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MOR

morMOR (Serpentes yo Ophidia), yak jinsi khazandaho. Tanash daroz, bepoy. Pustash bo pulakchahoi shakhshuli khushk yo sipar pushidaast (onro har sari chand vaqt mepartoyad). Zaboni darozu borikash (bazan nodurust neshi mor menomand) rangi siyoh va nugi dushokha doshta, uzvi lomisa ast. M., odatan, bayni alafzor, buttaho, boloi darakhton, tarqishu kafidahoi zamin, zeri sangho va g. maskan megirad. Aksar M.-ho ba bogot va manzilgohi odamon khazida medaroyand. Hamai M.-ho dar ob khub shino mekunand; bazeashon (M.-hoi bahri) sirf obiand.
Tamomi M.-ho ba darrandaho mansuband, zero gizoi onho hayvonoti zinda ast. M.-hoi khurd kirm, narmbadanho, hasharoti gunogun, M.-hoi kalon boshand, hayvonoti muhrador (mohiho, obkhokiho, shirkhorhoi khurd va g.)-ro mekhurand. Tumai khudro M. bo rohhoi gunogun – kushtan, zahr zadan (M.-i zahrdor), pechondan, bugi kardan yo bo zarbai sar (M.-i kaloni bezahr) ba dast meorad. M.-i zahrdor dar qismi peshi komi bolo du dandoni zahr dorad; in dandonho nisbatan kalontar va kame kajand (badi gazidan az surokhii onho zahr merezad). Zeri surokhi dandonho gadudi zahrroha boz meshavad. Dar holati orom dandonhoi zahr ba zeri kom qat meshavand, vaqti gazidan pesh baromada, ba tanai tuma sakht mekhaland. Dar joi morgazida du nuqtai khurdi surkh (pai zakhmi dandonhoi zahr) boqi memonad.
M.-i zahrdor va bezahr bo yagon nishonai zohirii ravshan (dar andoza, rang, odat) az ham farq namekunad. YAgona tafovuti M.-hoi zahrdor dandonhoi jogi boloii onhost. Azbaski dar sharoiti zaruri baroi aniq kardani dandonhoi zahrdori onho imkon paydo nameshavad, chunin maslihat dodan mumkin: dar surati bo M. rubaru omadan, ba vay kordor nashuda, imkon dodan lozim, to oromona khazida ravad. Az M. tarsidan darkor nest, zero khudi on ham az odam metarsad va faqat bo maqsadi himoya ba hamla meguzarad. Odamone, ki dar mahalhoi mordor istiqomat mekunand, khub meshud odathoi ba M.-ho khosro omuzand va donand, ki onho zahrdorand yo ne.
Mafhumi «morhoi zahrdor» shartist va on faqat ba odam dakhl dorad. Az rui malumoti mavjuda guyo ikhroji gadudhoi obi dahoni hamai M.-ho zahrnokand, vale baroi odam tanho gazidani navhoi muayyani M. khavfnok meboshad. Gayr az in, na hamai M.-hoi zahrdor binobar sababi qarib dar halq voqe budani dandonhoi zahri odamro gazida metavonand.
Ba inson M.-hoi bezahre, ki dar aqibi dahonashon dandonhoi kalon dorand, khatarnokand. Bo in guna dandon M.-ho ba kas zakhmi jiddi rasonda metavonand. Qarib 2500 namudi M. malum ast, ki az onho besh az 220 namud zahr dorand. Dar Tojikiston 16 namudi M. duchor meoyad (kurmor, mori pechon, mori obi, mori chinor, tirmor, shibo, kubro, gurza, mori afi, sagmor; 5 namudi okhir zahrnok ast). Az oilai morhoi shibo (gadyuka) 6 namudashon beshtar malum va pahn gashtaand: shibo, shiboi dashti, shiboi kavkazi, shiboi fukdor, shiboi Osiyoi Hurd, gurza. Dar biyobonu nimbiyobonhoi Osiyoi Markazi boz yak jinsi M.-i shibo – mori afii regzor vomekhurad. Ba M.-i shibo oilai jarangmorho niz qarobat dorand.
Dar jan. Osiyoi Markazi M.-i zahrash khele purtasir – kubro duchor meoyad. Bar khilofi M.-i hamjinsash, yane mori aynakdor, ki dar jangalzori Hinduston, Birma, Hitoi Janubi va kishvarhoi digar hast, kubro dar pushti sar aksi aynakro nadorad.
