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MUTTAHIDSHAVII ITALIYA

Italiya bad az inqilobi burjuazi. Badi shikast khurdani inqilobi burjuazy Italiya misli peshtara parokanda mondan girift. Hokimiyati Gabbsburgho dar viloyati Lombardiyayu Venetsiya az nav barqaror karda shud. Tasiri Avstriya ba Modenu Parma va Toskana az nav purzur gardid. Bo yorii Avstriya mutlakiyatkhoi sarnagunshudai sulolai Gabbsburgkho boz ba in joyho bargashtand. Baroy tamini amniyatashon ba poytakhthoi onho sipohi Avstriya darovarda shud.

Dar Rim boshad, az soli 1849 cap karda garnizoni Faronsa mustakar bud. Dar shohigarii har du Sitsiliya “shoh-bomba” – Ferdinandi II bar khalqi khud bedodgariro davom medod. Harchand u rasman konstitutsiyaro bekor nakarda boshad ham, dar amal rejimi mutlaqi terroristiro az nav barqaror kard. Badi soli 1849 tanho dar Pemont sokhti konstitutsiony boqi mond. Mardumi in jo az baze ozodihoi demokraty istifoda meburdand. SHoh Viktor – Emmanuil i II shakhsi ozodandeshu demokratmijoz bud. U hatto ba vatandustoni az dasti shohhoi digar gurekhta panohgohi siyosi medod.

Sarfi nazar az mavjudiyati irtichei siyosi dar Italiya harakati milliyu ozodikhohi qat nagardid. Burjuaziya va ahli mehnat ba khujainii ajnabiyon dar Italiyai SHimoly va joyhoi digari on oshtinopazir budand. Bad az inqilob va qat gardidani buhroni iqtisodii solhoi 1847 – 1848 davrai boloravii navi iqtisodiyot ogoz yoft. On khususan dar Pemont ba nazar msrasid. Dar in jo istehsoloti kaloni sohibkory ba vujud meomad. Fabrikayu zavodkhoi nav sokhta meshudand. Sokhtmoni rohi ohan idoma meyoft. To soli 1859 dar Italiya allakay 1700 kilometr rohhoi ohan sokhta shud. Az on chumla, dar Pemont – 850 kilometr. Dar barobari boloravii sanoat tijorat ham pesh meraft. Bandari Genuya dar Bahri Miyonazamnn mavqei khudro az pav barqaror kard. In hama burjuaziyaro baron ozodii millim Italiya ba muboriza tela medod.

Dar rohi muttahidshavy. YAke az shakhsoni marufi burjuaziyam Italiya, jonibdori sokhti parlamentam idorakunii davlat Kamillo Kavur (1810-1861) bud. Barom az zeri metilom Avstriya ozod kardani Italiya u jiddu jahdi ziyode kardaast. Soli 1852 bad az ishgol kardani mansabi sarvazirii Sardiniya Kamillo Kavur bo Angliya va Faronsa sozishnomahoi tijoratie bast, ki dar natija dar Italiya surati tabadduloti sanoatii ogozyofta boz ham bosurattar shud.

Siyosati iqtisodii Kamillo Kavur baroi bo tezi pahn gardidani tartiboti navi sarmoyadory kumak rasonid.

Dar siyosati khorijy Kavur dar nazdi khud avval maqsadhoi na onqadar kalonro guzosht. U niyat dosht, ki viloyathoi Lombardiyayu Venstsiya va horsogihoi Italiyai Markoznro, ki dar onho Avstriya kuchainy mekard, ba Pemont hamroh kunad. Vale Kavur in korro “az bolo”. bo rohi hilayu nayranghoi diplomati ijro kardani bud.

Vatandustoni digari Italiya ham mekhostand kore karda istilogaronro az vatanashon paydo karda, onro muttahid sozand. Vale Faronsa ba in kor bo har roh khalal merasonid. F. Orsini nom vatandusti italiyavy soli 1858 bar ziddi imperatori Faronsa Napoleoni III suiqasd kard, vale dastgir shuda, dar Gilotin qatl gardid.

Kamillo Kavur rohi diplomatiro khele samaranok istifoda burd. Ba u muyassar shud, ki tobistoni soli 1858 dar Plomber bo Napoleoni III pinhoni mulokot namoyad. Kavur ba imperatori Faronsa vada dod, ki agar u lar muborizai Italiya bar ziddi Avstriya yory rasonad, pas tayyor ast Savoyya va Nitsaro ba Faronsa guzasht kunad.

Pesh az sarshavii jang, Mohi marti soli 1859, Napoleoni III pinhoni bo Rusiya shartnomai dusti bast. SHohi Rusiya Aleksandri ba Napoleoni III vada dod, ki dar jangi Faronsayu Italiya alayhi Avstriya mavqei betarafiro ishgol mekunad. Dar natijai in dar jangi oyanda Avstriya yakkayu tanho mond.

