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MUHAMMADSIDDIQI HAYRAT

YAke az shoironi tavonoi ibtidoi asri XX tojik Muhammadsiddiqi Hayrat ast, ki bo ejodiyoti khud ba adabiyoti davr va minbada tasiri muayyan guzoshtaast. Hayrat soli 1878 dar guzari Arusoni Bukhoro tavallud yoftaast. Nomi shoir Muhammadsiddiq buda, «Hayrat» takhallusi adabii ust. Padari shoir dar masjidi guzari Aruson muazzin buda, baroi tarbiyai pisarash hamatarafa say doshtaast. SHoir dar ovoni haftsolagi az modar va dar duvozdahsolagi az padar yatim memonad. Hayrat dar sinni 15-solagi ba madrasa dokhil shuda, ilmhoi jorii zamonro komilan faro megirad. Vay soli 1895 bo ustod Sadriddin Ayni rafoqat paydo namuda, onho az hamdigar khele bahraho mebarand.

Hayrat az nigohi iqtisodi chandon doro nabud va az in jihat tanqisi mekashid. In ast, ki shoir baroi behbudii holati ijtimoii khesh, soli 1898 ba sifati mirzo, ba khidmati Ashurbek nom dalloli pusti qaroquli dokhil megardad. Az sababi on ki Hayrat bemor shuda bud, soli 1900 bo maslihati dustonu nazdikon baroi tagyiri muhit ba Fargona meoyad. Bemorii shoir vaznin gardida soli 1902 Hayrat az dunyo chashm mepushad.

Hayrat makhsusan bo tasiri maktabi adabii SHarifjon Makhdum nazokati ilmi sherro khele barvaqt az khud menamoyad. Az tarafi digar, muhiti ilmi-adabii shahri Bukhoro niz ba ejodiyoti u tasiri ziyod menamoyad. In ast, ki u ba shergui az ovoni khurdsoli shuru mekunad.

Merosi adabii Hayrat

Muhammadsiddiqi Hayrat hanuz az davroni khurdsoli to tahsili madrasa ba sheru shoiri ru ovarda bud. Ustod Sadriddin Ayni dar in bora menavisad, ki: «… az kamoli istedod va ishqi adabiyot dar khurdsoli ba martabai ustodi rasida bud». Hayrat tavonist dar muddati kutoh az khud ashori ziyode ba yodgor guzorad. Ashori shoirro bad az vafoti u yake az buzurgonu foziloni zamon-Mirzo Abdulvohidi Munzim ba sifati devon murattab namudaast. Ba hamin tariq, devoni ashori Hayrat doroi 2447 bayt buda, az shaklhoi sherii zerin: gazalu qasida, qitavu ruboi, musammati mukhammas, musammati musaddas va g. iborat meboshad.

Dar devoni u gazal nisbat ba shaklhoi digari sheri mavqe dorad. Mavzui markazii ashori Hayrat ishqu oshiqi, shuru valvalahoi botinii inson, sadoi dilhoi labrezi vafodiriyu muhabbat, sadoqatu samimiyat meboshad. Bakhusus gazaliyoti u az in jihat afzaliyati beshtare dorad.

Masalan, gazali zerini Hayrat, ki az nigohi mavzu, mazmunu muhtavo ishqi – vasfi buda, dar on husnu jamoli mahbuba vasf karda meshavad, khele jolib ast. In gazal, ki az har jihat az nigohi khususiyathoi mundarijavi: maniofari, mazmunsozi, intikhobi lafzu nazokati ifoda, hunari korgiri az sanathoi badeii manaviyu lafzi va g. jolib ast.

Az jihati talaboti khususiyathoi shakli ham khele dilnishinu khotirmon meboshad. Zero hatto diqqati ustod S. Ayniro jalb namudaast va ustod in gazalro yake az behtarin gazalhoi sunnati mehisobad. CHunonchi, matni purrai on gazal:

Ay sarv, beibo ba chaman sar kashidai!

Mono, ki sarvi qomati uro nadidai?

Oromi sarvi man buvad az juybori chashm,

Ay sarv, agar tu bar labi ju oramidai.

U sarvi dilbar astu ravon ast dar khirom,

Tu sarvi bebarivu ba kunje khazidai!

 U resha dar dil astu zi dil ob mekhurad,

Tu resha dar gil astivu az gil damidai.

U nozparvar astu buvad shokh-shokhi lutf,

Tu bogparvar, az du- se shokhi buridai.

Hayrat, ziyoda mutakidi sarvi nozi u

Gashti, magar munozirai mo shunidai?

