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MUQADDIMAI KITOBI TOJIKON

Halqi tojik ba ittihodi buzurgi millathoi sotsialisti, ki Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialistiro tashkil dodaand, dokhil meshavad. Vay hamrohi barodari kaloni khud – khalqi kabiri rus va digar khalqhoi barodari mamlakatamon tahti rohbarii Partiyai Kommunistii Ittifoqi Soveti bo qadamhoi ustuvor ba sui kommunizm pesh meravad.

Az qadimulayyom rishtahoi gusekhtanashavandai dustiyu hamkori khalqhoi Ittifoqi Sovetiro ba ham payvasta, muborizai yakjoyai ziddi zolimon va istilogaron onhoro muttahid sokhtaast. Inro dar timsoli robitahoi tarikhii uzbekho, tojikho, turkmanho, qirgizho, qazoqho, qaraqalpoqho va digar khalqhoi respublikahoi Osiyoi Miyona metavon vozehu ravshan mushohida namud.

Tadqiqi tarikhi khalqi tojik baroi donistani manbahoi ravobiti ananavii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona kumak khohad rasond. Hususan tojikon va uzbekon, ki tashakkuli khalqiyati onho dar asosi umumii najodi qaror giriftaast, bo hamdigar aloqai khele nazdik dorand. CHunon ki uzbekon az sarvati madanii khalqi tojik bahramand megardidand, hamin tariqa, tojikon niz az komyobihoi madaniyati khalqi uzbek fayzyob budand; khususiyati madaniyati moddi, urfu odat, sanat va hunarhoi khalqii tojikon va uzbekon chunon nazdikand, ki goho dar bayni onho farq guzoshtan mumkin nameshavad. Tarikhi davrahoi qadimtarin, qadim va hamchunin davrai asrimiyonagii in khalqho khele shabeh va aksaran yakson buda, ilova bar in sayri taraqqiyoti on dar yak sarzamin ba vuqu payvastaast. Bo vujudi in, du khalq tashakkul yoft, ki imruz ba millathoi sotsialistii tojik va uzbek mubaddal gardidaast.

kitobi_tojikon-180x300Binobar hamin ham omuzish va tahqiqi tarikhi tojikon, sahmi ba khud khosi onho ba ganjinai tamadduni bashari bo omuzish va tahqiqi tarikhi hamai khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, bo oshkor namudani on chi ki onhoro muttahid sokhtaast, aloqai judonashavanda dorad. Dar asosi chunin omuzish reshahoi amiqi tarikhii hamkorii barodaronai khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyonaro muayyan kardan imkonpazir khohad shud.

CHunon ki malum ast, tarikhi tojikon, misli hamai khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, bo tarikhi bisyor khalqhoi sharqi khoriji, qabl az hama, hinduston, Pokiston, Afgoniston, Eron, kishvarhoi arab va yak qator mamlakathoi digar aloqamand ast. Mo — tarikhshinosoni soveti ba robitahoi tarikhii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona va sharqi khoriji, ki onhoro dar muboriza baroi sulh va peshrafti ijtimoi muttahid mesozad, bahoi baland medihem.

Dar asarhoi olimoni burjuazi guzashtai khalqhoi SHarq, az on jumla tojikon, hamchun silsilai beintihoi jangu jidolho va tabadduloti darbori tasvir yofta, beshtar naqlu rivoyatho dar borai podshohon, hokimon va sipahsoloron ovarda meshavand; goh-goh dar bayni in naqlu rivoyatho baze malumoti roje ba tarikhi madaniyatro duchor omadan mumkin ast. Muarrikhoni burjuazi qonuniyati tarikhiro dar in holat yo umuman rad mekunand yo khud az nuqtai nazari idealisti tafsir medihand.