Ogozi jangi Italiya bar ziddi Avstriya. Jangi ziddi Avstriya Mohi apreli soli 1859 ogoz yoft. Tobistoni hamon sol lashkari Faronsa va Sardiniya ba sipohi Avstriya shikast doda.

Lombardiyaro ba dast darovard. In galaba avji harakati khalqi inqilobiro dar Italiya az nav ba vujud ovard. Dar yak qator davlathoi khurdu kaloni on inqilob ba amal omad. Inqilob qarib hamai mulkhoi Paparo ham faro girift. Mardum talab mekard, ki davlathoi Italiya dar davlati yagonai milli muttahid karda shavand.

Bar ziddi avstriyagihoi badkin na tanho lashkari Pemont muboriza meburd, balki ommai khalq ham bar ziddi onho barkhost.

Dar Florensiya (poytakhti Toskana) shurshi ba amal omad. On gersogi mahalliro majbur kard, ki ba Venetsiya gurezad. CHunin voqea dar Modena va Parma ham ba amal omad.

Nokomiho dar rohi muttahidkuny. Ba muborizan ziddi istilogaroni avstrnyagy CHuzeppa Garibaldy niz hamroh shud. U bo dastahoi khud ba lashkari Pemont dokhil tuda, dar rutbai generaly ba ikhtiyoriyon farmondehy mekard. In iqdomi vatandustonai Garibaldy ba boloravii ruhiyan inqilobii mardum sababgor shud. U bo hamrohii bahoduroni khud ba Lombardiya zada daromad. Vayro aholii in jo bo khursandii bepoyon neshvoz girift. Garibaldy ba avstriyagiho shikast dod.
Mardum bovarii komil dosht, ki aknun galaba bar Avstriya tamin megardad, vale Nanoleoni III Kamillo Kavurro fireb dod. U 11 avgusta soli 1859 bo imperatori Avstriya Fra ns-Iosif dar shahri Villefrank vokhurda, gayrichashmdoigta italiyaviho bo u oshti shud va bad bo Avstriya Soznshnomai sulhro imzo kard. Muvofiqi in sozishnoma ba Pemont tanho Lombardiya guzasht, ziloyati Venetsiya dar ikhtiyori Avstriya mond. Hokimiyati oli dar nimjazirai Apenin ba Viktor – Emmanuili II neyu ba dasti dushmani muttahidshavii Italiya – Papay Nim Piyi IX supurda shud. Ba Moden, Parma va Toskana Gabbsburghoi az on joyho pesh kardashuda bargashtand.

CHaro Napoleoni III in korro kard? U namekhost, ki dar havzai Bahri Miyonazamin Italiyai muttahid hukmron gardad. Baroy faronsa Italiyai parokanda foidanoktar bud.

SHarthoi Sozishnomai sulhi Villefrank qahru gazabi khalqi Italiyaro ba vuchud ovardand. Sozishi imperatori Faronsa – Napoleoni III bo Avstriya va bor kardani irodai khud bar shokhhoi Italiya bovarii mardumro ba hukumati Viktor – Emmanuili II khele past kard.

Dasisahoi Napoleoni III, ojizii shohhoi Italiya va khiyonati Papay Rim Piyi IX muborizai ozodikhohonai khalqro boz ham balandtar kard. Aknun mugtgahid kardani Italiya “az poyon”, yane bo rohi inqilobi ba amal omada metavonist.

Mohi apreli soli 1860 dar Palermo shurish ba amal omad, vale lashkari shoh onro zud pakhsh kard. Badi in demokrata jumkhuriyakhohi SHimol Madzinn va hamsafoni u qaror dodand, ki ba janubiho yory rasonand.

Juzeppa Garibaldy. Az shahri Genuya, ki on dar shimoli Italiya voqe ast, bo sardorii Juzeppa Garibaldy dar 2 kishtii kalon dastai buzurgi ikhtayoriyone, ki dar tai libosi surkh doshtand va onhoro “kurtasurhho” menomidand, ba jonibi Sitsiliya rakhsipor shudand.

Dastai Garibaldy ba sohili jazirai Sitsiliya bomuvaffaqiyat langar partofta, ba amaliyothoi kharbi shuru kard. Ba dastai u guruh-guruh dekhqononi jazira dokhil meshudand. Dastai “kurtasurkhho” dar muddati kutohtarin sershumoru purzur gardid. In imkoniyat dod, ki dar nazdikii Kalatafimy ba lashkari bar ziddi Garibaldy ravonkardai shoh golib baroyad. Janghoi vaznin hangomi badastdarorii poytakhti jazira shahri Palermo ba amal omadand.

