Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / MUHAMMADSHARIF GULHANI

MUHAMMADSHARIF GULHANI

Adibi zullisonayn, shoir va navisanda Muhammadsharifi Gulkhani dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik ham dar shaklhoi gunoguni nazm va ham dar nasr mavqei namoyon dorad. Nomi adib Muhammadsharif va takhallusi adabii u «Gulkhani» buda, dar in bora Fazlii Namangoni dar «Majmuai shoiron» meguyad:

imagesHusho, Gulkhani shoiri purfan ast,

CHi gulkhan, ki zebotar az gulshan ast.

Zi devonakhuivu otashfani,

Takhallus nihoda ba khud «Gulkhani»

Gazalho navishta latifu ravon,

Ba dasturi alfozi kuhiston.

Ki budand ajdodi u dar diyor,

Pisandidai mardumi kuhsor.

Gulkhani zodai dehai Bulqosi Qarotegin buda, taqriban solhoi 70-umi asri XVIII ba dunyo omadaast. U solhoi 90-umi asri XVIII ba shahri Namangon meravad. Az sababi tangii maishi shoir tahsilro purra faro girifta nametavonad. Badho bo farmoni amir ba kasbi sipohigari jalb karda meshavad. Sipohigari baroi Gulkhani hamchun maktabi hayoti bisyor masalahoi gunoguni ruzgoru zindagiro yod medihad va shoir az in maktabi hayoti bahraho bardoshtaast. Pas az chande Gulkhani ba darbori Umarkhon roh meyobad va ba doirai adabii Quqand mepayvandad. U tadrijan ba amir Umar tavajjuh paydo namuda, in hokimro odil va sakhovatpesha nom mebarad va madh mekunad. Vale bo mururi vaqt mebinad, ki pindorash khatost, zero ba mehnati shoir ba nazari khayrkhohona nigoh namekunad:

Hunar harchand in jo metarovad az har angushtam,

Zi bakhti noraso kore nadorad bo zar angushtam.

Muhammadsharif ba sher tavajjuhi ziyod doshta, khele barvaqt ba ejodi on mayl kardaast. U dar ibtido «Gulkhani» takhallus intikhob karda budaast. Sarchashmaho inchunin takid menamoyand, ki u badho ba khud takhallusi «Jurat»-ro munosib medonad va bo in takhallus ejod mekunad.

Fazlii Namangoni («Majmuai shoiron») oid ba takhassuli avvalini Muhammadsharif va shakhsiyati u bahs ba miyon ovarda meguyad:

Zi mulki kuhiston buvad Gulkhani,

Kunad pahlavoni zi nerumani.

Ba dargohi sultoni getipanoh

Havokhoh ham shoiru ham sipoh.

Umuman zindagii shoir chandon muvofiqi maqsad nabuda, dar ashori mahfuzmondaash niz doir ba in jihat ishorahoi farovoni khudi adib va sarchashmanigoron ba mushohida merasad. Masalan baze ishorahoi Fazli niz bisyor lahzahoi zindagii ijtimoii Muhammadsharifro ravshan mesozad:

Sipohigari kard, rohat nadid,

Ki osoish az ranju mehnat nadid.

Muruvvat nakardi ba holash amir,

Base benavoi kashid on faqir.

Ki az tangdasti ba jon omadi,

Zi bemoyagi dar figon omadi.

Poyoni umri Muhammadsharifi Gulkhani dar Quqand guzashta, ba davroni hukmronii Muhammadalikhon (1822-1842) rost omadaast. In amiri betadbir ba qatli Gulkhani farmon dodaast. Vafoti shoir ba hamin tariq, solhoi 1826-1827 ittifoq aftodaast.

