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Malikushshuaro Muhammadtaqii Bahor

Malikushshuaro Muhammadtaqii Bahor yake az shoironva navisandagoni buzurgi davrai okhiri Eron meboshad. Adabiyotshinoson uro «yake az sitoragoni toboni osmoni adabi Eron» meshumorand.

Malikushshuaro Muhammadtaqii BahorBahor yak umr baroi mudofiai huquqi khalqi khud, baroikhalosii vay az changoli istismorgaroni dokhili va imperialistoni khoriji, baroi ba zindagonii osuda, ozod va madani rasonidani mardumi vatanash muboriza burdaast. Bahor yake az nasrnavisoni barjastai zamoni khud buda, darejodi nasri navi soda va fahmo yake az arbobi peshqadamimatbuoti Eron budaast. Vay bo asarhoi ilmii khud ba omuzishi zabonu adabiyoti fors hissai arzanda guzoshtaast.

Bahor bo sherhoi khud ba muqobili zurovaroni zamona va ba tarafdorii khalqi khud jiddu jahd kardaast.

Muhammad Taqii Bahor soli 1886 dar shahri Mashhad daroilai shoiri mashhuri Huroson Malikushshuaro Muhammad Kozimi Saburi ba dunyo omad. Hanuz dar ayyomi navrasi istedod va zavqi shoiriash malum gashtaast. U avvalin sherhoyashro ba padarash nishon doda, nakhustin darsi shernavisiro az padarash giriftaast. U donishhoi zamoni khudro dar peshi ustodoni mashhuri Huroson az khud karda hanuz dar hajdahsolagiash ba qasidasaroi shugl varzidaast.

Gar shud az javri shumo khonai mure vayron,
Honai khesh muhol ast, ki obod kuned

Bo sar shudani avvalin harakathoi inqilobi dar Eron soli 1907 shuhrati Bahor niz ibtido yoft. Bahor az soli 1910 ba nashr namudani ruznomahoi «Navbahor» va «Tozabahor» shuru kard. Bo maqolahoi otashin va sherhoi hayajonbakhshi khud ba muqobili mustamlikachiyoni khoriji – imperialistoni anglis va hukumati podshohii Rusiya, ki dar on davra baroi dar bayni khud taqsim kardani Eron jangu jidol doshtand, sadoi etiroz baland kard. Bahor dar safi avvali muborizoni rohi ozodi istoda, avvalin natijahoi faoliyati ozodikhohonro himoya namud va chandin bor habs va badarga karda shud.

Vaqte Rizokhon bo qasdi hukmroni Eron shudan ba maydon omad, Bahor az jumlai muqobiloni u bud va dar tamomimuddati hukmronii Rizokhon, ki bad khudro shohi Eron elon namud, az badkhohoni on ba shumor meraft, dar tahtitaqibu nazorati politsiya megasht. Binobar, in dar zindagiash nashr kardani kulliyoti ashorash ba vay muyassar nagardid. Kulliyoti dujildai shoir faqat pas az vafotash,dar soli 1956 nashr gardidaast.

Bahor dar barobari faoliyati siyosi faoliyati pursamari ilmii khudro niz davom dod. U avval dar Dorulmuallimin va pas az tashkil karda shudani Donishgohi Tehrondar on jo darsi adabiyoti forsi va uslubshinosi meguft.

Asari mashhuri sejildai Bahor «Sabkshinosi yo tatavvuri (digarshavii) nasri forsi» dar sohai tadqiqoti zabon va uslubi nasri forsi – tojiki asari khele mufid va mutabare buda, baroi tarikhi adabiyoti forsu tojik ahamiyati buzurgi ilmi dorad.

Tarjumahoi Bahor az zaboni pahlavi («Andarzi Ozarbadi Mehraspandon», «Risolai motigoni shatranj» va «YOdgori Zariron»), ishtiroki vay dar talifi sarfu nahvi dujildai zaboni forsi va kitobhoi khonish baroi maktabhoi miyonai Eron, asarhoi adabi va tarikhii vay dar borai ahvoli Firdavsi, Moni, Muhammad Jariri Tabari, «Tarikhi ahzobi siyosii Eron» az yodgorihoi purarzishi ilmi meboshand.

