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Madaniyati Davlati Somoniyon

Madaniyati davlati Somoniyon dar davrai zuhuri dini islom va zamoni hukmronii sulolahoi tojikii Tohiriyon va Safforiyon ogoz yofta, dar zamoni hukmronii  Somoniyon ba zinai balandi taraqqiyot sohib shudaast. Ba on omilhoi zerin musoidat kardaand: 1) madaniyati khalqhoi Hilofati Arab; 2) zabon va alifboi arabi; 3) unsurhoi akhloqiyu farhangni dini islom; 4) tashkil yoftani davlati markaziyatnoki Somoniyon; 5) taraqqiyoti kasbu hunar, kishovarzi, madankorkuni va tijorat; 6) vaseshavii doirai istifodai zaboni tojiki; 7) tavajjuhi davlat ba maktabu maorif va ilmu farhang; 8) hamohangii manfiathoi mardum va davlat.

Maqbarai Arabato dar Tim. Solhoi 997-998.Har kadomi onho takoni alohidae budand, ki yakjoya shuda, madaniyati purshuhrati davlati Somoniyonro ba vujud ovardand.

ZABONI TOJIKI. Arabho dar asri VII Eroni Sosoniyon va dar asri VIII Movarounnahrro ishgol namuda, dar in jo dini islom, alifbo va zaboni arabiro pahi kardand. Dar in mintaqahoi khilofat zaboni arabi zaboni davlati, ilmu adab va vositai muoshirati bayni odamon shud. Vale bo vujudi in zaboni arabi zaboni tojikiro az istemol purra barovarda natavonist. Mardumi Hurosonu Movarounnahr az zaboni modarii khud dast nakashidand.

Hanuz dar davlati Tohiriyon zaboni tojiki dar barobari zaboni arabi zaboni rasmi bud. Dar zamonn hukmronii Safforiyon maqomi zaboni tojiki boz ham balandtar shuda, az ogozi hukmronii sulolai Somoniyon sar karda, purra ba zaboni davlati mubaddal gardid. Vale zaboni arabi chandin asri digar zaboni ilm bud.

Dar asrhoi IX-X va badtar az on ham zaboni forsii tojiki bo nomi “zaboni dari” berun az hududhoi davlati Somoniyon nufuz paydo karda, ba zaboni davlati va ilmu adabi chandin mamlakati SHarq, az jumla, sultonii Dekhli, imperiyai Temuriyoni Hind, Saljuqiyon, Turkhoi Usmoni tabdil yofta, to darajae vazifai zaboni baynalkhalqiro niz ijro mekard.

Dar hududhoi nufuzi zaboni forsi – daribadi barhamkhurii davlati Somoniyon davlathoi  sershumor tashkil yoftaand, ki onho niz ba zaboni tojiki maqomi davlati doda budand, chunki on vaqt bo in zabon zaboni digare raqobat karda namstavonist.

MAKTABU MAORIF. Davlati Somoniyonba maktabu maorif dikqati kalon medod. Madrasaho maktabhoi oli budand. Ba indonishgohho khatmkunandagoni maktabhoi hamagoni dokhil meshudand. Ba naqshahoitalimii madrasaho qarib hamai ilmhoi zamon dokhil karda shuda budand.

On khamtkunandagoni madrasaho, ki nisbat ba digar hamsabaqon qobiliyatnoktar budand, tahsilro dar madrasahoi mashkhur Davom doda, ba martabai balandi

ilmi ioil meshudand. Az bayni chunin tolibilmon mansabdoroni balandi davlati, tojiron, olimon, mudarrison va shoiru navisandagon ba voya merasidand.

 YAk qismi khatmkunandagoni madrasaho dar masjidho va muassisahoi digari dini kor mekardand.

Madrasahoi kalon va behtarin dar poytakhti davlati Somoniyon – shahri Bukhoro voqe budand. Baroi ba in madrasaho dokhil shudan javonon az tamomi gushayu kanorhoi mamlakat meomadand. Davlat nisbat ba donishjuyoni madrasaho va mudarrison gamkhori mekard.

ILM. Dar aksariyati shahrhoi davlati Somoniyon, az on jumla, dar Bukhoro, Samarqand, Balkh, Hirot, Nishopur va Gurganj muassisahoikaloni ilmi mavjud budand, dar Onho olnmon ba tadqiqoti nlmy mashgul shuda, asarhoi purbakho meofarndand. Olimoni ziyodi in davlat shuhrati jahoni paydo namuda budand. Imruz ham nomi onhoro ahli ilmu farhangi muosir bo hurmatu ehtirom ba zabon megirand.

Azbaski olimoni mashhuri davlati Somoniyon nihoyat bisyorand, mo tanho tedodi kami onhoro nom mebarem.

Oid ba ilmi tarikh. Abubakri Narshakhi bo “Tarnkhi Bukhoro” va Abujafari Tabari bo “Tarikhi paygambaron va shohkho” yo khud ‘Tarikhi Tabari-i khud mashhur meboshand.