Hushbakhtona in dam shahriho shurish bardoshta, ba tarafi Garibaldy guzashta, ba u baroi teztar ba dast darovardani shahr yory rasonpdand.

Mohi avgusti soli I860 “kurtasurkhho” 6a Kalabriya vorid shudand va lashkarkashii afsonavii qahramononai khudro ba Neapol ogoz kardand. 7 sentyabr Garibaldy bo sipohi khud bogantaia ba poytakhti shohigarii har du Sitsiliya vorid gasht. Az on jo shoh Fransiski II bazur gurekhta tavonist. Ba in nigoh nakarda Neruhoi shoh khanuz purquvvat budand. Vale 1 oktyabri soli I860 lashkari khalqi onro dar nazdikii daryoi Volturno torumor kard.

Juzeppa Garibaldy dar rafti lashkarkashiash imtiyozhoi ziyodi dvoryanho ruhoniyon va andozhoi vaznini kishovarzonro bekor kard. Baroy in khalqi oddy dar hama jo “kurtaeurkhkho”-ro chun yoru barodaroni khud peshvoz megirift.

Anjomyobii muttahidshavii Italiya. Zamindoroni kalon az obrui beandoza buzurgi Garibaldy dar tashvizi monda budand. Az hamin sabab onho baron yory ba Viktor – Emmanunli II va Kamillo Kavur murojiat kardand. Garibaldy chorahoero amaly mekard, ki ba fondai ahli zahmatkashon budand. Baroi hamin ham ba u bar ziddn hokimoni mutlaqi Italiya muboriza burdan kori oson bud.

Bad az ozod kardani Janub Garibaldy niyat dosht, ki ba tarafi Rim harakat kunad. Viktor Emmakuili II galabahoi Garibaldiro baron mustahkam kardani hokimiyati khud istifoda burdany bud. U mekhost, ki ba viloyati Papa az Garibaldy peshtar omada rasad va tashabbusro ba dasti khud bigirad. In masala va masalahoi digarro Kamillo Kavur ba safiri ba Turin firistodai Napoleoni III muhokima kard. Naqshai zabt kardani viloyati Papa ham mavridi muhokima qaror girift. Az in barmeoyad, ki ogozi muttahidshavii Italiya “az poyon” imperator» Faronsaro ham ba tashvish ovardaasg.

Viktor – Emmanunli II tamomn chorahoro andeshidany bud, to ki mavji inqilob ba Rim dokhil nagardad.

1 oktyabri soli 1860 dastan 20-hazornafarai lashkari Pemont ba shohigarii Neapol daromad. Uro ashrofon bo khushnudy peshvoz giriftand, chunki az Garibaldy sakht tarsyda budand.

Garibaldy maqsadhoi najib dosht. U ba goyahoi istiqloliyata milli sodiq bud. Binobar in alayhi lashkari Sardiniya muqobiliyate nishon nadoda, be muboriza hokimiyati in choro ba shoh Viktor – Emmanuil» II suporid. Badi in liberalho baron bo SHimol muttahid sokhtani Janub raypursy guzaronida, ba maqsadashon rasidand.

Aknun muttahid kardani Italiya “az poyon” ba okhir rasid. Idomai on “az bolo” surat girift.

Badi ba SHimol muttahid kardani Janub Konstitutsiyai navi Italiya jory karda shud, ki on ba konstitutsiyae, ki soli 1848 dar Pemont jory karda shuda bud, monandy dosht. Dar Italiya parlamenti dupalatador – senat va palatai vakiloi tashkil karda shud. Vale intikhobot ba parlament meyori balandi molumulky dosht. Baroy hamin dar avval tanho 2,5 foizi aholi huquqi intikhoboty shriftu khalos. SHoh monarkhi konstitutsiony va dini katoliki lini davlaty elon karda shud.

Dar natijai voqeahoi solhoi 1859 – 1860 qarib az nisf ziyodi Italiya dar yak davlaty sokhtash mutlaqiyati konstitutsnony muttahid shud.

Muttahidshavii Italiya dar solhoi 1859 – 1860 hanuz ba okhir narasida bud. Dar viloyati Venetsiya misli peshtara avstriyagiho khujain budand. Dar Rim boshad. Papa Piyi IX hukmron bud. Uro az soli 1849 boz askaroni garnizoni Faronsa posboni mekardand. Muttahidshavii, purrai Italiya “az bolo” dar zeri rohbarii Viktor – Emmanuili II ba amal omad. U dar muddati duru daroz – az soli 1862 to tiramohi soli 1870 baron in kor bar ziddi dushmanoni muttahndshavii Italiya muboriza burd va nihoyat bad az ishgol karda shudani “shahri abady” – Rim muttahidkunii mamlakatro ba okhir rasonid. Italiya bo hamin ba davlaty muttahidi yagona tabdil yoft.

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