Tamomi hujjat va madrakhoi farovoni oid ba tarikhi Osiyoi Miyona nishon medihad, ki kushishhoi yak qator muarrikhoni burjuazi, az jumla muallifoni ba Vatani soveti khiyonat karda, ba khizmati imperialiston guzashta, ki tarikhi khalqhoi in sarzaminro kholi az ziddiyathoi sinfi va muborizahoi sinfi vonamud karda, onro faqat chun arsai zadukhurd va nizohoi irqu najodhoi mukhtalif ba qalam dodani meshavand, behuda va benatija ast. In qabil muarrikhon bar khilofi dalelhoi ilmi irqro bo khalq ayniyat doda, «nazariya»-i hannotonai mumtozii in yo on irqi «asil»-ro pesh meronand. Dar ayni zamon onho ba yak tipi najodii pomiri-fargoni nisbat doshtani uzbekon va tojikonro inkor mekunand. Umuman kushishi az nuqtai nazari irqiyat tavzeh dodani tarikhi Osiyoi Miyona, hamchunin digar kishvarho, zararnok va az jihati ilmi tamoman beasos ast.

SHarhu bayoni haqiqatan ilmii hodisahoi hayoti ijtimoi, iqtisodi, siyosi va madanii khalqhoi gunogun faqat dar partavi talimoti marksisti-lenini doir ba tarikhi jamiyat imkonpazir megardad. K.Marks mekhanizmi taraqqiyoti jamiyatiro dohiyona muayyan namuda, guftaast: «Odamon dar istehsoloti jamiyatii hayoti khud ba munosibathoi muayyan va zarurii ba irodai khudashon vobastanabudae – ba munosibathoi istehsolie dokhil meshavand, ki in munosibatho ba zinai muayyani inkishofi quvvahoi istehsolkunandai moddii onho muvofiq meoyand. Majmui in munosibathoi istehsoli sokhti iqtisodii jamiyatro, bazisi realiero tashkil mekunad, ki bar boloi in bazis nadstroykai huquqi va siyosi poydor megardad va shaklhoi muayyani shuuri jamiyati ba in bazis muvofiq meoyand. Tarzi istehsoloti hayoti moddi sababgori umuman protsesshoi sotsiali, siyosi va manavii hayot megardad. SHuuri odamon hastii onhoro muayyan namekunad, balki, baraks, hastii jamiyatii onho shuuri onhoro muayyan mekunad. Quvvahoi istehsolkunandai moddii jamiyat dar zinai muayyani inkishofi khud ba munosibathoi istehsolii mavjuda yo khud – ki in faqat ifodai huquqii hamin munosibatho ast – ba munosibathoi molikiyat, ki dar dokhili hamin munosibatho on quvvaho to hol inkishof meyoftand, zid meoyand. In munosibatho, ki peshtar shakli inkishofi quvvahoi istehsolkunanda budand, aknun kishani onho megardand. On goh davrai revolyutsiyai sotsiali faro merasad. Bo tagyir yoftani asosi iqtisodi dar tamomi nadstroykai buzurg ba tavri kamu besh tez tabaddulot ba amal meoyad»[1]. Ilmi marksisti-lenini chunin mavqei muhimi bazis – majmui murakkabi munosibathoi istehsolii in yo on marhalai taraqqiyoti tarikhiro ba asos girifta, qonuni amali mutaqobili bazis va nadstroyka, roli faoli nadstroyka va shaklhoi muayyani shuuri jamiyatii aloqamandii on, madaniyati manavi va moddiro oshkor menamoyad. Behtarin sarvathoi madaniyati manavi va moddi, ki dar davomi hazoron sol az tajribai jamiyatiyu tarikhii insoniyat ruidaand, samarai faoliyati moddi, ilmi va badeii bashariyat, donishi peshqadam, nazariya va shaklhoi mutaraqqii tafakkuri ejodi, yane merosi madani, bo tamomi manihoi umumisotsiologii on chun vasilai muqtadir dar tahavvuloti amiqi jamiyati hozira khizmat mekunad. In ast, ki mo ba omukhtan va tahqiqi amalii guzashtai tarikhii ganii khalqho pardokhta va ba on tajdidi nazar namuda, dar rohi peshrafti haqiqii ijtimoi va tashakkuli shakhsiyati mutanosibi kommunisti az on nerui tozai manavi hosil mekunem.

