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MOSHINI ANALITIKII BEBBIJ

Qadami khele muhimi navbati dar peshburdi tekhnikai hisobbaror ba asri XIX rost omad. Dar in asr ikhtirooti bemisl anjom doda shudand. Baroi sokhtani nasli navi moshinhoi hisobbarori olimon dar asosi nazariyai nav goyahoi kuhnaro ba kormeburdand.

YAke az olimoni namoyontarini in asr, matematiki anglis CHarlz Bebbij (1792-1871) ba shumor meravad. Mahz Bebbijro asosguzori kompyuterhoi muosirmehisoband. Vale farqi tadqiqothoi Bebbij az Paskal va Leybnits dar on ast, ki u nazar ba tadbiqi amalii goyahoyash qismi beshtari vaqti khudro ba loihakashii moshinhoi hisobbaror bakhshidaast. Ikhtiroi avvalin moshini hisobbarorii dar asosi programma korkunanda niz ba Bebbij taalluq dorad. Garchande goyai sokhtani chunin moshin mavjud bud va loihai on soli 1830 purra ba okhir rasid, vale khudi moshin hamchun tekhnikai hisobbaror amalan to baokhir dar hayot tadbiq nashuda mond. Sathi onruzai tekhnologiyai sokhtani detalhoi zaruri khele past bud. Hamai in kambudho va darajai tekhnikai mavjudai onruza ba Bebbij imkoniyat nadodand, ki u moshini khudro ba purragi sokhta tavonad.

÷èñëîâàÿ ìàøèíà Áýááèäæà - ïåðâàÿ “ÝÂ̔
÷èñëîâàÿ ìàøèíà Áýááèäæà – ïåðâàÿ “ÝÂ̔

Kashfiyoti khudro CH. Bebbij «Moshini analitiki» nomid. Muvofiqi loiha moshini u boyad bo yorii quvvai bug ba kor medaromad. Dar in mavrid moshin komandahoro qabul, hisobbarorihoro ijro va natijahoi zaruriro boyad dar kogaz chop menamud. Programmaho boyad kodguzori shuda ba perfokartaho (perfokarta – kartai kartonii makhsusi bo yorii surokhchaho kodguzori kardashuda) guzaronida meshudand.

Goyai ba vositai perfokartaho ba moshin dokhilkunii programmaro Bebbij az ikhtirokori fransavi Jozef Jakkar giriftaast. Jakkar perfokartahoro baroi idorakunii amaliyoti gunogun dar dastgohhoi bofandagi istifoda meburd. Ba vositai kombinatsiyahoi sershumori perfokartahoi surokhdor u hangomi boftani mato naqshu nigorhoi harkhela hosil menamud. Jakkar hatto fikr ham karda nametavonist, ki ruze goyai u baroi korkardi informatsiya dar moshinhoi hisobbaror istifoda burda khohadshud.

Hamin tariq, moshini analitikii Bebbij muvofiqi loiha hamai qismhoi asosii kompyuteri hozirazamonro dosht. Masalan, moshini u khotira (ba iborai Bebbij – anbor), qismi arifmetiki (osiyob) va qismhoi idorakuni, dokhilkuni va khorijkuniro dosht. Boyad on amalhoi jamu tarhro dar yak soniya va zarbu taqsimro taqriban dar yak daqiqa ijro menamud. Moshini Bebbij az rui loiha universali, yane hamakora buda, ba vositai on masalahoi hisobbarorii dilkhohro hal kardan mumkin bud. Vale boyad qayd namud, ki in moshin niz ba monandi moshinhoi arifmetikii (arifmometrho) dar hamon davr amalkunanda, hamchun tajhizoti mekhaniki fikr karda baromada shuda bud.

Bebbij fikri benihoyat muhimro peshnihod kard, ki muvofiqi on vobasta az natijahoi mobayni imkoniyati tagyirdihii samti hisobbarori paydo shud. In khosiyat imkoniyat faroham ovard, ki moshin dar halli masalahoi khele dushvor istifoda burda shavad. In fikri Bebbij pesh az hama ba matematiki sohibistedod Ogasta Ada Lavleys (1815-1852) khush omad. Ada Lavleys, ki dukhtari shoiri buzurgi anglis lord Jon Bayron ast, muhim budani usulhoi analitikiro khele khub dark karda bud. Mahz Ada baroi moshini Bebbij programmahoi avvalinro sokhtaast va uro beshubha programmasozi avvalini jahon nom burdan mumkin ast.

Bebbijro Ada bovar kunonid, ki dar ikhtirootash ba joisistemai hisobkunii dahi sistemai duiro istifoda barad. Hamkorii Ada va Bebbij, ki ogozi goya va nazariyahoi nav bud, imruz ham dar samti programmasozi va ham inkishofi tekhnikai kompyuteri mevahoi khudro doda istodaast.

Savolho:

  1. CHaro CH. Bebbijro asosguzori kompyuterhoi muosir menomand?
  2. Farqi faoliyati tadqiqotii Bebbij az Paskal va Leybnits dar chist?
  3. Moshini analitikii Bebbij az kadom qismho iborat bud?
  4. Goyai ba vositai perfokartaho dokhil namudani programmahoro Bebbij az ki giriftaast?
  5. Ada Lavleys ki bud va u ba Bebbij chi tasir rasonidaast?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Doir ba faoliyati Bebbij va moshini analitikii u fikratonro dar daftar bayon namoed.
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