Gazali zikrshuda beshubha khele hunarmandona ejod shudaast. Bunyodi tasviri sheri bolo du sarv buda, yake darakht va digare mahbuba meboshad. Az ibtido to intiho tashbehi bargashtavu tashbehi tafsili ba kor girifta shudaast, to in ki shoir bartarii mahbubaro nishon bidihad. Sarvi chaman, ki az darakhtoni digar dar qadu qomat bartari dorad, iftikhor mekunad. SHoir uro ogoh mesozad, ki fakhri tu bejost, zero az rui tamomi khususiyatu alomathoi muqoisashavanda qomati mahbuba bartari dorad. Hususiyathoi shaklii sheri bolo niz baso jolib va khotirmon ast.

Zero intikhobi kalimahovu iboraho, khususiyathoi tabii darakhtu inson, jobajoguzori, mantiqi badeii sukhan va gayra radifro talab namekunad. Vale kalimahoi qafiyashavanda: kashidai, nadidai, oramidai, khazidai, damidai, buridai, shunidai niz bozyofti shoirand. Onho khele khub «chinda» shudaand. Dar kalimahoi hamqofiya reshai qofiya – idai buda, harfi ravi «d» meboshad. Az in ru, qofiyahoi gazali bolo mutlaq meboshand.

Az nigohi vazn niz gazali mazkur nisbatan dilnishin ast, zero dar bahri Muzorei musammani akhrabi makfufi mahzuf yo maqsur insho shudaast. Afoili on chunin shakl dorad:

  • – V/ – V – V / V – – V / – V –
  • – V/ – V – V / V – – V / – V –

YAne: mafulu, foilotu, mafoilu, foilun

Hayrat shoiri gazalsarost va dar in hunar khele panjai qavi dorad. U gazalhoi taqlidkorona ham dorad, vale dar taqlid ham na har kas muvaffaqiyat paydo karda metavonad. Masalan, ba gazali mazkuri Hayrat agar tavajjuh karda shavad, khele hunarmandona ejod karda shudaast:

CHashm andozam, ki on gulpirahan yodam kunad,

 Gush yak dam az tarahhum sui faryodam kunad.

CHand bosham az firoqash banda bo ohu figon,

Kosh suyam yak nazar on sarvi ozodam kunad.

 Z-on labi shirinlabe shirin nashud, okhir maro,

Hamnishini kuhi gam monandi Farhodam kunad.

Hoki rah gardidaam bore ba rohi tavsanash,

YAk nigah az lutf yo yakbora barbodam kunad.

Abruyash tiri gazab har lahza bar dil mezanad,

Nargisi mastash ba jon sad fitna ejodam kunad.

Zahr menusham zi jomi dida az sahboi ashk,

SHoyadam jomi may on mah nush bar yodam kunad.

 Zoru mahjuru hazinam, Hayrat, az hijroni u,

Bar umed on mah zi vasli khesh dilshodam kunad.

Dar gazali zikrshuda istedodi voqeii Hayrat, hunari voloi u, donishu jahonbini, tabu tavoni sukhanvarii vay boz ham beshtar oshkor meshavad. CHashm andokhtan-kinoya az pindoshtan, ba umed budan va gulpirohan-istiora, zero tashbehshavanda nest va tanho tashbehkunanda zikr shudaast. Gush sui faryod kardan- gapi kasero giriftan, rozi shudan ba fikri kase; hamnishini kuhi gam budan-gamshariki; abru-tiri gazab va g. Gazali bolo ishqi buda, hadafi shoir shikoyat az hajri yor, firoqu duri ast. Oshiq mushtoqi visol ast, vale mahbuba gazabnoku badqahr meboshad.

Az nigohi hunari ejod niz gazali zikrshuda khub ejod shudaast. Gazal doroi radifi sodda buda, kalimai kunad ba haysi radif ovarda meshavad. Radif tanho az takidi mano iborat nabuda, beshtar bori goyavi mekashad. Gazal bo taqozoi qofiya ham jolib buda, dar on kalimahoi yodam, faryodam, ozodam, Farhodam, bodam, ejodam, yodam, dilshodam hamqofiyaand. Az jihati navhoi qofiya boshad, qofiyahoi gazali mazkur mutlaq ast, zero pas az ravi («d») unsurhoi digari qofiya omadaand. Hadafi shoir az istifodai chunin tarzi qofiya bayoni holati peshomada meboshad.

Dar ejodi gazal shoir az bahri Ramal istifoda kardaast. In ast, ki gazal dar bahri Ramali musammani mahzuf talif shudaast. Afoili vazni hosilshuda chunin ast:

  • V – – / – V – – / – V – – / – V –
  • V – – / – V – – / – V – – / – V –

YAne: foilotun, foilotun, foilotun, foilun.

