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Materiyai zinda va khususiyatkhoi asosii on

Tamomi olami zinda, az jumla inson, ba sistemahoi guno-guni biologi dokhil shuda, az taksonhoi (saltanat, tip, sinf, qator, oila, avlod, namud), tobei yakdigar buda iboratand.

zindaMalum ast, ki hamai mavjudoti zinda az hujayraho tarkib yoftaand. Hujayra metavonad organizmi alohida yo komil boshad, masalan soddatarinho yo mavjudoti serhujayra. Sokhti hujayra sodda, chunonchi, dar bakteriyaho yo murakkab, masalan, dar soddatarinho va mavjudoti serhujayra shudanash mumkin ast. Ham hujayrai bakteriya va ham hujayrai soddatarinho az nigohi fiziologi organizmi tom ast, zero taqriban hamai on ravandhoi hayotie, ki dar mavjudoti serhujayra dida meshavand, dar onho niz vujud dorand (hazmi khurok, harakat, ikhroj, angezish va gayraho). Hujayrahoi mavjudoti serhujayra makhsus gashtaand, yane onho baraksi hujayrahoi mavjudoti yakhujayra faqat yak vazifaro ijro mekunand va berun az organizm mustaqilona zista nametavonand.

Dar mavjudoti serhujayra aloqamandi va vobastagii hujayrahoi bisyor ba tashakkuli unsurhoi nav (bofta, uzv) bois megardad. Unsurhoi organizm – hujayra, bofta, uzv dar yakjoyagi hanuz organizmi tom shuda nametavonand. Faqat payvastshavii onho muvofiqi tartibe, ki dar ravandi bardavomi evolyutsiya ba amal omadaast, hamchunin dar surati ba yakdigar tasir rasondan va doroi khususiyathoi muayyan budan, metavonand organizmi komil ba shumor ravand.

ZINAHOI TASHAKKULI (TASHKILYOBII) MATERIYAI ZINDA

Tabiati zinda az sistemai murakkabi zina ba zina tashakkulyofta iborat ast (rasmi 1.1). Olimon dar asosi zuhuroti khususiyathoi hayot chand zinai tashakkuli materiyai zindaro judo kardaand: molekulavi, hujayragi, boftagi, uzvi, organizmi, populyatsiyavu namudi, biogeosenozi, biosferagi.

Molekulavi. Har yak organizmi zinda, chi qadare on murakkab naboshad, zinai tasiri baynihamii makromolekulahoi biologiro az sar meguzaronad; kislotahoi nukleinat, safeda, polisakharidho va digar moddahoi muhimi organiki, yane ravandhoi asosii faoliyati hayotii organizm az hamin zina ogoz meyobad.

Rasmi 1.1. Zinahoi tashakkuli materiyai zinda (dar misoli organizmhoi alohida). Organizm chun digar mavjudot bo prinsipi ierarkhi sokhta shudaast.

Zinai molekulaviro zinai nakhustini hayot menomand. Organizmi zinda az molekulahoi moddahoi organiki – sa-feda, kislotahoi nukleinat, angishtob, charb (lipidho) ibo-rat buda, onho dar hujayra joygirand va molekulahoi biologi nom giriftaand. Ahamiyati in payvastagihoi biologi dar sabzishu afzoishi organizmho, nigohdori va az nasl ba nasl guzaronidani akhbori irsi, mubodilai moddaho va tabdilyobii energiya dar hujayra kalon ast. Payvastagihoi organikie, ki dar tarkibi hujayrai organizmhoi zinda mavjudand, polimerhoi biologi yo biopolimerho nomida meshavand.

Tabdilyobii hama namudhoi energiya va mubodilai moddaho dar hujayra mahz dar zinai molekulavi ba amal meoyad. Mekhanizmi chunin ravandho baroi hamai organizmhoi zinda umumi ast.

Bo omuzishi zinai molekulavi ravandi paydoishi hayot va evolyutsiyai on dar rui Zamin, asosi molekulavii irsiyat, ravandi mubodilai moddaho dar organizmi zinda oshkor karda meshavad. Molekulahoi biologi mavode meboshand, ki az onho zinai digari hayot – hujayraho paydo megardand.

Hujayragi. Hamai mavjudoti zindai rui Zamin (gayri virusho) az hujayraho iboratand. Onho yakhujayra (bakteriyaho, baze obsabzho, soddatarinho) va serhujayra meshavand.

Hujayra vohidi khurdtarin, unsuri afzoish va inkishofi tamomi mavjudoti zindai rui Zamin meboshad. Hujayrahoi uzvhoi gunoguni hayvonot, rastani, zanburugho zohiran az hamdigar farq dorand. Aslan, bayni neyronhoi magzi sari inson, hujayrahoi hidra, infuzoriya va hujayrahoi bargi chinor chi guna umumiyate hast? Bo vujudi in,

bayni onho va hamai hujayrahoi digar monandi nisbat ba tafovvut khele ziyodtar meboshand. SHakli hayoti behujayragi vujud nadorad, mavjud budani virusho daleli in guftahost, zero onho qobili zinda budanashonro faqat dar hujayrai zinda zohir mekunand.

Boftagi. Boftaho az majmui hujayrahoi sokhtorashon monand va moddahoi baynihujayravi iborat buda, baroi ijroi vazifai umumi muttahid shudaand.