Bahor okhirin ruzhoi umri khudro, ki beshtar dar bistari bemori meguzashtand, ba muboriza baroi sulh va osoish sarf namud. U az ruzi avvali tasisi jamiyati tarafdoroni sulh dar Eron dar sari in harakat meistod. U bayraqdori sulh shudanro baroi khud iftikhori buzurge meshumurd. Bahor dar in davra yake az qasidahoi jovidonii khud «CHugzi jang»-ro navisht. U az boroni tuhmat va igvohoe, ki az tarafi muqobilonash ba sarash meborid, parvoe nakarda meguft: «Man amri (kori) sulhro ba khotiri sulh na ba khotiri on kasone, ki dar borai on suhbat mekunand, dust medoram. Hoh havodoroni sulh az Amriko va Ingliston boshandu khoh az SHuravi va CHin, faryodi sulhkhohi asil qobili ehtirom ast».

Bahor yake az azoi faoli jamiyati aloqai madanii Eron va sobiq Ittihodi SHuravi buda, baroi mustahkam shudani in aloqa khizmatho kardaast. Bahor 21-umi apreli soli 1951 dar Tehron az dunyo guzasht.

AY ZAN

Javonbakhtu jahonoroi, ay zan,
Jamolu zinati dunyoi, ay zan.
Sadaf khon astu sohibkhona gavvos221,
Tu dar vay gavhari yaktoi, ay zan.
Tu yakto gavhari dar durji222 khona,
V-az on behtar, ki gavharzoi, ay zan.
Tu dar ayni latofat zurmandi,
Tu ham gavhar, tu ham daryoi, ay zan.
CHu magz andar saru chun hush dar magz,
Bajovu loiqu shoyoi, ay zan.
Tu nuri didai ravshandiloni,
Azero223 darkhuru224 darboi225, ay zan.
Tabiat khud chu kone pur zi lafz ast,
Tu on alfozro manoi, ay zan.
Taolillah, ki dar bogi nakui,
CHu gul pokizavu zeboi, ay zan.
Hato guftam, zi gul nekutari tu,
Ki ham zebovu ham donoi, ay zan.
Turo hojat ba oroish naboshad,
Ki khud po to ba sar oroi, ay zan.
Naimi227 zindagiro bo tu binam,
Hamono nuri chashmi moi, ay zan.
Muammoi jahon hal kardiyu boz,
Tu khud asli muammohoi, ay zan.
Nabudi zindagi, gar zan nabudi,
Vujudi khalqro mabdoi228, ay zan.
Binoi nekbakhtiro ba geti,
Tu ham memoru ham bannoi229, ay zan.
Kavokib232 jumla tan gushand, chun tu,
SHabongah garmi lo-loloi230, ay zan.
Bigaltad ashki anjum chun bari tifl,
Tu chashm az khobi khush bikshoi, ay zan.
Tabiat jazbai ishq az tu omukht.
Ki tu khud ishqro mabnoi231, ay zan
Taboe goh lutfu goh qahrand,
Tu lutf az farqi sar to poy, ay zan.
Bihishti voqei joest, k-az mehr,
Tu bo farzandgon on joi, ay zan…
Darego, gar tu bo in hushu idrok,
Ba jahl az in fuzuntar poi, ay zan.
Darego, k-az hisobi khud vatanro,
Ba nimatan falaj farmoi, ay zan!

SAVOL VA SUPORISH:

  1. SHoir kadom khislathoi najibi zanro vasf kardaast?
  2. Bayti

«Tu yakto gavhari dar durji khona V-az on behtar, ki gavharzoi, ay zan!» – chi mani dorad?

  1. Kadom khislathoi nombarnamudai shoirro shumo dar felu raftori modari khud mebined?
  2. Mazmuni sherro ba qismho judo namuda naql kuned.
  3. Dar khona ba mazmuni sher tavajjuh namuda, dar vasfi modari khud insho navised.

CHASHMA VA SANG

Judo shud yake chashma az kuhsor,
Ba rah gasht nogah ba sange duchor.
Ba narmi chunin guft bo sangi sakht:
– «Karam karda rohe deh, ay nekbakht!»
Garon sangi tiradilu sakhtsar,
Zadash siliyu232 guft:
– «Dur, ay pisar! Najunbidam az seli zurozmoy,
Kii tu, ki peshi tu junbam zi joy?!»
Nashud chashma az posukhi sang sard,
Ba kandan dar istodu ibrom233 kard
Base kandu kovidu kushish namud,
K-az on sangi khoro rahe barkushud.
Zi kushish ba har chiz khohi rasid,
Ba har chiz khohi, kamohi234 rasid.
Birav, korgar boshu ummedvor,
Ki az yas juz marg n-oyad ba kor!
Garat poydorist dar korho,
SHavad sahl peshi tu dushvorho.

SAVOL VA SUPORISH:

  1. SHerro burro va ifodanok qiroat namoed.
  2. CHaro chashma ba sang bo narmi murojiat namud, vale sang bo

durushti va nopisandi, hatto bo torsaki ba chashma javob dod?