CHunon ki malum ast, muborizai sinfi quvvai ba harakatovarandai taraqqiyoti tarikhii jamiyati antagonisti meboshad. Az in ru, shuru oshubhoi khalqi har goh jamiyati osiyoimiyonagiro ba larza meovardand. K.Marks va F.Engels navishtaand: «Ozod va gulom, patritsiy va plebey, pomeshik va krepostnoy, usto va shogird — khulosa, zolim va mazlum nisbat ba yakdigar dar antagonizmi doimi budand, muborizai pay dar pai goh pinhoni va goh oshkor meburdand, ki in muboriza hamesha bo aznavsozii revolyutsionii tamomi binoi jamiyati yo bo halokati umumii sinfhoi muborizakunanda anjom meyoft»[2]. Baroi tarikhshinoson chunin nishondodi V.I.Lenin bagoyat muhim ast, ki marksizm ba kashf kardani qonuniyati in hodisahoe, ki «ba nazar pechdarpech va harjumarj menamoyand», roh nishon dod, yane vay nazariyai muborizai sinfiro kashf kard[3]. Ilmi tarikhshinosii soveti guzashtai khalqi tojik va digar khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyonaro mahz az hamin nuqtai nazar tahqiq menamoyad.

hanuz solhoi 20-um roje ba masalahoi judogonai tarikhi madani va siyosii Osiyoi Miyona tadqiqoti ziyode ba miyon omad. Ocherkhoi V.V.Bartold oid ba tarikhi tojikon, qirgizho va turkmanho, asari umdai u «Tarikhi hayoti madanii Turkiston», behtarin asarhoi tarikhi va adabiyotshinosii asosguzori adabiyoti sovetii tojik ustod Sadriddin Ayni, inchunin yak idda tadqiqoti A.A.Semyonov va M.S.Andreev mahz dar hamon vaqt talif va nashr gardida budand.

Dar solhoi 30-yum metodologiyai marksisti dar tadqiqoti tarikhshinoson mavqei asosiro ishgol menamoyad. Donishmandoni tarikh madrakhoi ilmii peshtar badastomadaro az didgohi materializmi tarikhi dubora az nazar meguzaronand (dar in mavrid makhsusan khidmati A.YU.YAkubovskiyro boyad khotirrason kard), makhazhoi nav paydo meshavand, dar hududi Tojikiston nakhustin ekspeditsiyahoi arkheologi ba kor shuru kardand.

Solhoi pas az jang davrai bozyofthoi khele ziyodi makhazhoi mukhtalif va puranvoi tarikhi ba shumor meravad. Dar in davra arkhivhoi qadima, sanadhoi asrimiyonagi, materialhoi oid ba sikkashinosi, arkheologiya, paleoantropologiya, zabonshinosi va gayra ba dast meoyand. hamai in ba amiqtar gardidani tadqiqot va purratar omukhtani qonuniyati protsessi tarikhi imkoniyat faroham meovarad. Dar barobari tadqiqi baze masalahoi alohida tarikhchiyon ba talifi baze asarhoi kaloni monografi va majmuaho sar kardand.

Dar soli 1947 muallifi in satrho asari jambastkunandai «Tarikhi mukhtasari khalqi tojik»-ro talif namuda, khudi hamon sol ba zaboni tojiki va sipas, se marotiba (okhirin bor dar soli 1955) ba zaboni rusi chop karda bud, ki har dafa bo tashehu ilovaho az nav tahrir meyoft. In asar dar asosi tahlili marksisti taraqqiyoti tarikhii khalqi tojikro az davrahoi qadimtarin to soli 1917 ba tavri mukhtasar bayon menamoyad. Ilova bar in muallif dar talif va tahriri asari sejildai kollektivii «Tarikhi khalqi tojik», ki solhoi 1963–1965 dar Moskva az tarafi Akademiyai fanhoi Tojikiston nashr gardid, bevosita ishtirok dosht. Dar solhoi bad u kori khudro dar tadqiqi problemahoi tarikh va madaniyati khalqi tojik davom dod. Materialhoi farovoni badastomada tanzim va tahlilu jambasti khudro taqozo mekardand.

In asar, ki bo unvoni «Tojikon. Tarikhi qadimtarin, qadim va asri miyona» ba diqqati khonanda peshnihod meshavad, az du kitob iborat buda, davrai tuloniro az zamoni paydoishi jamoai insoni dar sarzamini Osiyoi Miyona to galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Oktyabr dar bar megirad.

