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«MUHITI AZAM»

azam«MUHITI AZAM» («Bahri kabir»), kitobi Muhammad Azamkhon ibni SHohazamkhon oid ba tib. S. 1879 ba zaboni forsi-tojiki dar chor jild talif shudaast. In kitob, ki s. 1896 dar Kanpur ba tab rasidaast, 14967 nomi davohoi mufradaro darbar megirad. Muallif ba gayr az doruhoe, ki tavsifashon dar kitobhoi tibbii forsi va arabi sabt yoftaast, dar khususi adviyae niz malumot dodaast, ki dar makhazhoi yunoni, hindi, suriyoni va g. mavjud budand.
Dar avvali muqaddimai kitob gufta meshavad, ki dar vaqti navishtani on 68 asari tibbii qadim mavridi istifoda qaror giriftaast. Az malumoti muqaddima metavon ba khulosa omad, ki talifi kitob taqriban dar s-hoi 1860 – 1865 ba itmom rasidaast, zero on s. 1867 ba registri makhsusi davlati dar bobati nigahdorii huquqi muallif darovarda shuda bud.
«M. a.» asari bisyor muhim meboshad. Dar on zakhirai dorushinosii tibbi peshinai nafaqat forsu tojik, yunoniho va arabho, inchunin malumoti tibbi hindi va qisman avrupoi (asosan anglisi) ovarda shudaand. Dar kitob malumoti tibbi ba se qismi asosi taqsim gashtaand. Dar nazdi nomhoi forsi-tojiki, arabi va yunonii doruho malumoti tibbi yunoni ovarda meshavand. Ammo dar nazdi malumoti hindi (urdui)-i hamon doruho malumoti tibbi hindi va dar nazdi nomhoi anglisi yo lotini – malumoti tibbi avrupoi darj gashtaand. Dar ezohot havola bar asarhoe, ki ba onho istinod shudaast, bisyor dida meshavad. Qimati digari kitob az on iborat ast, ki dar muqaddima dar barobari asoshoi nazariyai tibbi forsu tojik asoshoi tibbi hindi niz bayon meyobad.
Kitob az du maqsad (qism) iborat ast. Maqsadi avval dah fasl dorad: bayoni tarifi davo va gizo; dar khususi mizojhoi adviyai mufrada; shinokhtani kayfiyati darajoti davoho va marotibi onho; marifati quvvahoi adviya bo tajriba; shinokhtani adviyai mufrada ba qiyos, vobasta budani tasiri davoho ba mahal, faslhoi sol, ba badani ashkhosi mukhtalif, tasiri harorat, sardi, khushki, rutubati iqlim ba onho; tasiri davohoi mufrada, sifat va nomhoi onho; bo usulhoi gunogun (jushonidan, kuftan, shustan, tar kardan va g.) sobit namudani adviya; jam va hosil kardani adviya, zakhira kardan va nigoh doshtani on; muhlati nigahdorii baze adviyai mufrada; istilohot va lugathoi tib. Maqsadi duyum ba du fasl judo meshavad: fasli yakumro muallif ba dah manfiat qismat doda, dar onho oid ba azoi badan, kayfiyati inson, akhloti asl va poyai badan, khurdani va nushidani, mulkho va iqlimho, tami gizoho, adviya va manfiati onho malumot medihad. Dar fasli duyum malumot dar borai bayoni vaznho va chenakhoi hindii tib, paydoishi tarikhi afkori tibbii hind, nom va sifathoi umumii davoho va mulohizaho oid ba azoi badan, istemoli gizo va davoho, inchunin zahrho bayon yoftaast.
Dar in asar muallif kushidaast, ki davohoro to haddi imkon ba zaboni soddavu faseh sharh dihad.

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