  1. Ba sang chi baho medihed?
  2. Oqibati nopisandi va yakravii sang chi shud?
  3. SHoir ba kadom kori najib davat kardaast?
  4. Hulosai sherro az bayti maqta yobed.

VARZISH

Tani zinda volo ba varzandagist235,
Ki varzandagi moyai zindagist.
Ba varzish garoyu sarafroz bosh,
Ki farjomi236 susti sarafkandagist.
Ba sakhti dihad mardi ozoda tan,
Ki poyoni tanparvari bandagist.
Dile boyadat ravshanu tan durust,
Agar jon-t juyoi farkhundagist.
Kase, k-u tavono shudu tandurust,
Hiradro ba magzash furuzandagist.
Hunar juy, to kom yobivu noz.
Ki juyandagi rohi yobandagist!
Zi varzish mayosovu kushanda bosh,
Ki bunyodi geti ba kushandagist.
Durakhshidani in baland oftob,
Zi bisyorkushivu gardandagist.
Niyogon-tro237 varzish on moya dod,
Ki «SHahnoma» z-eshon tobandagist.
Tu niz az niyogon biyomuz kor,
Agar dar sarat shuri sarzindagist.

SAVOL VA SUPORISH:

  1. SHerro ifodanok qiroat namoed.
  2. Mazmuni sherro naql kuned.
  3. SHoir tandurustiro moyai chi donistaast?
  4. SHoir oqibati tanparvariro dar chi didaast?
  5. Panj amali nekro nombar kuned, ki shoir ba on davat namudaast?

HAMA RAFTAND

Davi chi kuni, doiyadoron hama raftand,
SHav, bori safar band, ki yoron hama raftand.
On gardi shitobanda, ki dar domani Suhrob
Guyad chi nishini, ki savoron hama raftand.
Dog ast dili lolavu nilist bari sarv,
K-az bogi jahon lolauzoron hama raftand.
Gar nodira magdum shavad, hej ajab nest,
K-az shohi hunar nodirakoron hama raftand,
Afsus, ki afsonasaroyon hama raftand,
Akduh, ki anduhgusoron hama raftand.
Faryod, ki ganjinatirozoni maoni
Ganjina nihodand ba moron, hama raftand.
YAk murgi giriftor dar in gulshani vayron
Tanho ba qafas mondu hazoron hama raftand.
Hun bor, bahor, az mija dar furqati ahbob,
K-az peshi tu chun abri bahoron hama raftand.

AZ QAFAS OZOD KUNED

Man naguyam, ki maro az qafas ozod kuned,
Qafasam burda ba bogevu dilam shod kuned.
Fasli gul meguzarad, hamnafason, bahri Hudo,
Binishined ba bogevu maro yod kuned.
Andalebon, guli suri ba chaman kard vuruz,
Bahri shoboshi qudumash hama faryod kuned.
YOd az in murgi giriftor kuned, ay murgon,
CHun tamoshoi gulu lolavu shamshod kuned.
Har ki dorad zi shumo murgi asire ba qafas,
Burda dar bogu ba yodi manash ozod kuned.
Oshyoni mani bechora agar sukht, chi bok?
Fikri vayron shudani khonai sayyod kuned.
SHam agar kushta shud az bod, madored ajab,
YOdi parvonai hasti shuda bar bod kuned.
Besutun bar sari roh ast, mabod az SHirin
Habare guftavu gamgin dili Farkhod kuned.
Javru bedod kunad umri javonon kutoh,
Ay buzurgoni Vatan, bahri Hudo, dod kuned.
Gar shud az javri shumo khonai Mure vayron,
Honai khesh muhol ast, ki obod kuned.
Kunji vayronai zindon shud agar sahni Bahor,
SHukri ozodivu on ganji khudod kuned.

SAVOL VA SUPORISH:

  1. SHerhoi «Hama raftand» va «Az qafas ozod kuned» dar
  2. kadom navi adabi ejod shudaand?
  3. Gazali «Hama raftand» ba kadom mavzu bakhshida shudaast?
  4. CHaro Bahor az bevafoii umr va darguzashti buzurgon afsus mekhurad?
  5. Dar gazali «Az qafas ozod kuned» shoir asosan, ba kadomtoifai mardum marojiat mekunad?
  6. Gazali «Az qafas ozod kuned»-ro azyod, mazmuni mukhtasari onro naql kuned.

Bayti:

Gar shud az javri shumo khonai mure vayron,
Honai khesh muhol ast, ki obod kuned- ro sharhu tav zeh dihed.

Bahor dar in gazal kadom khislothoi pisandidaro targib namudaast?

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