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MUOMILOTI PUL ASRI HII

Taraqqiyoti quvvahoi istehsolkunanda, besh az pesh judo shudani kasbu hunar az khojagii qishloq, inkishofi minbadai istehsoloti moli, aloqai nazdik bo qabilahoi bodiyanishin boisi rivoji dodu girift dar dokhili davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona va bo kishvarhoi hamjavor gardid. Dar in khusus chi madrakhoi bostonshinosi (khususan, dar qismati Hitoy va Eron) va chi manbahoi khatti guvohi medihand.

Madrakhoi farovoni sikkashinosi az mavjudiyati mubodilai puli dalolat mekunand. Az asri HI to ibtidoi asri HIII dar sarzamini Osiyoi Miyona sikkahoi zarbi davlatchahoi gunogun (vobasta ba dokhil shudani onho ba hayati nohiya va viloyathoi judogonai Osiyoi Miyona) roij budand. Sikkahoi gaznavi va saljuqi odatan dar nohiyahoi janubii Osiyoi Miyona: avvali dar Tojikiston, duvumi dar Turkmanistoni janubi beshtar duchor meoyand. Aksaran dar hududi Qirgiziston, Uzbekiston va Tojikistoni shimoli sikkahoi qarokhoni vomekhurand. Sikkahoi khorazmshohii Muhammad ibni Tekishro dar sarosari Osiyoi Miyona paydo kardan mumkin ast.

Muomiloti pulii onvaqtaro[1] metavon bo du khususiyati asosii on tavsif namud: yake in ast, ki ahamiyati puli tillo dar in davra nisbat ba zamoni guzashta khele meafzoyad. Durust ast, ki in pulro misli peshtara bo barkash qabul mekunand. Vale roli on hamchun vositai muomilot afzuntar megardad. Puli tillo dar aksari shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona barovarda meshavad va on ba bozor roh meyobad, ki pesh in tavr nabud. Digar khususiyati sikkahoi onvaqtai Osiyoi Miyona bo hodisae, ki «buhroni puli nuqra» nom giriftaast, aloqamand meboshad. Az asri HI dar davlathoi sharq iyori puli nuqra ba poin ru menihad va dar baze mavridho vazni on kam meshavad. Dirhamhoi kamiyor digar ba Avrupoi sharqi barovarda nameshavand. hududi gardishi onho tang shuda, hamchun puli kamarzish faqat dar dokhili davlate, ki onhoro barovardaast, gardish mekunand.

Jarayoni tanazzuli puli nuqra dar har davlat ba tavri gunogun surat megirift. Masalan, dar davlati Gaznaviyon in holat nisbatan susttar ba amal meomad. Sulton Mahmudi Gaznavi va pisari u — Masud az hinduston chunon sarvate ba gorat burda budand, ki chand muddat qurbi puli nuqraro nigoh doshta tavonist.

uli_somoniyon-768x371Dar sikkai onho 70–76% nuqrai kholis mavjud buda, dirhamhoi puriyore, ki 95% nuqra doshtand, hanuz roij budand. Ammo dar khudi hamin vaqt dirhamhoi qarokhonii zarbi navohii janubi Osiyoi Miyona hamagi doroi qarib 20% nuqra budand.

Dar Fargonai miyonahoi asri HI, ki tahti nufuzi Qarokhoniyoni sharqi voqe gardida bud, dirhamhoi tamoman benuqra barovarda meshudand. In qabil dirhamho az omezishi mis va surb sokhta shuda, hatto az muomiloti adadi mahrum budand. Durust ast, ki badtar sardori davlati Qarokhoniyoni garbi — Ibrohimi Tamgojkhon Fargonaro zabt namuda, pulhoe barovard, ki dar tarkibi khud ba hisobi miyona 20% nuqra doshtand. Vale in ham der davom nakard. Dar asri HII Qarokhoniyon dirhamhoi misii bo varaqahoi tunuki nuqra rukashshudaro barovardand. Ilova bar in, dar Osiyoi Miyona dirhamhoi misii az davrai guzashta merosmonda niz mavjudiyati khudro dar muomila davom medodand. Hamai in sikkaho dar doirai gardishi puli nuqra amal namuda, zohiran dar tijorat puli nuqrai haqiqiro ivaz mekardand. Binobar ii quvvai kharid va narkhi muqarrarii onho az arzishashon bolotar bud.

Baze muhaqqiqon qadre peshtar az in ba Avrupo guzashtani nuqra va kam-yob shudani in fuluzi garonbahoro sababgori buhroni puli nuqra donistaand. In, albatta, omili khele muhim ast, vale ba sari khud boisi shikasti pul shuda nametavonad. Dar digar davraho ham, dar surati mavjud budani chunin zakhirai nuqra sikkahoi puriyor mebarovardand, faqat munosibati onho bo tillo va qurbi onho tagyir meyoft. Dar in mavrid mahz taraqqiyoti puravji shahrho, istehsoloti moli va tijorati puli chunon miqdori pul, yane vositai muomilotro talab namud, ki onro ba vasilai zarbi sikkahoi komiliyor qone kardan az imkon berun bud. Talaboti afzudai bozor, az yak taraf, harakati tilloro ziyodtar namoyad, az tarafi digar, ba barovardani pulhoi kamiyor vodor mekard. Ba har vasila beshtar pul barovardan lozim bud.

Az in tavsifi khojagii pulii asrhoi HI–HII va ibtidoi asri HIII munosibathoi khele boravnaqi moliyu pulii onvaqta ravshan megardad. Agar dar in mavrid ba munosibathoi moliyu puli kashida shudani gushahoi durdast, az on jumla, navohii kuhiston ba nazar girifta shavad, dar tarikhi inkishofi munosibathoi moliyu pulii Osiyoi Miyonai asrimiyonagi to chi andoza mavqei khosa doshtani davrai tahqiq kardaistodai mo ayon megardad.

[1]Davidovich E. A., 1960 a, s. 92–117.

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