Zahri aksari M.-ho nihoyat purtasirand. Taqr. 1 g zahri jarangmor (khushkash) 25 sar barzagov, 24 sar sag, 60 sar asp, 600 sar khargush, 300 haz. kabutarro mekushad.
Ba M.-hoi bezahr, ki dar hududi Kavkaz va Osiyoi Markazi maskunand, oilai ujho (mas., M.-i obi, kurmor, mori chipor, hamchunin gurbamor, tirmor) mansuband. Dar Kavkazu Osiyoi Markazi M.-hoi pechon niz mavjudand. Bar khilofi nazdikoni azimjussai khud, ki dar mavzehoi tropikii Osiyo, Afriqo va Amerika zindagi mekunandu daroziashon az 10 m beshtar ast (anakondaho, pitonho va g.), darozii M.-hoi pechoni mo az 1 m ziyod nest.
Gazidani mor. M., odatan, dar mavridi norohat shudan (ba vay rasidan yo zer kardan) ba odamon hamla mekunad. Dar daqiqahoi avvali gazidani mori shibo dard va suzish his nameshavad, atrofi joi morgazida surkh megardad, khunshori afzuda, varam ba zudi gustarish meyobad. Ba kadom andoza vaznin shudani oqibati on ba joi morgazida (sar va tan nisbat ba poy khavfnoktar), sinnu sol va ahvoli salomatii shakhs vobasta ast. Kudakon, khususan to sinni 3-sola, nisbati kalonsolon zakhmi morro vaznintar meguzaronand.
Zahri kubro, mori bahri, baze navhoi jarangmori tropiki sistemai asabro zahrolud karda, mushakhoro zaif mesozad, sarcharkhi, gungi, dardi toqatfarsoi dastu poyho, qay va tabi baland (to 38 – 39°S) ba amal meorad. Marg dar natijai falaji uzvhoi nafaskashi faro rasidanash mumkin ast.
Kumaki nakhustin. Kumaki nakhustinro favran az makidani jarohat shuru namuda, obiyati makidaro zud-zud tuf kardan lozim ast. Makidan boyad 15 – 20 daq. idoma yobad. Sipas, ba rui zakhm yod, spirt, zelyonka memoland. Bad dast yo poi morgazidaro beharakat nigoh doshta, baroi shakhsi osebdida sharoiti orom muhayyo mekunand. Har chi zudtar uro ba muassisai tabobati burda rasondan lozim. CHok kardani pusti morgazida, ba zakhmi u guzoshtani toftaband qatiyan man ast. Nushondani spirt, araq, bo permanganati kaliy yo dig. doruho tabobat kardani zakhm, suzondani on tavsiya doda nameshavad. Hamai in usulho nafaqat tasiri zahrro sust namekunand, balki az istifodai onho dard shiddat yofta, boisi paydoishi orizahoi noguvor megardad.
Baroi khudro az gazidani M. peshgiri kardan, poyafzori soqdor (muzahoi charmi yo rezini), sarulibosi gafs pushida, boshishgohu joi khobro dar safar khub az nazar guzarondan lozim. CHunon ki qayd kardem, qarib hamai M.-ho faqat baroi hifzi khud hujum mekunand. Odatan, M. shakhsero megazad (aksar kudakon yo navrasonro), ki baroi doshtan yo kushtani on kushidaast.
Bayni mardum ananae jorist, ki M.-i duchor omadaro boyad kusht. Ammo foidai M. az zararash khele ziyod ast. Bisyorii M.-ho khoyandaho, hasharoti zararrovar, narmbadanihoro nobud mekunand. Zahri M. dar sohai tib farovon istifoda meshavad. Az on doruhoi gunogun tayyor karda baroi tabobati tarbod, nevralgiya, iltihobi mushak (miozit) va g. kor mefarmoyand. Ba sababi berahmona nobud kardani M.-ho va zud az bayn raftani onho dar baze mamlakatho shikori M.-hoe, ki zahrashon dar tib ba kor meravad, man gardidaast. M.-ro dar parvarishkhonaho (morkhonaho) niz nigohubin mekunand. Dar on jo M.-horo tahti nazorat qaror doda, tarzi hayoti onhoro meomuzand, zahrashonro megirand.
A. Saidov.

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