Oid ba ilmi tib. Zakariyoi Rozi. Muallifi asarhoi mashhuri “Kitob al-chidori va-l-hasba”, “Kitobi Mansuri”, “Al- Hovi” (iborat az 20 jild) meboshad.

Abuali ibni Snno buzurgtarin olimi sohai tib ast. Kitobi u “Qonun  i tib” ba aksariyati zabonhoi bonufuzi jahon tarjuma va chop shudaast.

Oid ba ilmi kimiyo. Jobir ibni Hayyon dar masalai paydoishi madankho tadqiqot guzaronida, az khud asarhoi sershumori doroi ahamiyati jakhoniro boqi guzoshtaast.

Oid ba ilmi jugrofiya. Asarhoi jugrofiyashinosi mashhur Mansuri Marvazi “Kitob az bobi khiroji Huroson”. Ahmadi Sarakhsi “Az bobi bahrho, obho va kuhho”va “Al-masolik va-l-mamolik”. Abuzaydi Balkhi “Tasviri iqlimho”, “Namudhoi mamlakatho” va “Taqsimoti shahrho” in ilmro ba zinai boz ham balandtari taraqqiyot barovardaand.

Oid ba ilmi riyozi. Muhammad al- Horazmi bo asarhoi “Kitob-ul-jam va ut-tafriq ba hisob-ul-hind” va “Kitob- ul-mukhtasar fi hisob-ul-jabr val muqobala” va Abumansuri Balkhi bo qarib 40 asari ilmii khud dar peshrafti ilmi riyozi sahmi buzurg guzoshtaand.

Oid ba ilmi nuchum. Abulabbosi Fargony “Kitob az bobi harakati jirmhoi osmoni va majmui ilm oid ba sitoraho”-ro talif namuda, ba in ilm navgonihoi ziyodro vorid namudaast.

Olimoni hamadon. Ba in qabil olimon, ki hamai ilmhoi zamoni khudro az bar karda, oid ba onho asarhoi purqimmat ejod namudaand, AbuAli ibni Sino, Abunasrn Forobi, Aburayhoni Beruni, Muhammad al-Horazmi, Zakariyon Rozi, Abulvafoi Juzjoni, Abuzaydi Balkhi va Muhammadi Narshakhi dokhiland.

Bo vujudi hamadon budan har kadomi onho dar ilmhoi alohida maqomi khosa dorand. In ast, ki AbuAli ibni Sino dar ilmi tib mashhuri olam shudaast, Abunasri Forobiro az buzurgtarin faylasufi sharq etirof kardaand, Muhammad al- Horazmi asosguzori yake az qismhoi ilmi rnyozi – algebra meboshad. Hullas, har kadomi onho dar ilm naqshi buzurg guzoshtaand.

ADABIYOT. Sardaftari adabiyoti klassikii forsu tojik Abuabdullohi Rudaki ruykhati adiboni nomii davrai Somoniyonro sarvari menamoyad. U saromadi sher va baroi hama shoironi forsu tojik ustod ba hisob meravad. SHerhoi Rudaki ravonu fahmo va pur az pandu hikmathoand. Ba monandi:

In jahoiro nigar bo chashmi khirad,

Na bad-on chashm, k-andar u nigari,

Hamchu daryost, v-az nakukori

Kishtie soz, to bad-on bigzari.

Buzurgii Rudakiro shoiri asri XI Rashidii Samarkandi chunin vasf kardaast:

Gar sari yobad ba olam kas ba neku shoiri

 Rudakiro bar sari on shoiron zebad sari.

SHeri uro bishumurdem sezdah rah sad hazor,

Ham fuzun oyad chunon ki boyad bishmiri.

SHoiri digari buzurgi forsu tojiki zamoni Somoniyon Abulqosim Firdavsi meboshad. “SHohnoma”-i bezavoli u az behtarin asari vatanparasti meboshad. Misrahoi alohidai on ba ganjinai pandu hikmathoi buzurgoni jahon vorid shudaand. Ba monandi:

Hamon marg khushtar bo nomi baland,

Az in zistan bo harosu gazand.

YO ki:

Har k-u ba bedod juyad nabard,

Jigarkhasta boz oyad ruyzard.

Gayr az Rudakiyu Firdavsi dar davlati Somoniyon shoironi ziyodi digar zindagi va zjod kardaand. Dar bayni onho SHahidi Balkhi. Abumansuri Daqiqi, Abulhasani Marvazi. Abushakuri Balkhi, Abulmasali Bukhoroi, Muntasnri Somoni, Murodi, Robiai Balkhi, Husravoni, Marufii Balkhi, SHokiri Bukhoroi, Farolovi, Munjiqi Tnrmizi va boz dahho shoironi mashhur niz hastand, ki dar tashakkuli adabiyoti forsu tojik sahmi buzurg guzoshtaand.

LUGAT

Mudarris – ustodi madrasa.

Olimoni hamadon – on olimone, ki hamai ilmhoi zamoni khudro dar sathi nihoyat baland medonand va oid ba onho asarho ejod kardaand.

Zaboni dari – yake az shokhahoi zaboni tojiki.

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