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MUBODILAI AVTOTROFII MODDAHO (Fotosintez va Hemosintez)

Avtotrofho organizmhoe meboshand, ki az hisobi payvastagihoi gayriorganiki gizo (energiya) megirand. Ba onho baze bakteriyaho va hamai rastanihoi sabz dokhil meshavand. Vobasta ba kadom manbai energiyaro baroi sintezi payvastagihoi organiki istifoda burdanashon organizmhoi avtotrofiro ba du guruh – fototrofho va khemotrofho judo menamoyand.

Baroi fototrofho manbai energiya rushnoi buda, khemotrofho energiyaero, ki dar vaqti reaksiyahoi oksidu barqarorshavi judo meshavad, istifoda mebarand. Hamai rastanihoi sabz fototrof meboshand. Bo yorii khlorofill, ki dar khloroplastho mavjudand, onho ravandi fotosintez (ba energiyai bandhoi khimiyavi tabdil dodani energiyai rushnoi)-ro ba vujud meorand. Fotosintez – ravandi khele murakkab meboshad.

fotosintez

Fotosintez. Az hisobi istifodai energiyai nuri oftob bo ishtiroki pigmenti sabzi khlorofill az molekulai moddahoi gayriorganiki hosil shudani molekulai moddahoi organikiro fotosintez menomand. Fotosintez az du faza rushnoi va toriki iborat ast (rasmi 4.5).

Dar fazai rushnoi kvanti rushnoi (fotonho) bo molekulahoi khlorofill tasiri mutaqobila mekunad. Dar natija molekulaho dar muddati nihoyat kutoh ba energiyai «barangekhta» meguzarand. Sipas, energiyai molekulahoi barangekhta qisman ba garmi badal meshavad yo dar namudi rushnoi pahn megardad. Qismi digari on ba ioni gidrogen (N+) doimo dar mahluli obi ba sababi dissotsiatsiyai ob mavjud ast, doda meshavad:

Gidroksid-ionho (ON) elektronhoi khudro ba molekulahoi digar doda, ba radikalhoi ozod tabdil meyoband, ki dar natija ob va oksigeni molekulavi hosil meshavand:

Hamin tavr, manbai oksigeni molekulavi, ki dar ravandi fotosintez hosil shuda, sipas dar atmosfera pahn megardad, ob ast va on dar natijai fotoliz (tajziyai ob az tasiri rushnoi) judo meshavad. Energiyai rushnoi dar fazai rushnoi, ba gayr az fotolizi ob, baroi sintezi ATF az ADF va fosfat be ishtiroki oksigen istifoda megardad.

In ravandho khele bosamar meboshand: dar khloroplastho nisbat ba mitokhondriyahoi hamon yak rastani bo ishtiroki oksigen ATF 30 marotiba beshtar hosil meshavad. Bo hamin roh, energiyae zakhira megardad, ki baroi ravandhoi dar fazai torikii fotosintez guzaranda zarur ast.

Dar reaksiyahoi khimiyavii fazai toriki, jarayone, ki baroi on rushnoi lozim nest, manbai asosiro payvastshavii SO2 Rasmi 4.5. Skhemai ravandi fotosintez ishgol menamoyad. Dar in reaksiyaho molekulahoi ATF, ki hangomi fazai rushnoi sintez meshavand va atomhoi gidrogen, ki dar ravandi fotolizi ob hosil megardand (bo molekulaho intiqoldihandaho payvastand), ishtirok menamoyand:

Hamin tariq, energiyai rushnoii oftob ba energiyai khimiyavii payvastagihoi murakkabi organiki mubaddal meshavad.

Tavre ki dar bolo qayd gardid, mahsuli ilovagii fotosintezi rastanihoi sabz oksigeni molekulavi buda, on ba atmosfera khorij meshavad. Oksigeni ozod dar atmosfera omili buzurgi az nav hosil shudani moddaho ast. Paydoishi on dar Zamin sababi ba vujud omadani mubodilai aerobii moddaho gardid.

Hemosintez. Baze bakteriyahoe, ki khlorofill nadorand, ba qobiliyati sintez namudani payvastagihoi organiki sohib meboshand. Dar in mavrid onho energiyai reaksiyahoi khimiyavii moddahoi gayriorganikiro istifoda mebarand.

Ba energiyai khimiyavii payvastagihoi organikii sintezshavanda tabdil yoftani energiyai reaksiyahoi khimiyaviro khemosintez monomand. Hemosintezro soli 1887 mikrobiologi namoyoni rus S.N.Vinogradskiy kashf namuda bud.

Ba guruhi avtotrofho-khemosintezho (khemotrofho) bakteriyahoi azotanduz dokhil meshavand. Baze az onho az energiyai oksidshavii ammiak ba kislotai nitrit, bazei digar az energiyai oksidshavii kislotai nitrit ba kislotainitrat istifoda mebarand. Hemosintezhoe niz vujud dorand, ki az oksidshavii ohani duvalenta ba sevalenta yo az oksidshavii sulfidi gidrogen to kislotai sulfat energiya megirand.

Bakteriyahoi khemosintezi nitrogeni atmosferaro girifta, madanhoi halnashavandaro ba shakli baroi az khud namudani rastaniho koroyamu qulay tabdil medihand. Avtotrofho – khemosintezhoi ba nom «ohanbakteriyaho» va «sulfurbakteriyaho» niz mavjudand. «Ohanbak teriyaho» energiyai hangomi oksidshavii ohani duvalenta ba sevalenta khorijshavandaro istifoda mebarand, vale «sulfurbakteriyaho» sulfidi gidrogenro to ba kislotai sulfat oksid menamoyand.

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