Uzvi. CHand nav boftae, ki az jihati sokht va vazifa bo ham muttahid shudaand, uzv nomida meshavand. Masalan, pusti inson chun uzv az epiteliya va boftai payvastkunanda iborat buda, dar yakjoyagi chand vazifaro ijro mekunad. YAke az in vazifaho – muhofizat meboshad.

Organizmi. Organizm sistemai butuni zindai yakhujayra yo serhujayra ast va qobiliyati mustaqilona vujud doshtanro dorad. Organizmi serhujayra az majmui boftayu uzvho hosil shuda, baroi ijroi vazifahoi gunogun mutobiq shudaand.

Populyatsiyayu namudi. Majmui organizmhoi yak namud, ki joi zistashon umumi ast, populyatsiya nom dorad. Populyatsiya sistemai az organizm yak zina bolo meboshad. Dar on tabdilyobihoi odditarin yo khurdtarini evolyutsioni ba amal meoyand.

Biogeosenozi. Majmui organizmhoi mukhtalifi az jihati tashakkul gunogunro dar yakjoyagi bo hama omilhoi mushakhkhasi muhiti zist (qabathoi atmosfera, gidrosfera va litosfera) biogeosenoz menomand.

Ba on moddahoi gayriorganiki va organiki, organizmhoi autotrofi va geterotrofi dokhil meshavand. Vazifai asosii biogeosenoz jamkuni yo gunkuni (akkumulyatsiya) va dubora taqsim kardani energiya ast.

Biogeosenozho dar majmu biosferai sayyoraamonro tashkil medihand.

Biosfera. Biosfera zinai balandtarini tashakkuli hayot dar rui Zamin ast. Dar biosfera organizmhoi zinda va moddahoi gayrizinda vujud dorand. Biomassai organizmhoi zindai rui Zamin ba 2,5kh1012 t barobar buda, 99,2 % onro rastanihoi sabz tashkil medihand. Gardishi moddaho va tabdili energiyae, ki ba faoliyati hayotii mavjudoti zindai rui Zamin vobasta ast, dar biosfera ba amal meoyad. Hamin tavr, qabati zamin (khushki, ob va fazoi havoi onro ihota karda)-e, ki dar on mavjudoti zinda sukunat dorad, biosfera nomida meshavad. Ba tavri digar guem, biosfera qabati hayot ast. Tarkibi biosfera va khosiyathoi asosii onro tasiri mutaqobilai omilhoi abiotiki va biotiki muayyan mesozad.

Biosfera sistemai tom va murakkab buda, tavassuti qonunhoi dokhilii khud va dar zeri tasiri quvvai beruna, az jumla, kayhon, inkishof meyobad.

Biosfera mahsuli evolyutsiyai duru darozi zamin ast. Mavjudoti zinda dar inkishofi sayyoraamon ahamiyati khele kalon dorand. Ba chunin khulosa akademiki rus V.I.Vernadskiy pas az tadqiqi tarkib va evolyutsiyai qishri Zamin omadaast. U isbot kard, ki evolyutsiyai qabathoi Zamin va tarkibi onhoro faqat bo omilhoi geologi, yane be nazardoshti naqshi mavjudoti zinda dar muhojirati geokhimiyavii atomho, muqarrar namudan gayriimkon ast.

Biosferaro metavon bo moshini azime qiyos kard, ki kori on ba yak omili asosi – energiya vobastagi dorad: dar surati nabudani energiya hama yakbora az kor memonand. Dar biosfera manbai asosii energiya nurhoi oftob meboshand.

Organizmhoi zinda nafaqat az nuri oftob vobastagi dorand, balki khud jamsozandai azim va tabdildihandai behamtoi hamin energiya niz meboshand.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Molekulahoi organiki gufta chiro menomand va roli onho dar tamini ravandi mubodilai moddaho az chi iborat ast?
  2. Tafovuti asosii hujayrai organizmhoi zindae, ki ba saltanathoi mukhtalifi tabii dokhil meshavand, dar chist?
  3. Mohiyati metodhoi tadqiqotii sitologi, gistologi va anatomii materiyai zinda dar chist?
  4. Biogeosenoz gufta chiro menomand?
  5. Biosferaro chi guna sharh dodan mumkin ast?
  6. Dar biosfera kadom ravandhoi mubodilai moddaho meguzarad? Ahamiyati onho baroi organizmhoi zindai sayyoraamon dar chist?

Istilohot:

  1. Payvastagihoi gayriorganiki – elementho, moddahoi sodda va murakkabi az onho hosil shuda, ki dar tabiati gayrizinda vomekhurand.
  2. Payvastagihoi organiki – payvastagihoi karbon bo digar elementho, ki dar organizmhoi zinda ba nazar merasand.
  3. Biopolimerho – payvastagihoi kalonmolekulai organiki, ki monomerashon molekulahoi soddatari organiki meboshand.
  4. Hujayra – vohidi tarkibi va vohidi inkishofi tamomi organizmhoi zinda.
  5. Bofta – majmui hujayrahoi az jihati sokht bo ham monand va moddai baynihujayragi doshta meboshad.
  6. Uzv – majmui boftahoe, ki baroi ijroi vazifai muayyan makhsus shudaand.
  7. Sistemai biologi – obekthoi biologii darajai murakkabiashon gunogun.
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