Kitobi yakum az chor fasl iborat ast. Fasli yakum ba tavsifi sokhti jamoati ibtidoi dar Osiyoi Miyona bakhshida shudaast. Dar fasli duvum hayoti qavmu qabilahoi mukhtalif – ajdodi tojikon dar davrai inkishofi munosibathoi gulomdori tavzeh meyobad. Dar fasli sevum taqdiri tarikhii Osiyoi Miyona dar davrai zuhuri munosibathoi feodali mavridi barrasi qaror giriftaast. Fasli chorum vaziyati Osiyoi Miyonaro dar davrai taraqqiyot va barqarorii sokhti feodali bayon mekunad. Kitobi duvum faslhoi panjum va shashumro dar bar kardaast: fasli panjum tarikhi khalqi tojikro az ibtidoi asri HVI to miyonai asri HIH va fasli shashum az hamrohshavii Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiya va taraqqi yoftani munosibathoi kapitalistiro to galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Oktyabr tavsif menamoyad. Malumoti mukhtasari manbahoi tarikhi, ruykhati adabiyot va makhazhoi iqtibosshuda, fehristi nomhoi tamomi asar dar okhiri kitobi duvum ovarda meshavad. CHun dar in jo nomi asarho ba surati mukammal zikr yoftaand, dar povaraq faqat ba ikhtisorai onho ishora khohad shud.

Muallif, beshak, ba tadqiqi mufassali hamajonibai tamomi masalahoi tarikhi khalqi tojik nakushidaast. Asli maqsadi vay voqea va hodisahoi asosii tarikhiro bo tadqiqi problemahoi khele muhim, murakkab va bazan mubohisavi payvastan ast.

Bisyor jihathoi tarikhi davrahoi qadimtarin, qadim va avvali asri miyonai tojikon holo chunon ki boyadu shoyad omukhta nashudaast, ammo materialhoi nav khele farovonand. Aksar vaqt masalahoi marbut ba in jihathoro ba tavri qati hal kardan imkonpazir namegardad. Binobar in muallif barobari sharhi pragmatii faktho farziyahoi hamkasboni soveti va khorijiro az nazar guzaronida, mushohida va nuqtai nazari khudro sarehan bayon menamoyad. Tabiist, ki dar in surat naql nisbatan tafsil yofta, istinod ba sarchashmaho va ishora ba tadqiqotu nashriyahoi tarikhshinosi, bostonshinosi, sikkashinosi, zabonshinosi, katibashinosi va adabiyotshinosi ziyodtar khohad gardid.

Dar in kitob, ki asosan materialhoi dar osori ilmi ba darajai kofi tavzehyoftaro dar bar megirad, mo ba qadri imkon az takrori muallifoni digar khuddori namudem. CHunonchi, inro dar fasli davrai asri miyona, ki tarikhi siyosi va qisman madanii on tavassuti tadqiqoti chand nasli sharqshinosoni rus va soveti, pesh az hama, V.V.Bartold, A.YU.YAkubovskiy, A.A.Semyonov, E.E.Bertels, P.P.Ivanov va digaron ba tavri mufassal omukhta shudaast, metavon mushohida namud. Ba in sabab istinod va ishorahoi povaraqi in fasl nisbat ba faslhoi digar majmui va khulosavist.

Baze problemahoe, ki dar in kitob mavridi tahlil qaror giriftaand, az inho iboratand: darajai taraqqiyoti madaniyat va iqtisodiyoti Osiyoi Miyona dar asri birinji va robita bo qabilahoi hinduston, Eron va kishvarhoi digar; masalai oriyoi va asosi najodiyu zabonii toifa va khalqhoi qadimai Osiyoi Miyona, hindustoni shimoli, Afgoniston, Eron va dashthoi bayni Evropa va Osiyo; paydoish va inkishofi jamiyati sinfi; zuhur va tahavvuli oini zardushti, sintezi madaniyati Osiyoi Miyonayu Eron, hindustonu YUnoni Qadim; paydoish, khronologiya va madaniyati Kushoniyon. Ba tavsifi sokhti ijtimoiyu iqtisodii Osiyoi Miyonai qadima bobi makhsuse bakhshida shuda, dar barobari tahqiqi tarikhii in problemai murakkabtarin tamomi materialhoi mavjuda, ki hissae az onho nakhustin bor ba in munosibat bardoshta shudaand, ba rishtai tahlil kashida meshavand.