Namunahoi dar bolo ovardashuda daleli onand, ki ashori Hayrat dar adabiyoti zamoni khud nisbat ba digar muosiron az har jihat bartari dorad.

Dar gazaliyoti Muhammadsidiqi Hayrat mavzuhoi tanqidi, hajvi khele ziyodand. Masalan, u zohidro khele sarzanish menamoyad:

Zohid az dayr ba masjid zada sayi botil,

Kist in gumshudaro dar rohi Haq gardonad.

Harfi imruzi tu bo moh hamagi kinu jafost,

Hud muallim zi vafo kosh sabaq gardonad.

YAke az khususiyathoi jolibi gazaliyoti Hayrat az on iborat ast, ki hatto mavzuhoi ishqi niz tobishi hazlu shukhi giriftaand.

CHunonchi:

Mo ba uzlat murda, yodi dilsitoni mo ba khayr,

Barnamegirad khabar, sarvi ravoni mo ba khayr.

YOdi u dorem ahde, hej yodi mo nakard,

YOdi beparvodili nomehruboni mo ba khayr!

Mo ba fikri on ki dorad yor fikri holi mo,

Borakallah fikri movu ham gumoni mo ba khayr.

Nuqli majlis har kujo zikri pareshonii most,

Mo ba khud jamem, asrori nihoni mo ba khayr!

U nameraftast khud juz dar rahi sharri raqib,

YOdi choqi kardayu chutu nishoni mo ba khayr.

Hostem az lali u yak harfevu rasvo shudaem,

Dar bari yoroni derin imtihoni mo ba khayr.

Gazali zikrshuda andake tamoili hazlomez dorad. Oshiq-qahramoni liriki hamono giriftori hijron ast, vale mahbuba khele beparvodilu nomehrubon meboshad.

In ast, ki oshiq uro: ahsant, meguyad. Ahsanti guftai u manii zohiran ofarinro dorad. Mahz bori goyavi bardoshtani radifi murakkabi «mo ba khayr», tobishi hazlangezi maqsadi qahramoni lirikiro tamin kardaast. Az in ru, shoir onro ba haysi radif barguzida, to ba okhiri gazal ba kor mebarad.

Az nigohi hunari shoiri niz gazali dar bolo ovardashuda khele hunarmandona ast. SHoir az sanathoi badeii tanosubi sukhan, istiora, majoz, kinoya, tashbeh, muboliga, tazod, tavsif va g. khele uhdabaroyona istifoda mebarad.

Az jihati khususiyathoi shakli niz in gazal khub ast. CHunon ki qablan ishora raft, shoir dar in gazal radifi murakkabro ba kor mebarad, to in ki bori goyavii hadafro vaznintaru tasirbakhshtar namoyad.

Qofiyahoi gazal kalimahoi dilsiton, ravon, nomehrubon, gumon, nihon, nishon, imtihon, jon… buda, qofiyahoi muqayyad meboshand, zero badi harfi ravi («n») unsuri digar ishtirok nadorad.

Gazali bolo dar bahri Ramali musammani maqsur ejod shudaast. Afoili vazni mazkur chunin shakl dorad:

  • V – – / – V – – / – V – – / – V ~
  • V – – / – V – – / – V – – / – V ~

YAne: foilotun, foilotun, foilotun, foilon.

Hayrat dar ejodiyoti khud makhsusan dar ejodi gazal ba shoironi peshina payravi kardaast. U ba ashori Sadi, Badruddini Hiloli, Mushfiqi beshtar payravi mekunad. Hususan dar munosibat ba obrazi lirikii mahbuba Hayrat asosan ba Hiloli va ejodiyoti u ru meorad. Baroi namuna ba in gazali Muhammadsiddiqi Hayrat murojiat menamoem, ki khele hunarmandona rui kor omadaast. Albatta, suzu gudoz dar gazaliyoti Hiloli va nazokati ifodai juziyoti tasvirhoi liriki dar shevai ejodi u afzaliyati tom dorad. CHunonchi:

Ay munisi dil, dush tu mehmoni ki budi?

Dil be tu ba jon omadu jononi ki budi?

Mast az mai ishqat manu bo gayr zadi jom,

Ranjuri tu man budamu darmoni ki budi?

Hamsuhbati agyorivu yak bor nagufti,

Bo khud, ki qarini dili biryoni ki budi?

Burdi tu, qaror az manu oromi ki gashti?

Murdam zi firoqi tu, bigu, joni ki budi?

