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MUNOSIBATHOI IJTIMOI-IQTISODI, ZAMINDORII FEODALI. AHVOLI OMMAI HALQ

Aholi. Mahalhoi amorati Bukhoro az jihati joygirshavii aholi yakson nabudand; vodii Zarafshon (Miyonkolot) va Qashqadaryo sernufus va viloyathoi Bukhoroi sharqi nisbatan kamnufus budand. Albatta, dar in qismati amorat vodihoe ham budand, ki nufusi khele ziyod doshtand.

Solhoi 1830-1840 dar Amorati Bukhoro taqriban du million aholi zindagi mekard.

Dar poytakhti amorat – shahri Bukhoro, beshtar yak seyaki tamomi aholii shahrnishini amorat istiqomat menamud. Nufusi asosii in shahr tojikon budand. Ba hisobi soli 1820 onho ba miqdori az chor se hissai tedodi umumii aholii poytakhti amoratro tashkil mekardand. Ba gayri in du khalqi sernufus dar hududi davlati mazkur turkmanho (10 foiz) va yahudiyon zindagi mekardand. Dar bisyor shahru dehot asosan tojikon istiqomat doshtand.

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Dar bisyor nohiyahoi Amorati Bukhoro va khonii Huqand tojikon yakjoya bo uzbekon mezistand. Dar bisyor dehavu shahrhoi uzbeknishin tojikon ham budand. In du khalqi bo ham aloqai khele nazdikdoshtaro robitahoi kheshovandi, madani va iqtisodi muttahid mesokht.

Dar ibtidoi asri XIX 40 foizi aholi odamoni kuchi va nimkuchi budand. Dar okhiri asri mazkur miqdori onho kam shuda, khudi kuchiho az 15 foiz beshtar nabudand.

Umuman meboyad donist, ki dar shahrho faqat dahyaki aholi, hatto az in ham kamtar zindagoni doshtand. Aholii dehot nazar ba shahr chandin barobar ziyodtar bud.

Kishovarzi. Dar Osiyoi Miyona tarzhoi nihoyat oqilonai istehsoloti khojagii qishloq va munosibati obu zamin ba vujud omada, dar amal jori gardida bud. Usuli ziroati obii ba sharoiti khoku iqlimi nohiyahoi gunogun muvofiq istifoda meshud. Dehqonon mehnati khele ziyod sarf namuda, zaminro baroi ziroat omoda mesokhtand. Baroi in kor mardumi kuhiston az zaminhoi korami khud hazorho adad sang jam karda berun mepartoftand.

Dehqononi bezamin yo kamzamini kuhiston baroi ba kisht omoda sokhtani zamini sanglokh majbur budand, ki khokro az digar joy pushtora karda kashonand. Az in zamin tanho yak navbat hosil megiriftand. CHunki barfu boron khoki kashonidai onhoro shusta meburd. Soli duyum dehqon majbur meshud, ki boz az nav khok kashonad.

Bogdori ham shugli oson nabud. Masalan, ba anor dar yak sol az 6 to 10 bor ob dodan lozim meomad. Tiramoh bo mashaqqati ziyod darakhti anoru anjir va toki angurro zeri khok namuda, avvali bahor onhoro az khok berun meovardand. Bo mehnati sakht dehqon biyobonho va sanglokhhoro ba kishtzor tabdil medod.

Oloti mehnat khele soda bud. Bo omoch shudgor mekardand. Sipas bo mola va sikhmola khoki zamini shudgorshudaro mayda va hamvor mekardand. Kaland hamchun muhimtarin va munosibtarini olot vase istifoda megardid. Bo dos darav mekardand. Baroi bod kardan panjshokha va beli chubiro ba kor meburdand. Dar bogdori dastkalla va kajkord istifoda meshud. Dar kuhiston chigina va dar hamvoriho khelhoi gunoguni arobai ducharkha vazifai naqliyotro ado mekard.

Baroi purzur va hosilkhez kardani zamin va kishtzor poru, khoki teppa va kulukhi devori imorathoi kukhnaro khoka karda meposhidand.

Sokht va tarkibi maydonhoi kishti zaminhoi obii bayni nohiyahoi judogona tafriqahoi kalon doshtand. CHunonchi, dar nohiyai Hujand 60 foiz zaminro kishtzori galla (az on nisfash gandum, bad juvori va sholi, kamtar jav va arzan) tashkil menamud. Taqriban 14 foizi maydon az bogu tokzor iborat bud. Pakhtai choydori (guza) 11,5 foiz, yunuchqa 6,4 foiz, obchakori 4,5 foizi maydonro ishgol menamud. Dar mahalhoi ba shahr nazdik beshtar bogdori va obchakori ravnaq meyoft. Dar bogho angur, seb, nok, anor, olu, zardolu, bodom, anjir, tut va gayra parvarish meshudand, ki bo navhoi olii khud shuhrat paydo karda budand. Dar baze nohiyahoi farovonob mavqei asosiro ziroathoi sanoati ishgol menamudand, ki muhimtarini onho pakhta, tamoku, zagir va rastanihoi rangdihanda budand. Vale oloti kishovarzi ba darajai ibtidoi bud. Istifodai obu zamin niz bo usulhoi kuhna surat megirift. Binobar in ba mehnati khele ziyod va mahorati dehqonon nigoh nakarda, samarai kishovarzi khele nochiz bud. CHorvodori taqriban dar tamomi viloyatho taraqqi mekard. Har yak khojagi yakchand chorvo dosht. On aksaran az govu barzagov va buzu gusfand iborat bud. Dar Pomir va digar nohiyahoi kuhi chorvodori sohai asosi bud. CHorvo mardumro bo khurok va pushok tamin mekard.

CHorvodoroni toifahoi nimkuchi va alalkhusus kuchi khususiyati digar doshtand. Ramaho va hamrohi onho aholi yo khud qismi on az yak charogoh ba charogohi digar meguzashtand. Davrai dar charogoh nigoh doshtani chorvo khele murakkab va tuloni bud.

Aholii shahrho dar barobari kasbu hunar va tijorat ba bogdori, angurparvari va umuman zaminkori ham mashgul meshud. Masalan, qismi kaloni aholii shahri Uroteppa sohibi boghoi angur budand. YO khud mashguliyati asosii mardumi Samarqand bogdori, istehsoli abreshim va pakhta bud.

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