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MOLEKULAHOI ORGANIKI –CHARBHO VA LIPOIDHO

CHarbho (lipidho) payvastagihoi kislotahoi kalonmolekulai ravgani va spirti seatomai glitserin meboshand. CHarbho dar ob hal nameshavand, onho gidrofob (az yunoni hydro -ob va phobos-tars) meboshand. Dar hujayraho hamesha moddahoi digari murakkabi bo nom lipoidho niz vujud dorand.

Mavjudiyati charbho dar hujayra nisbat ba massai moddai khushk to haddi 5-15% merasad. Dar hujayrai boftahoi charbi miqdori charb to 90% meafzoyad. Dar hujayrai boftahoi charbii hayvonot, tukhmi va mevai rastaniho jamshuda, charb chun manbai ehtiyotii energiya khizmat mekunad.

se kislotai ravgani

CHarbho hamchun payvastagihoi organiki baroi guzashtani tabadduloti mutadili biokhimiyavi dar organizm ahamiyati kalon dorand.

CHarbho va lipoidho funksiyai binokoriro niz ijro menamoyand, onho ba tarkibi membranai hujayra dohil meshavand (rasmi 3.5.). Ba tufayli bad budani garmiguzoroni, charb qobiliyat dorad, ki funksiyai izolyatori garmiro ijro

namoyad. YAke az funksiyai asosii charbho – faoliyati energetiki meboshad. Dar vaqti to SO2 va N2O tajziya shudani 1g charb miqdori ziyodi garmi (38,9 kJ) khorij meshavad. 

Istilohot:

  1. Strukturai yakumini safeda – paydarhamii boqimondai aminokislotaho dar zanjiri polipeptidi, genotipi muayyan meboshad.
  2. Denaturatsiya – ravandi tashkilyobii strukturii khudro gum kardani molekulai safedagi.
  3. Renaturatsiya – ravandi barqarorshavii tashkilyobii strukturai molekulai safedagi.
  4. Markazi faoli ferment – qismi molekulai ferment, ki baroi payvast kardan va az nav hosilshavii moddaho masul ast.
  5. Angishtobho – guruhi payvastagihoi organikie, ki formulai umumiashon S meboshad.
  6. Lipidho – guruhi payvastagihoi organikie, ki az efiri spirtho va kislotahoi ravgani, inchunin digar komponentho iboratand.
  7. Steroidho – guruhi payvastagihoi organikie, ki az spirthoi polisikli, ketonho yo kislotaho iboratand.
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