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Mazdakiya

MAZDAKIYA, jarayoni diniyu falsafi dar Eroni asrhoi 5—b, ideologiyai harakati mazdakiyon dar davrai guzarish az sokhti gulomdori ba feodali. Bo nomi asosguzori jarayon va rohbari harakati dehqoni Mazdak Bomdod mashhur gashtaast. Mazdak saravval hamchun firqai monaviya paydo shuda, minbad jihathoi demokratii in talimotro inkishof dod. Misli zardushtiya va monaviya Mazdakiya niz ravobiti du mabdai qadim — khayru sharro asosi talimoti khud qapop dodaast. Muvofiqi talimoti azdakiya harakati zulmat irodi va az rui donishi qabli nabuda, kur-kurona, tasodufist. Rushnoi (nur) boshad az rui ikhtiyor va iroda amal mekunad.

mazdakiya

Dar Mazdakiya olami moddi hamchun natijai omezishi du mabdai mazkur abadi donista shudaast. Maqsadi nihoin takomuli in olam najoti khayr ast. In jihati talimoti Mazdakiya ba aqidahoi Moni qarobat dorad. Bar khilofi talimoti monaviya, ki nurro az panj unsur (asir, nasim, rushnoi, ob, otash) medonist, Mazdakiya tanho se unsur — ob, otash va khokro etirof mekunad. Mazdakiya mavjudiyati se unsuri zulmatro niz qoil buda, aqida dorad, ki mudabbiri sharr az on se unsur berun omadaast.

Muvofiqi tasavvuroti Mazdakiya chunon ki Husrav (Husravi I Anushervon) dar in olam dar ihotai chahor shakhs (mubadi mubadon, harbadi hirbadon, simohbad va romeshgar) ast, khudo dar olami ulvi bar takhte dar huzuri chahor quvva — tamiz, fahm, ifz, surur menishinad. In chahor quvva umuri olamro ba vositai haft yovari khud (solor, peshkor, borvar, parvon, kordon, dastur va khodim) ba jo meorand. Haft yovar dar doirai duvozdah ruhiyot — khonanda, dihanda, sitonanda, baranda, khuranda, davanda, khezanda, kashanda, zananda, kananda, oyanda va poyanda davr mezanad. Ba aqidan mazdakkiyon in chahor quvva dar har odam jam buda, yovaron va ruhiyot dar olami sifli hukmfarmoyand.

Mazdakiya talim medihad, ki nur az zulmat tasodufan, biduni qasd va ikhtiyor raho meyobad. Dar Mazdakiya rohi yagonan najot az sharr in ast, ki inson tariqi zuhd va tarki dunyo pesha namoyad, aloqai khudro az moddiyot kam va az har chize, ki in aloqaro mustahkam mesozad, etiroz kunad. Muborizai khayru sharr (rushionyu toriki) nihoyat bo galabai khayr bar sharr anjom meyobad. Mazdakiya istemoli gushtro man karda bud, zero rekhtani khuni hayvon guyo saddi rohi najoti arvoh megardad.

Mazdakiya hamchun talimoti diniyu akhloqi paydo shuda, minbad ba harakati ijtnmoii ommahoi vasei jamiyat bar ziddi ayonu ashrof tabdil yoft. Muvofiqi talimoti ijtimoii Mazdakiya hama odamon barobar ofarida shudaand, ki az in ru, taqsimi nobarobari davlatu sarvat, inchunin serzanii bazeho va bezanii digaron beadolatii mahz ast: Sababi mukholifat kinu adovat, nobarobarii odamon dar jamiyat meboshad. Binobar in nobarobari va kinu adovat boyad az bayn bardoshta shavad va musovot barqapop gardad. Baroi ba amal barovardani on dar jamiyat tamomn sarvathoi moddi boyad jamiyati va hama azoyoni jamiyat imkoniyati istifodai barobar az onhoro doshta boshand.

Muvofiqi talimoti Mazdakiya sarvatmandon zuran, khilofi adolat sarvati olamro az khud kardaand, dar surate, ki kambagalon niz barobari onho ba sarvathoi moddi huquq dorand. Baroi tantanai barobariyu adolat molikiyati boyonro toroj va dar baynn omma az rui adlu insof taqsim kardan zarur ast. Molikiyat boyad misln otash, ob, charogohho dastrasi umum boshad. In davatn Mazdakiyaro ommai khalq pisandida ba muborizai ziddi ayonu ashrof barkhost va taqsimi molumulki onhoro pesha kard. Mazdakiya hama guna qatlro zuhurn sharr medonist (hatto kushgtani hayvon man bud), vale khunreziro dar muborizai ziddi sharri jamiyati haq mebarovard.

Dar Mazdakiya barobari ba manoi taqsimi odilona va yakkhelai sarvathoi moddi fahmida meshud. Talabi barobarii Mazdakiya «…aksuljavobi stikhiyaviest ba muqobili nobarobarihoi toqatgudozi ijtimoi, ba muqobili tazodi baynn boyon va kambagalon, baynn khojaho va kredostnonho, ishkamparaston va gurusnagon» (Engels F., Anti-Dyuring, D., 1976, sah. 107). Dar talimoti Mazdakiya talabi taqsimi barobari sarvathoi moddi nazariya yo talabi khushk nabuda, on dar amal guzaronda meshud. Bo davati Mazdak ommahoi khalq ba khonahoi sarvatmandon hamla ovarda, manzilu boigarii onhoro tamalluq mekardand. Gayr az in Mazdakiya ba nikohi ozodi bayni azoyoni jamiyat davat namuda, to andozae barobarhuquqii zanonu mardonro barqaror kardan mekhost.

Bo maqsadi muboriza bar ziddi ashrofon, ki hokimiyati shohiro mahdud kardan mekhostand, shoh Qubodi (488—531) harakati mazdakiyonro dar avval dastgiri namud. Minbad bayni mazdakiyon va Qubodi I mukholifat ba amal omad va bo rozigii u solhoi 528—29 pisarash Husravi. I Anushervon payravoni Mazdakiyaro qatli om kard,

Goyahoi Mazdakiya ba afkori jamiyatiyu siyosii badina tasiri ziyod rasond. Talimoti Mazdakiyaro yane firqahoi bidatii nislom, alalkhusus, gurramiya istifoda namudand, Talimoti Mazdakiya oid ba barobarii ijtimoi livoi ideologii shurishhoi khalqi bo rohbarii Muqania, Bobak va digaron bud. Mazdakiya dar Garb niz nufuzi ziyod doshta, ba tashakkul va inkishofi firqahoi masehi az qabili bogomilho, katarho va albigoyho tasir rasonidaast. Jarayon in firqahoi mazdaki to asrhoi 15—16 vujud doshtand.

Ad.: Solodukho YU. A., Dvijenie Mazdaka, VDI, 1040. L» 3—4; Pigulevskaya N. V., Mazdakitskoe dvijenie, «Izv., AN SSSR», ser. ist. i filos., 1044, M 4; hamon muall., Goroda Irana v rannem srednevekove. M.. 1056; Semenov A. A., Maadakiem, dar kit.: Voprosi istorii religii i ateizma, t. 5, M., 1058; Sulaymoni A. YU . Mazdakitskoe dvijenie i voprosi semi, Baku, 1063; Gafurov B. G., Tadjiki. Drevneyshaya, drevnyaya i sredievekovaya istoriya, M., 1072; KIma O., Mazdak, Praga, 1057.

A. SHarifov.

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