Merosi adabii Gulkhani

CHunon ki qablan takid shud, Gulkhani bo du zabon-tojiki va uzbeki, dar du navi adabi: nazm va nasr az khud andak boshad ham, merosi adabii purmuhtavo ba yodgor guzoshtaast. Holo az in adib chand gazalu yak qasida va yak qissai tamsili bo nomi «Zarbulmasal» ba zaboni uzbeki malum ast. YAne aniqtarash 12 gazalu yak qasida va az 12 gazal 7-to ba zaboni tojiki va 5 to ba zaboni uzbeki ejod gardidaast:

Faoliyati adabii Muhammadsharifi Gulkhani hangomi tahsil va sipohigari bo ejodi sherhoi liriki ogoz gardidaast.

Muhammadsharif bo takhallushoi «Gulkhani» va «Jurat» ejod kardaast. Mavzui gazaliyoti Gulkhani sunnati buda, ishqu isyonhoi botinii inson, vasfi husnu jamoli mahbuba, nozu iftikhori u, sadoqati oshiqu bemehrii mashuqa, bardi hijronu suzi firoq va gayra meboshad. YAke az mavzuhoi dustoshtavu markazii ashori shoir hajvu istehzo, tamaskhuru tanqid ast. Vale dar har surat dar gazalhoi shoir ishqu masoili digari ijtimoi beshtar mavqe dorad. CHunonchi:

Ay buti shirinlabu simintanu ranginqabo,

Poy to sar jilvai makru fanu nozukado.

Mazhari javru jafovu zulm, ham bedodu kin

Dar sipehri dilraboi mohi bemehru vafo.

Mubtaloi kholu zulfu orazu chashmi tu bud,

Hinduvu kashmiriyu rimivu turkoni Hito.

Z-otashi shami rukhat parvona besabru shikeb

Husn – sarkash, ishq – golib, man – zabun, dil – benavo.

Gar naboshad yodi mijgonat ba dasti u aso.

Az tapidanhoi dil dar gush meoyad sado.

Zindagiho ba ragmi dahr to kay

Gulkhani CHand gui yor berahmu falak nooshno.

Gazali mazkur az rui mavzu va mazmunu muhtavo ishqi, ijtimoi, shikvoi buda, bemehrivu berahmiii mahbuba, makkorivu jafopeshagii u ba tasvir omadaast.

Az nigohi hunari ejod niz gazali bolo khub ast. SHoir az sanati tanosubi sukhan, tavsif, tashbeh, muboliga, tazod, istiora, kinoya, majoz, jamu taqsim, nido va gayra nisbatan khub kor girifta shudaast.

Az nigohi khususiyathoi shakli niz gazal nisbatan jolib ejod gardidaast. SHoir dar in gazal radifro ba kor naburda, dar on kalimahoi ranginqabo, nozukado, vafo, khito, benavo, aso, sado, nooshno hamqofiya shudaand. Az nigohi navhoi qofiya, kalimahoi qofiyashuda bo ravi «o» tamom shudaan va az in ru, shakli qofiya muqayyad ast.

Gazal dar bahri ramali musammani mahzuf yo maqsur insho gardidaast, ki afoili on chunin meboshad:

– V – – / – V – – / – V – – / – V – (yo khud: – V ~)

yane: foilotun, foilotun, foilotun, foilun yo in ki foilon.

Muhammadsharifi Gulkhani umuman dar hunari gazalsaroi chandon bad nest, zero ejodiyoti in shoir niz dar zaminai sunnati niyoi zuhur kardaast.

Az gazalhoi mahfuzmondai tojikii u malum meshavad, ki shoir gazalhoi ishqii khudro bo ohanghoi bisyor qavii ijtimoi dar omekhtagi ejod namudaast:

Gudozu suzu dardu dog z-inson bar man ast imshab,

CHu sham egozu anjomi man az khud raftan ast imshab.

Zi man ummedi naqdi dinu dil digar buvad nodir,

CHarogi korvonam gui chashmi rahzan ast imshab.

Bayozi gardani soqi tajalligohi mahfil shud,

Gilemi turi moro gui vodi Eman ast imshab.

Zi poyam barfikandi, po ba poyat man sarafkandam,

Barafkan parda az rukhsor, afkan-afkan ast imshab.

Kulah bishkast soqi, muhtasib paymonai mayro,

Tu bishkan farqi on badkhuy, bishkan-bishtan ast imshab.