Tarikh va madaniyati avvali asrimiyonagii Takhoriston va Sugd khele batafsil tadqiq shuda, ba tagyiroti progressivii hayoti jamiyat: taraqqiyoti quvvahoi istehsolkunanda va peshrafti favquloddai madaniyati badei bois gardidani paydoish va inkishofi munosibathoi feodali muqarrar karda meshavad. Dar haqiqat ham, Osiyoi Miyona dar davrahoi kushoni, avvali asri miyona va badtar ham yake az muhimtarin markazhoi madanii sharq hisob meyoft.

Dar bobhoe, ki ba poydorshavi va inkishofi munosibathoi feodali bakhshida shudaand, diqqati asosi ba komyobihoi nave, ki ilmi soveti dar davomi ziyoda az du dahsolai okhir dar in soha noil gardidaast, nigaronida meshavad. Dar in jo, pesh az hama, tadqiqi taraqqiyoti quvvahoi istehsolkunanda va munosibathoi istehsoli, qonuniyathoi hayoti iqtisodi va padidahoi muayyani on dar nazar doshta shudaast.

Dar kitob ba oshkor namudani khususiyathoi khosi har yak davra va tadqiqi jarayoni inkishofi sozmonhoi judogonai ijtimoiyu siyosi diqqati makhsus doda shud. Muallif az malumoti rishtahoi gunoguni ilm va sarchashmaho ba tavri vase istifoda burd, ki onho qabl az in chi dar tasviri manzarai umumii tarikh va chi dar tavsifi taraqqiyoti jamiyati Osiyoi Miyonai asrimiyonagi nihoyat kam yo tamoman mavridi istifoda voqe nashuda budand. Madaniyati asrimiyonagii khalqi tojik mukhtasar, vale bo faro giriftani tamomi jabhahoi on: adabiyot, ilm, sanat, hunari memori va madaniyati moddi bayon yoft.

Muallif jarayoni paydoishi qavmu najodhoro niz ba tadqiq girifta, baroi nishon dodani rohi tashakkuli khalqi tojik ba jam va tahlili hamai madrakhoi ba ilmi imruza malumi manbahoi khatti, zabonshinosi, paleoantropologi va antropologi, etnografi va adabiyotshinosi sayu kushish namud. Ba tashakkuli khalqi uzbek ham qismati makhsus bakhshida shud – dar in jo, misli digar qismathoi kitob, natijahoi tadqiqoti hamkasboni uzbekamon, ki mabdai qadimai paydoishi qavmi uzbek, darajai baland va bikriyati madaniyati khalqi uzbekro ba tavri qonekunanda nishon dodaand, mavridi istifodai vase qaror girift.

Dar asar sharhu tafsiri oqibati ba davlati hakhomanishi, imperiyai yunonu maqduni va khilofati arab hamroh karda shudani Osiyoi Miyona, ki dar adabiyoti ilmii mo, az jumla, dar talifoti khudi muallif mavjud budand, to andozae vusat paydo namud. Boyad guft, ki dar in bobat du nav sharhu tafsir mamul ast: yake – sitoishi istilogaron va past zadani saviyai madaniyati khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, ki khosi ilmi burjuazist; digare – tahqiqu tavzehi dar ilmi soveti muqarrarshuda ast, ki dar on az rui insof diqqati asosi ba muborizai ozodikhohonai khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona bar ziddi istilogaron va nishon dodani makhsusiyat va saviyai balandi madaniyati mahallii in sarzamin nigaronida meshavad. Peshtar muborizai ziddi aqidahoi burjuazi va ba onho muqobil guzoshtani sharhu tafsiri marksisti faqat yak qismi in masalaro – asosan voqeahoi siyosiro faro megirift. Ammo jihathoi ijtimoiyu iqtisodii masala dar kanor monda, gayrikofi tadqiq meshud yo nodurust bayon meyoft. Muallif kushish namud, ki ba tadqiqi hamajonibai in masala pardokhta, onro bo materialhoi oid ba munosibat va robitahoi iqtisodi va tarikhiyu madanii khalqho va sintezi madani purratar sozad.

