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MOLEKULAHOI ORGANIKI– ANGISHTOBHO

Angishtobho yo sakharidho moddahoi organiki buda, bo formulai umumii Sp(N2O)m ifoda karda meshavand. Dar aksari angishtobho adadi molekulahoi ob ba miqdori atomhoi karbon muvofiq meboshad. Az hamin sabab in moddahoro karbogidrat yo angishtob nomidaand.

Dar hujayrai hayvonot to 5% angishtob mavjud ast. Hujayrai rastaniho angishtobi beshtar dorand, miqdori onho to 90% merasad (kartoshka, tukhmi va gayra). Angishtobho sodda va murakkab meshavand. Angishtobhoi sodda monosakharidho nom giriftaand. Vobasta ba adadi atomhoi karbon dar molekula monosakharidho triozaho (doroi 3 ato-mi karbon), tetrozaho (doroi 4 atomi karbon), pentozaho (doroi 5 atomi karbon) yo geksozaho (doroi 6 atomi karbon)

nomida meshavand. Glyukoza, fruktoza va galaktoza mansubi geksozaho meboshand. Hun 0,08-0,12% glyukoza dorad. Pentozaho – riboza va dezoksiriboza – ba tarkibi kislotahoi nukleinat va ATF (adenozintrifosfat) dokhil meshavand.

Agar dar yak molekula du monosakharid yakjoya shavand, chunin payvastagiro disakharid menomand. Ba disakharidho qand sakharoza dokhil meshavad; onro az nayshakar yo lablabui qand hosil mekunand. Sakharoza az yak molekula glyukoza, yak molekula fruktoza va qandi shir, ki tavassuti molekulahoi glyukoza va galaktoza hosil meshavad, iborat ast.

Angishtobhoi murakkab az bisyor monosakharidho hosil meshavand va polisakharidho nomida shudaand. Monomerhoi chunin polisakharidho monandi krakhmal az glikogen, sellyuloza va glyukoza iborat meboshand. Angishtobho du funksiyai asosiro ijro menamoyand: binokori va energetiki. Masalan, sellyuloza pardai hujayrai rastanihoro ba vujud meorad; polisakharidi murakkab kompleksi strukturai skeleti berunai bugumpoyho meboshad. Funksiyai binokoriro, inchunin khitin dar zamburugho niz ijro menamoyad.

Angishtobho dar hujayra manbai asosii energiya meboshand. Dar jarayoni oksidshavii 1g angishtob 17,6 kJ energiya judo meshavad. Dar hujayrai rastaniho krakhmal, vale dar hujayrai hayvonot glikogen jam shuda, chun zakhirai energetiki khizmat mekunand.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Kadom payvastagihoi khimiyavi angishtob nomida meshavand?
  2. Kadom khujayraho angishtobi beshtar dorand?
  3. Monosakharid chist? Misolho biyored.
  4. Disakharid chist? Misolho biyored.
  5. Kadom angishtobi sodda baroi krakhmal, glikogen va sellyuloza hamchun monomer khizmat menamoyad?
  6. Funksiyai angishtobhoro gufta dihed.
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