Ba imshab-imshab dodi navidi vasl dere shud,

Hanuzam gush dar rohi tu chashmi ravzan.

Gazali bolo doroi shash bayt buda, az nigohi mazmunu muhtavo ishqi- ijtimoi nest. Zero sham barin sukhtamu az khud guzashtan va fururavi ba khotiri tajallii mahfil ifodahoi sufiyona meboshad. Janbai hunarii gazal niz chandon bad nest. SHoir az sanathoi badeii tanosubi sukhan, tashbeh, majoz, kinoya, istiora, muboliga, tazod, tavsif, talmeh va gayra khub kor giriftaast.

Az nigohi khususiyathoi shakli niz gazali zikrshuda jolib ast: Gazal muraddaf buda, kalimahoi «ast imshab» radif ast, zero az ogoz to anjom takror meshavad. Radifi mazkur murakkab meboshad, zero az du kalima iborat ast. Kalimahoi radifshuda bori goyavii sherro bar uhda giriftaand.

Dar gazali zikrshuda kalimahoi man, raftan, rahzan, Eman, afkan, ishkan, ravzan hamqofiya shudaand. Az sababi on ki qofiyashavandaho bo harfi ravi «n» ba okhir merasand, in navi qofiyaro qofiyai muqayyad meguyand.

Az nigohi vazn, gazali zikrshuda dar bahri hazaji musammani solim ejod gardidaast, ki afoili on chunin ast:

V – – – / V – – – / V – – – / V – – –

yane, mafoilun, mafoilun, mafoilun, mafoilun.

Dar ashori Muhammadsharifi Gulkhani hajvu istehzo, mazammatu tanqid niz maqomi makhsus dorad. In janba ham dar nazm va ham dar nasr ba khubi mushohida karda meshavad. Masalan, shoir bo radifi bideh

gazale dorad, ki qofiyavu radif dar on na tanho vazifai khushohangivu khotirmoni, ravoniyu dilnishini, jolibiyu jazzobi dorad, balki besh az on bori goyaviyu manoi mekashad.

CHunonchi:

Hazratam, az gushnagi murdam, ba man nunam bideh,

Kofiram, guyam agar inam bideh, unam bideh.

Gandumu moshu birinjam deh, ki darkori hamust.

Man nameguyam aqiqu lalu marjunam bideh, Bar tanam yak log

doru ishkamam pur kun zi nun,

Bo tu, billah, man nameguyam, ki imunam bideh.

Az tihidasti agar nukor murad hayf ast, hayf,

Ay, tabibi hoziqi nukar, tu darmunam dihed.

CHuma dehu nun, zi ranju foqa megardon khalos,

Kay turo guftam, ki bar man ganji Qorunam bideh.

Az taguyoni darat kas nest chun man beasos,

Havlivu bogu sarovu qasru ayvunam bideh.

Gulkhaniro ay qaturi bachchamardon kam madon,

Futtavu shofam bideh, aspam bideh, tunam bideh.

Hususan bori goyaviyu mavzui va manoivu mundarijavi bar dush doshtani radif dar gazali bolo, az on ham malum megardad, ki dar misrai intihoii gazal, kalimai radifshuda bideh se dafa takid karda meshavad. YAne maqsadi shoir az zikri ashyoi zaruri hamin ast, ki bo on ehtiyoj dorad. Az in ru, in kalima, ki ehtiyoji qahramoni lirikiro qone megardonad.

Az nigohi hunari, albatta, in jolib ast. Az tarafi digar, janbahoi digari hunarii sher, masalan, korgiri az sanathoi badei ham khele pisandida meboshad. SHoir az sanathoi badeii tanosubi sukhan, nido, tazod, muboliga, majozu kinoya, tavsif, tashbehu istiora va gayra khub istifoda kardaast.

