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MOHAKI BUGUM

mohaki-bugumMOHAKI BUGUM (Meniscus) tagoyaki bugumi zonu, menisk, jufti (dar har bugum dutoi) tagoyaki hilolshakl, ki dar bayni bugumhoi ustukhoni ron va ustukhoni kaloni soqi poy voqe ast. Tarafi gafsi berunii M. b. bo parda (kapsula)-i bugum payvand buda, tarafi ozod va boriki on dar javfi bugum joygir shudaast. Vazifai fiziologii M. b. az on iborat ast, ki doirai rasishi sathi bugumhoi ustukhonro ziyod karda, ba bugum ustuvorii beshtar mebakhshad. Gayr az in, on chun amortizator hangomi davidan va jahidan har guna takon va zarbaro sabuk megardonad.
Aksar vaqt tagoyaki zonui varzishgaron, javonon va odamoni kalonsol chok yo kanda meshavad (bo kudakon va shakhsoni az 40-sola bolo in hodisa kam ruy medihad) va dar in mavrid beshtar mohaki dokhili zarar mebinad. Odatan, hangomi nogahon tob khurdani ron, vaqte ki soqi po nojunbon boshad (hangomi futbolbozi, bo lija tob khurdan va g.), tagoyakho kanda meshavand; dar in vaqt mushaki darunii ustukhoni ron ba mohaki dokhili fishori ziyod meorad. Dar vaqti chok yo kanda shudani mohak bugum dard karda, bad az 1 – 2 soat az sababi dar on jam shudani khun varam mekunad. YOrii avvalin hangomi kanda shudani M. b. chunin ast: zonuro bo bandinai fishorovar basta ba soqi poy jabira (shina) meguzorand. Bad osebdidaro hatman ba nazdi dukhtur mebarand. Odatan, bad az past shudani dardi shadidi mohaki kandashuda chunin nishonahoi sadama boqi memonand: kas bandi zonuashro kame noustuvor his mekunad, goh-goh bugumi poy shakh meshavad (dar in hol qismi kandashudai mohak dar bayni bugumhoi ustukhoni ron va ustukhoni kaloni soq darmemonad). Az dardi nogahon poy shakh gashta, zonu khamu rost nameshavad, bandi poy varam mekunad. Baroi rafi zuhuroti bemori, odatan, jarrohi (burida giriftani mohaki osebdida) zarur ast. Vobasta ba tagyirot dar bandi zonu muhlati amali jarrohiro dukhtur muayyan mekunad. Tavsiyai dukhturro dar borai jarrohi rad kardan joiz nest, zero mahdudii harakati bandi zonu, ki sababash gusastani mohak ast, ba huzol (kohidan va mahdud shudani vazifa)-i mushakhoi peshi ron, makhsusan mushaki chorsari ron, musoidat mekunad. Dar natija in mushakho bandi zonuro nigoh doshta nametavonand va zonu zud-zud shakh meshavad; minbad dar tagoyaki bandi zonu tagyiroti nosolim ruy doda, tadrijan artroz ba vujud meoyad. Agar sarivaqt jarrohi karda shavad, oqibati gusastagii mohak komilan bartaraf megardad, vagarna faqat inkishofi artrozro bozmedorand, vale dardi bugum mumkin ast idoma yobad. Bad az jarrohi bo maslihati dukhtur mushakhoro tamrin medihand. Gayr az varzish mash (khudmashkuni)-i mushakhoi ron va muntazam bo usuli «krol» (harakat dar ob bo poyhoi rost) shino kardan khele mufid ast.
Baroi peshgirii kandashavii M. b. faoliyati mushakhoro ba darajai baland nigoh medorand (har ruz varzish mekunand, muntazam bo sport mashgul meshavand), mushakhoi ronro tamrin medihand, hangomi musobiqai sporti az zonuband yo bandinahoi elastiki istifoda mebarand.
Bemorii M. b. nisbat ba osebi bugumi zonu khele kam ruy doda, odatan, zuhuroti amrozi umumii bugumho, mas., artrozi mushavveh (digar kardani shakl) meboshad, ki dar natijai on mohak chandiriashro gum mekunad va bazan sakht meshavad.
Dar digar uzvhoi odam (dar bandi soidu panja, bandi ustukhoni chanbar, bandi manah) niz chunin tashkilahoi tagoyakii vazifaashon ba vazifai M. o. monand mavjudand. Onho qurs (disk) nom doshta khele kam, odatan, faqat hangomi baromadani ustukhon oseb mebinand.
O. T. Devonaev.
KL
Mohaki bandi zonui poi rost hangomi solimi va oseb didan (sathi bugumi ustukhoni soq az bolo nishon doda shudaast); a – mohaki solim (1 – mohaki beruni, 2 – bandaki mohakho, 3 – mohaki daruni); b va v – shaklhoi gunoguni chok shudani mohaki daruni (bo tircha ishora shudaast).

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