hasbi hol va ohanghoi balandi ijtimoi dar gazaliyoti SHohin kame ba jiloi nav va khos sado medihand. SHohin tavassuti chunin ohanghoi jasuronai shikoyativu hasbiholi na tanho jomeai onruzai feodaliro tanqid menamoyad, balki sarvaronu zimomdoroni vaqtro niz sakht mazammat mekunad:

Man on gulam, ki zi oshubi besubotii dahr

 Nakarda toza dimogi kase, khazon shudaam.

 Ba hej bob maro nest rui khursandi,

CHuz in qadar ki gulomi shahi jahon shudaam.

Ohanghoi hasbiholi va shikvoiyu tanqidii ashori SHamsuddin SHohin arzishmand niz hastand. Zero mo pesh az hama ruzgori ziyoiyoni ejodkor, tabaqahoi digari ijtimoi va umuman mardumro dar davrai muayyani tarikhi meomuzem. Az tarafi digar, khonanda munosibati ejodkoronro bo zimomdoron, bo shakhsiyathoi siyosi va pesh az hama, shoir va shohro pay burda metavonad. Holati mazkur baroi baho dodan ba adabiyoti davr va muayyan namudani arzishhoi adabi musoidat menamoyad. Ejodiyoti SHohin az on shahodat medihad, ki u dar nimai duyumi asri XIX yake az namoyontarin simohoi adabiyoti tojik budaast.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

46

Adabiyot va ilm dar asri XVI

Vaziyati siyosie, ki az avvali asri XVI dar Movarounnahr va Huroson faroham omad, ba hayoti …