Az giryai man kishtii aflok ravon gasht,

Ay ruhi ravon, lubati khandoni ki budi?

Bore nakashidi zi dilam khori chaforo,

Bo orazi gul sarvi gulistoni ki budi?

Hanjar ba kafu mast pai qatli tu omad,

Hayrat, binigar zakhmii paykoni ki budi?

Gazali mazkur payravi boshad ham, baso uhdabaroyona va hunarmandona ast. Mavzui gazali bolo ishqi buda, bemehri, jafokori, beparvoi, berahmi, sitamgori, zolimi, besabri, dilsardi, bevafoi dar simoi mahbuba mavridi tasvir qaror dorad. Oshiq boshad baraks: bovafo, bomuhabbat, purtoqatu pursabr, jafokashu rahmdil, khushmuomilavu khushsukhan ast. Oshiq az mahbuda shikva kunadu nolad ham, amalhoi u az sidqi dil nest. Zero u sidqan mahbubaro dust medorad. Ruzgori kheshro be mahbubaash hej mehisobad.

Mahbubaro barobari jon pazmon ast. In ast, ki bunyodi mavzuii gazal ishqi buda, hijron, firoq, duri az visol, kanoragiri asosi onro faroham ovardaast. Az in ru, shoir baroi tasirnoki, dilchaspi, gushnavozi dar korgiri az khususiyathoi shakli, unsurhoi yovari mazmunsozi khele khub hunarnamoi mekunad. Guftan mumkin ast, ki hunarmand ast.

Istifodai radif dar gazali bolo khele jolib buda, shoir baroi tasirnokii bayon radifi murakkabro istifoda burdaast. Albatta, dar gazali Hiloli in jihati bayon boz hunarmandonatar ast. YAne radifi murakkabi «ki budi?» bori goyavi ba dush doshta, suoli oshiq bar mahbuba meboshad.

Kalimahoi qofiyashavanda niz joliband: mehmon, jonon, darmon, biryon, jon, khandon, guliston, paykon dar gazali bolo hamqofiyaand va ba vositai bandaki izofii «i» miyoni radifu qofiya irtiboti zaboni surat giriftaast. Az sui digar, mantiqi ifoda niz khele baland arzyobi shudaast.

Qofiyashavandahoi bolo az nigohi navhoi qofiya muqayyad buda, pas az ravi («n») harfi vasl naomadaast. In unsur baroi nizomi kalimaho va rabti misrahovu baytho to tamomiyati gazal, bo tamin namudani ohangnoki idoma mekunad.

Az nigohi istifodai vazn niz gazali bolo khele jolib va dilkash ast. Gazal dar bahri Hazaji musammani akhrabi makfufi mahzuf (yo maqsur) insho shudaast, ki afoili on dar chunin shakl somon yoftaast:

– – V / V – – V / V – – V / V – – ( V – ~)

YAne: mafulu, mafoilu, mafoilu, faulun.

Ba hamin tariq, Hayrat ba vositai ashori lirikii khud va makhsusan gazaliyotash ba adabiyoti nimai asri XIX va va ogozi sadai XX va hamchunin ba adabiyoti muosiri tojik nufuzi sudmande rasonidaast. Sahmi u dar ganovati tajribai ejodi, hunari shoiri, sanati maniofari, juziyoti tasvirsoziho, korgiri az radifsozivu qofiyayobi va hamchunin boigarii tarkibi lugaviyu fondi leksikai zaboni adabi va gayra nihoyat buzurg ast.

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Oid ba ovoni javonii Muhammadsiddiqi Hayrat chi medoned?
  2. SHinosii Hayrat bo ustod Ayni kay va chi guna surat giriftaast?
  3. Tahsili ibtidoi va madrasavii Hayrat dar kujo guzashtaast?
  4. Merosi adabii mahfuzmondai Hayratro nombar kuned.
  5. Mavzu va mazmunu muhtavoi lirikai Hayratro naql kuned.
  6. Hususiyathoi hunarii gazaliyoti Muhammadsidiqi Hayratro sharh dihed.
  7. Gazali «Ay sarv, beibo ba chaman sar kashidai»-ro azyod kuned va khususiyati obrazhoi liriki-hardu sarvro bayon kuned.
  8. Mazmun va mundarijai goyavii gazali «CHashm andozam, ki on gulpirohan yodam kunad»-ro naql kuned.
  9. Gazali «Mo ba uzlat murda yodi dilsitoni mo ba khayr» – ro az nigohi manivu mazmun va hunari shoiri sharh dihed.
  10. Maqomi Hayrat dar rushdi adabiyoti davr va anvoi judogonai sher chi guna ast?
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