Hususiyathoi shaklii gazal niz khele jolib ast. SHer muraddaf buda, chunon ki ishora kardem, kalimai bideh qofiya qaror doda shudaast. In kalima ejodiyoti nombarkardai adibro faro megirad. Az in ru, bori hadafi niz bar uhda dorad. Radifi sodda ast.

Qofiyahoi gazali mazkur: nunam, unam, marjuam, im unam, darmunam, qorunam, ayvunam va gayra meboshad.

Az nigohi sokhtor qofiyahoi intikhobshuda mutlaq buda, pas az ravi «n» unsurhoi digar niz hast:

Vazni gazal niz jolib ast. On dar bahri ramali musammani mahzuf yo maqsur ejod shudaast. Az nigohi afoil on chunin ast:

– V – – / – V – – / – V – – / – V – (yo – V ~) yane: mafoilun, foilotun, foilotun yo in ki – V ~ meboshad.

Umuman, lirikai Gulkhani az nigohi mazmunu muhtavo va mavzui ishqi, ijtiomi va hajvi buda, dar on unsurhoi shevai guftuguii mardumoni kuhistoni tojik khele mavqe dorad.

«Zarbulmasal»: mavzu va mazmunu muhtavoi on.

Hajvu istehzo va tanqid yake az mavzuhoi jovidonai adabiyoti badeist. In sunnati adabi dar adabiyoti okhiri asri XVIII va ogozi asri XIX bud. Mahz chunin talaboti hayot dar on ruzgor «Zarbulmasal»-i Gulkhani barin asarhoi javobgui davrro ba miyon ovardaast.

«Zarbulmasal»-i «Gulkhani asari nasrat-tamsili buda, hadafi navisanda az ejodi asar be vosita tanqidi saltanati amir Umarkhon nabudaast. In asari mansuri Gulkhani ba zaboni uzbeki talif shudaast. Muallif asosan az hikoyoti «Kalila va Dimna» khele khub istifoda boshad ham, bunyodi khati sujai asar bar yak hikoyat «Makhzan-ul-asror» guzoshta shudaast. Dar hikoyai Nizomi sajarai du bumro mushohida namudani Anushervon tasvir karda meshavad. YAne dar vayronae du bum ba ham sajara mekardand. Zero bume ba nazdi bumi digare bo maqsadi khostgori omadaast. Mekhohed baroi pisari khud dukhtari bumi digarro khostgori kunad. Ba hamin tariq, dar hamin holat az nazdi hamon makoni vayrona Anushervon bo vaziri donishmandi khud Buzurgmehri Bakhtakon megu zoshtand. Anushervon sajarai bumhoro mushohida namuda az vazirash mepursad, ki gush kun, to on du parranda dar borai chi suhbat dorand? Buzurgmehr lahzae ba sajarai bumho gush doda, az maqsadi onho bokhabar gardida, ba Anushervoni odil meguyad, ki onho farzandoni khudro khonador kardan mekhohand. Bum baroi shirbahoi dukhtarash panjoh hazor dehi vayrona talab karda istodaast. Bumi digar ba shumo ishora namuda guft, ki: -Agar hamai shakhs shoh boshad, sad hazor dehai kharob khoham dod.

-Anushervoni javobi buzurgmehrro shunida khele mutaassir meshavad, ki holo ham dar siyosati peshgiriftai man usuli mamlakatdorii man, nuksonho ziyod budaand. Boyad az pai islohi nuqsonho shud…

Gulkhani dar hamin zaminga suhbati du kabutari qudoshavandaro zikr namuda, ba in vosita amir Umarkhonro odilu adolatparvar nishon medihad.

Obrazhoi amalkunandai asari Gulkhani namoyandagoni tabaqahoi gunoguni jamiyat buda, navisanda nuqsonhoi onhoro khele soddavu oddi fosh mesozad. Qahramonhoi asar jonvarhoi gunogun va beshtar parrandaho meboshand. Obrazhoi tansilii asar: Boyugli, YApaloqqush, Qurqush, Malikshohin, Hudhud, SHurnul va gayra buda, har kadom khislatu kharakter, raftoru kirdor, munosibatu guftori ba khud khos dorand.

