Memori

Memori (yun. arhitektura, az lotinii. archi – «asosi» va tektos – «sokhtan, bunyod kardan»), binokori (bo rusi – bino kardan) – san- ati sokhtmoni. Dar hayoti harruza mo beshtar bo binohoi memori, kuchaho, maydonho, bogho, varzishgohho, maydonchahoi varzishi, dehaho, shahrhoi zebo duchor megardem.

Baroi insone, ki mehnat mekunad, ba varzish, tahsil yo raqs mashgul ast, hatman boyad binoi makhsus tainshuda mavjud boshad.

Hamai in ba memori taalluq dorad.

Baroi sokhtmoni gunogun du talaboti asosi guzoshta meshavad: sifat (mustahkami) va barohat budan. Ba maksadi on ki asarho ba sanat taalluq doshta boshand, onho boyad zebo, yane jalbkunanda boshand.

Kulolii siyoh. CHin
Kulolii siyoh. CHin
«YUrtaho». Muguliston. N. K. Rerikh
«YUrtaho». Muguliston. N. K. Rerikh
«Az kuh ba vodi». V. Vereshagin
«Az kuh ba vodi». V. Vereshagin

044

055

Baroi misol manorai Buranro mavridi barrasi qaror dodan mumkin ast.

Manorai Buran – manorai bohashamatest, ki qadimtarin yodgo- rii memorii Osiyoi Miyona mahsub yofta, ba asri XII taalluq do­rad. Balandii on taqriban 48 m, qutrash ba 8 m barobar ast.

To ba hol dar Qirgiziston shohkorii memori – manorai Uzgen to zamoni mo boqi mondaast. Mujtamai memorii Uzgen ba asrhoi X-XI taalluq dorad. Mujtama az manora va se maqbara iborat ast, balan- dii qablii manorai Uzgen ba 44 metr barobar bud, ayni zamon pas az kharobshavi va tahshini balandii on ba 27,5 metr birasid.

Maqsadi asosii memoron sokhtmoni manorai mustahkam baroi muhofizat az dushmanon bud, ilova bar in onho hamchunin dar bo- rai zebogii inshoot faromush nakardand. Manorai Buran simoi zohirii notakror dorad. Manora bo uslubi sharqi sokhta shudaast.

Moro binohoi ustuvor va qulay ihota mekunand, ammo onho zebo nestand va bo simoi zohiri tavajjuhi moro ba khud jalb na- mekunand, ehsos meshavad, ki ba sokhtmon dasti rassom narasidaast.

* Nakhustin sokhtmonhoi insoniyat (zaminkanho, kozaho, yurtaho, khonahoi istiqomati, qabriston, haykalhoi boloi qabrho) ba ka­dom namudi sanat taalluq dorand?

Dar tuli chil hazor sol dar tamomi jahon ejodiyoti khalqi rush- du numu kard. Dar barobari rushdi tekhnika tamomi asobobu tajhizoti istifodashavanda tibqi shaklu uslub, tibqi talaboti odamon, mutobiqi davru zamon namudi khudro tagyir dodand. Az in lihoz mo boyad tarikhi rushdi namudho va janrhoi sanati tas- viriro bidonem.

Gayr az namudhoi ba shumo malumi sanati tasviri, mo chor janri asosiro barrasi menamoem, chunonchi:

– portreti inson ba tamomi qad;

  • natyurmort – ashyohoi gayrizindae, ki moro ihota kardaand;
  • interyer – oroishi darunii binohoi istiqomati.

Bar zammi janrhoi mazkur, tasvirhoi syujeti – janrhoi sod- da mavjudand, ki dar zer nishon doda shudaand:

  • tamsili;
  • maishi;
  • tarikhi;
  • razmi (jangi);
  • asotiri;
  • dini.

 

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