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Mazmuni manzumai «Tuhfai Duston»

Masnavii «Tuhfai duston» duyumin asari kaloni SHohin buda, dar payravii «Buston»-i Sadii SHerozi talif shudaast. In asar notamom ast. SHohin onro dar mavzui pandu andarz, mavizatu nasihat va umuman tarbiyai inson khostaast ejod namoyad. Vale shoir mebinad, ki tavassuti andarz siyosatmadoroni asrro bo rohi rost hidoyat kardan mahol va hatto nomumkin ast. SHoyad az hamin sabab shoir asarro ba poyon namerasonad. Masnavi bo khohishi ustod va rohnamoihoi piri manavii SHohin- Zariri Juybori dar chunin shakl tarhrezi gardida budaast:

Bobi avval: Dar adl.

Bobi duyum: Dar ehson.

Bobi seyum: Dar ishq.

Bobi chorum: Dar tavozu.

Bobi panjum: Dar rizo.

Bobi shashum: Dar qanoat.

Bobi haftum: Dar tarbiyat.

Bobi hashtum: Dar shukr

Bobi nuhum: Dar sabr

Bobi dahum: Dar khotima

layli-majnun-2Darego, ki az in naqshai murattabsokhta tanho muqaddima va fasli avvali bobi nakhustini « Tuhfai duston»-ro SHamsuddin SHohin navishtaastu khalos.

Dar asosi hamin bakhshhoi somondodai SHohin metavon ba natijae omad, ki shoir avzoi siyosi, holati ruhii zimomdoroni asr, ravishi jamiyati onruza, munosibati darbor bo ilmu farhang, sheru adabiyot, ejodkoronu quvvahoi zehniyu fikri, raiyatro khele khub tahlil kardaast. In tahlilu mushohidaho shoirro vodor sokhtaast, ki badan fikri digar kunad. Az in ru, shoir bo talifi muqaddimavu qisme az nakhustbob qanoat kardaast.

U zohiran amir Muzaffar va Abdulahadro vasf ham kardaast va az tarzi munosibat bo tasvirhoi ofaridaash, onhoro sakht tanqid niz kardaast. YAne Muzaffarro ba Jamshed va Abdulahadro ba Zahhok monand mekunad:

CHu geti zi Jamshed pardokht takht,

Bar on takht Zahhok andokht rakht.

SHukuhe dar oyini davlat namond,

Ba Turonzamin zebu zinnat namond.

Ba hamin tariq, SHohin in asari akhloqii khudro az shikvayu tanqidi zamonaash ogoz menamoyad:

Maro shikva poyon nadorad guzor,

Ki khud shikva bahre buvad bekanor.

Figon, k-in harifoni kinozmoy,

Ba mehr andar orand khalqe zi poy.

CHu farzand az onat hameparvarand,

Ki chun gurba farzandi khud mekhurand.

Man idbor didam, tu firuz bosh,

Zi ahvoli man ibratomuz bosh.

YO khud dar fasli «Dar guzorishi ayyomi nofarjom va shikoyati khosu avom» meorad:

Du-se ruz juyoi ehson shudam,

Saroyandai madhi dunon shudam.

Biburdam ba oroishi nazm ranj

V-az on kardam ofoqro pur zi ganj.

Kafi khushki eshon, k-az on nam narekht

Va gar rekht juz khuni mardum narekht.

Sagero, ki joma daridi ba dev,

Farishta az u dargirifti girev.

CHunon barzadam sirati mardumi, Ki gui nazoda chu u odami.

Zaboni masnavi, shevai talif va uslubi ejodi SHohin dar «Tuhfai duston» khele dilnishin ast. Dar in hikoyat, ki javone pirero meguyad, ki charo nihol parvarish mekuni? Okhir, in shoyad pas az chandin sol samar dihad, vale ba tu chi foida? -Pir meguyad, ki peshiniyon shinondand, mo khurdem, mo ham meshinonem, to ki oyandagon bikhurand:

YAke az salotini deringahe,

Guzar karda bar nakhlai anbuhe.

Ki binshonda piresh az nav ba khok,

Ba tege hamekardash az hashv pok.

Bad-u guft: ay mardi derinasol,

Bad-in umr kay bar khuri z-in nihol.

Hud in nakhlro otdat in ast kor,

Pas az bist sol ovarad bargu bor.

CHunin guft dehqoni donishvarash,

Ki gar man nakhurdam, khurad digarash.

CHu khud khurdai bargi peshinagon,

Darakhte pasoyandagonro nishon.

Hikoyati mazkur mohiyati tarbiyavi-akhloqi doshta, dar on insondusti va nekukori ba tasvir omadaast. Dar simoi javon boshad, khudkhohi va kutohnazari bayon shudaast.

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