Dar markazi asar amaliyoti qudogii YApaloqqush va pisari u Qulankir sulton va inchunin Buyugli va dukhtari zeboi vay Gunashbonu meistand.

Muallif pisaru padarro, ki ahli mehnatand, jonibdori mekunad. Malikshohin az khizmathoi Qulankir khub rozi ast. Vale Boyugli mardi magrur, khudpisand, havobaland va inchunin mumsik ast. Az in jost, ki u yapaloqqushu pisari uro pisand namekunad. Hatto YApaloq kujovu man kujo? – meguyad.

Agar sukhan dar borai shakhsiyathoi siyosii davr, ruhoniyon, amaldoroni muosirash ravad, adib ba obrazhoi tamsili: parrandaho, jonvarhoi digarro ba kor megirad. Agar sukhan dar borai tabaqahoi digari ijmoi: savdogaro, muftiho, baqqolon, sudkhurdho ravad, Gulkhani nomi haqiqii onhoro ba kor mebarad. CHunonchi Said Azimjoni Sufi, Muhammad Qosim – dalloli rangfurush, Muhammad Aminkhujai Mufti va digaron, ki har kadom bo nomu kasbu peshaashon zikr shudaand. Usuli korburdi hikoyaho va hikoyasozi dar asari Gulkhani va «Kalila va Dimna» monand ast. Masalan, «Qurqushi khostgor dar huzuri Boyugli hikoyati Muhammadqosimi dalloli rangfurushro naql mekunad:

-Quqush guft: Omadi sukhanoni tu ba Muhammadqosimi daloli rangfurush monand ast, ki yak ruz baroi devorzani mardikor andokhtaast.

Dar vaqti namozi asr, hangomi tahorat ba mardikor nigoh karda istoda taqiyashro ba obi ravon aftonda ast. U girifta tanavonista tavonashro az mardikor giriftani shudaast. Bad az kor mardikor muzd talab kardaast. Muhammadqosim toqii man se tanga bud, toqii tu bazur yak tanga ast. Bo yak tangai muzdi korat du tanga meshavad. Haqqi yak tangai man dar gardani tust. Zero man ba tu nigoh kardam va toqiyam ba ob aftod. Aknun tovoni onro tu medihi. Boz yak ruzi digar kor karda deh. Dar in hikoya obrazi dallol – manfi ast, ki ba obrazi musbat – mardikor muqobilguzori shudaast. Dar asar porchahoi sheri va hikoyahoi khurd-khurd manzkhum niz ziyodand. Az jumla hikoyoti «Sangpusht» va Kajdum» (nasri), «Maymuni najjor» (manzum) meboshand. Umuman Gulkhani az hikoyoti klassikoni digari tarikhi adabiyot istifoda kardaast:

Muhim on ast, ki asari Gulkhani baroi soddabayoni va maktabi vuquguii minbadai (devori shuravi) adabiyoti tojik zaminai khub faroham ovard.

Savol va suporishho:

1.Oid ba ovoni javonii Gulkhani chi medoned?

  1. Sababi ba darborho roh yoftani Gulkhaniro sharh dihed.
  2. Poyoni umri Gulkhani chi guna sipari shudaast?
  3. Az osori aabii Gulkhani chiho boqi mondaand?
  4. Kadom takhallushoi aabii shoirro medoned?
  5. Mazu va mazmuni gazalhoi Gulkhaniro bayon namoed.
  6. Gazali «Ay buti shirinlabu simintanu rangqabo»-ro azyod kuned.
  7. Mazmuni gazali «Hazratam, az gushnagi murdam ba man nunam bided»-ro naql kuned.
  8. Mazmunu muhtavo va khususiyathoi judogonai «Zarbulmasal»-ro bayon namoed.

10.Obrazhoi tamsilii asar va manii ijtimoii onhoro sharh dihed.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

kitobi-arabi

QORI RAHMATULLOHI VOZEH

YAke az shoironi tavonoi adabiyoti nimai duyumi asri XIX tojik Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh buda, soli …