Insoniyat mahz ba tavassuti rivoji istehsolot va madaniyat, mubodilai komyobi, donish va tajribahoi amali ba peshrafti khud noil gardidaast. Muborizai muttafiqonai khalqho, ki dar jarayoni on dusti va barodarii onho ba vujud omada, besh az pesh ustuvor meshud, dar muqobili tokhtutozhoi kharobiovar va goratgaronai urduhoi Iskandari Maqduni, CHingizkhon, Temur va digar istilogaron moneai sakhte gardida bud. hamkori dar rohi peshrafti ijtimoi, aloqahoi musolimatomezi tijoratiyu iqtisodi ba inkishofi sintezi madani musoidat menamud. Ba in mani sanati YUnoni Qadim, sanati Qandahor, ki dar khud behtarin ofaridahoi mardumi hinduston, Osiyoi Miyona, Port va YUnonro payvastaast va adabiyoti arabizabonro bo fazilathoi baynalmilalii on metavon khotirrason kard. Irtiboti nazdik va gani sokhtani madaniyati yakdigar boisi tavlidi sarvathoi mushtaraki madani gardid. Dar ayni zamon ananahoi mahalli, khususiyat va jihathoi ba khud khosi madaniyati khalqho, az on jumla aholii davrahoi qadim va asri miyonai Tojikiston va umuman khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, ki madaniyati oli va ba darajai balandi taraqqiyot rasidaro ba vujud ovardaand, mahfuz mond.

Haritahoi tarikhi az kitobi «Tarikhi khalqi tojik (j. I– II, M., 1963–1964) iqtibos shudaand. Tasvirhoro Ermitaji davlati, Instituti sanatshinosii RSS Uzbekiston, Instituti tarikhi ba nomi Ahmadi Donishi Akademiyai fanhoi RSS Tojikiston, muzei Britaniya, tashkiloti bostonshinosii Fransiya dar Afgoniston va digar muassisahoi ilmii soveti va khoriji va inchunin donishmandoni judogona lutfan dar ikhtiyori muallif guzoshtand.

Talifi asar dar soli 1970 anjom yofta bud. Binobar in, dar on asosan hamon manbaho va tadqiqothoe, ki to okhiri soli 1969 va avvali soli 1970 dastrasi muallif budand, mavridi istifoda qaror giriftand. On chi ki badtar, to avvali soli 1977, ba dast omad, dar nashri tojikii asar qisman istifoda shud.

Nashri rusii kitobro olimoni soveti va khoriji ba neki istiqbol kardand va taqrizhoi ziyod daleli in ast. Vale badi nashri rusii kitob allakay panj sol[4] guzasht, ki in dar ayyomi inkishofi bosurati ilm muddati kam nest. Dar in solho makhazhoi mukhtalif va puranvoi tarikhi paydo shud, arkheologho ham ba bisyor kashfiyothoi behamto noil shudand. Oid ba davrahoi gunogun bisyor asarhoi ilmii tadqiqoti intishor gardidand. Hudi muallif niz tadqiqi hamatarafai masalahoero, ki dar kitob darj shudand, idoma doda, hududi khronologii onro az nimai avvali asri HVIII to galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Oktyabr rasonid. Dar natija zarurat pesh omad, ki baze nuktahoi asar tagyir doda shuda, baze joyhoi on mukammal va baze faslhoi on mufassaltar karda shavad. Vale guftan darkor, ki bandubasti asar tagyir nayoft va faqat ba sababi afzudani hajm kitob ba du qism judo karda shud.

Muallif ba hamai onhoe, ki bo maslihat, ilova va qaydu erodhoi mufidi khud ba u kumak kardand, alalkhusus ba A.E. Bertels, I.S. Braginskiy, E.A. Grantovskiy, E.A. Davidovich, A.M. Mirzoev, I.M. Oranskiy, V.A. Ranov, V. A. Romodin, albatta, ba muhariri nashri rusii kitob B.A. Litvinskiy va muharriri nashri tojikii kitob A. Mukhtorov tashakkuri samimi izhor menamoyad.

[1] K.Marks, F.Engels. Asarho (Nashri duvumi rusi), jildi 13, s.6-7.

[2] K.Marks va F.Engels. Asarho, jildi 4, s. 424.

[3] V.I. Lenin. Asarho, jildi 21, s. 16.

[4] Sarsukhanro B. Uafurov dar avvali soli 1977 navishtaast.

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