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MUSHOHIDAI OSMONI SITORADOR

Odam dar shabi pursitora chiro mebinad? Mo tavassuti chashmoni solyami khud me- tavonem dar osmon nazdik ba shash hazor sitorahoro (Nohid,Utorid, Mirrikh, Zuhal), hamradifoni sayyorahoro, zuzanabhoro ( meteorithoro) va Rohi Kahkashonro bubinem.

Hangomi paydo shudani Moh dar osmon, didani sitorahoi nachandon durakhshon mush- kil gardida, vale sayyorahoi atrofi Moh khub ba nazar merasand.

Tahti tasiri shuoi Oftob ruzona didani chismhoi osmony gayriimkon ast. Os­mon baroi mushohida namudan imkoniyati ziyod medihad. Az hama jolibash in nazora kar­dan ba osmoni pursitora ast. Bo chashmoni odi metavon bisyor jismhoi osmoniro did. Az zamonhoi kadim osmoni pursitoraro ba gurukhkhoi sitoragon – galasitorakho nomguzory mekardand. Sitorahoi az khama durakhshonro tavassuti harfhoi a (alfa), [3 (beta), u (gam­ma) ifoda mekardand.

sitora

Dar Zamin qaror girifta dar fosilai zamonii gunogun mo faqat nimi osmoni pur­sitoraro dida metavonem. Hangomi tamoshoi osmoni pursitora mo nakhu st kushish meku- nem, to gurukhkhoi mushakhkhasi sitoragonro paydo kunem. Galasitorai az khama mashkhur dar Nimkurahoi SHimoly in Dubbi Akbar (Bolshaya Medvedisa) ba shumor meravad. Pas az paydo kardani on metavon burjhoi (galasitorahoi) ba on nazdik – Dubbi Asgar (Malayu Medvedisa)-ro mushohida kard. Sitorai az khama durakhshoni on Sitorai Kutb (Polyarnaya Zvezda) ba shumor meravad. Hama sitorahoi Nimkurahoi SHimolii osmoni sitorador dar atrofi in sitora qaror dorand. Az in ru onro markazi shimolii dunyo menomand.

Dar osmoni sitorador 88 guruhi sitoragon mavjud meboshand. Sitoraho hamesha harakat karda, mavqei khudro tagyir medihand. Baroi on ki ba in bovar bikuny, dar jarayoni sol mavqei qaroryobii sitorahoro mushohida boyad kard.

Baroi mushohida osmoni sitorador metavon az kharitai bahori, tobistona, tiramokhy va zimistonai kitobi darsi istifoda burd. Dar on du navi kharitai osmoni sitorador: nigoh az shimol va nigoh az janub doda meshavad. Dar har yake az jufti kharitaho on mavqee dar osmon inikos shudaand, ki odami ba shimol nigokhkunanda, mebinad. Agar SHumo ba kharitai januby nigoh kardaed, pas mebined, ki dar miyonai kharita qismati marka- zii osmonro, az chap qismati sharqiro, az tarafi rost – qismati garbiro va dar kharitai shimoly, baraks, az rost qismati sharqiro, az chap qismati janubiro mebined.

Sitorahoe, ki nazdik ba qiyom, ba iborai digar dar nuqtai az hama balandi mushohidakunanda qaror dorand, dar qismati boloii kharita nishon doda shudaand.

NAMUDI SHABONGOHII OSMON AZ SENTYABR TO OKTYABR

YAke az burjhoi baroi qirgizho mashhur az miyoni hama galasitoraho (burjho), burji Pleyada ba shumor meravad.

Az rui Pleyada faslhoi solro muayyan mekardand. Az tiramoh burj (galasitora) bo qiyom joyashro ivaz mekunad. Az boloi Pleyadaho az miyonai tobiston to shurui tobistoni oyanda mushohida ba amal meoyad.

NAMUDI SHABONGOHII OSMONI SITORADOR AZ NOYABR TO DEKABR

Odamon az qadimulayyom az boloi Sitorai Qutb mushohida menamudand. Vayro bazan «Temir kazik» (Mekhi ohanin) va «Kut jildiz» (Sitorai shimoly) menomadand. Dar muqoisa bo digar sitoraho, Sitorai Qutb hama beharakat bud va ba shimol ishora mekard.

NAMUDI SHABONGOHII OSMONI SITORADOR AZ NOYABR TO DEKABR

Odamon az qadimulayyom az boloi Sitorai Qutb mushohida menamudand. Vayro bazan «Temir kazik» (Mekhi ohanin) va «Kut jildiz» (Sitorai shimoly) menomi- dand. Dar muqoisa bo digar sitoraho, Sitorai Qutb hama beharakat bud va ba shimol ishora mekard.

NAMUDI SHABONAI QISMATI JANUBII OSMONI SITORADOR AZ NOYABR TO DEKABR

SHimol chun jonibi Qutbi, mavzei qutbi- , ki az on shamoli sard mevazad, no- mida meshud. Sayyohon va chorvodoron az rui sitorai mazkur roh pesh megiriftand.

23-umi sentyabr – in etidoli shabu ruz dar tiramoh ast. Davomnokii ruzu shab barobar ast. Hati istivoi( ekvadori)-ro ubur namuda, Oftob az nimkurahoi shimo- lii osmony ba nimkurahoi janubi intiqol meyobad.

In ruz ogozi astronomii tiramoh dar nimkurahoi shimoli Zamin va ogozi astronomii bahor dar nimkurahoi janubii Zamin ba shumor meravad.

Pursishho: Savoli «Jismhoi moro farogiranda no az chy iborat hastand? » az zamonhoi qadim olimonro ba ande- sha kardan vodor mesokht.

Onho komilu purra buda va yo az qismathoi maydayu kuchak iborat meboshand? Baroy on ki ba in savol javob bidihand, olimon mushohidahoi ziyod guzaronidaand.

Olimi YUnoni qadim Demokrit nakhustin shuda andesha- ero dar borai on ki, jismho az hissachahoi taqsimnashavanda- atomho iboratand, bayon doshta bud.

Vojai atom dar tarjuma az yunony manoi «taqsim- nashavanda»-ro dorad.

Andeshahoi asosii Demokritro idoma namuda, hamasroni u, faylasufon, shoiron andeshahoi gunogunro ibroz doshta budand. Onho tavonistand bisyore az malumo- ti imruzinro dar borai sokhtori moddaho ibroz dorand.

Vale dar zamoni mo bisyore az farziyahovu gumonho tavassuti tajribahoi ziyod ba isbot rasonida shudaand.

Dar bobi oyanda tahti unvoni «Olami jismho va moddaho» SHumo dar borai «Jism», «Modsa», malumot paydo khohed kard. Hamchunin SHumo ba savoli «Moddaho az chy iborat hastand?», «Moddaqoi sodda va murakkab», «Elementhoi kimiyovy», «Moddahoi organiky» va gayra posukh paydo khohed kard. Tavassuti darki onho tasavv uroti SHumo dar borai muhiti zist takmil khohand yoft.

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