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MODDAHOI MINERALi.

mineralMODDAHOI MINERALi. Dar barobari moddahoi organiki – safeda, angishtob va charbu dar hujayrai organizmhoi zinda payvasthoe niz mavjudand, ki ba M. m. taalluq dorand. Ba onho ob va namakhoi gunoguni halshuda mansuband. Onho dissosiatsiya (tajziya) shuda, ionho – kationho (musbatzaryad) va anionho (manfizaryad)-ro hosil mekunand. Aksar M. m. ba tarkibi moddahoi murakkabi organiki, mas., metalloproteidho (metallsafedaho) dokhil meshavand. CHunonchi, ohan ba tarkibi gemoglobin, magniy, mangan, mis, kobalt va dig. metallho ba tarkibi bisyor fermentho dokhiland. M. m. juzi muhimi gizo buda, hayot va inkishofi mutadili organizmro tamin mesozand.
Organizmi hayvonot ba M. m. nihoyat hassos ast. Olimi marufi rus F. F. Erisman navishta bud: «gizoe, ki namaki minerali nadorad, sarfi nazar az qone gardondani hamai sharthoi tagziya tadrijan ba marg ovarda merasonad, zero az namak tanqisi kashidani organizm boisi nomurattabii khurdu khurok meshavad». CHunin khulosa dar nisbati moddahoe, ki miqdori onho dar organizm ziyoda az 0,001% (oksigen, karbon, gidrogen, kalsiy, kaliy, nitrogen, fosfor, sulfur, magniy, natriy, khlor va ohan), inchunin dar borai mikroelementhoe, ki voyaashon az 0,001 to 0,000001% meboshad (mangan, ruh, mis, bor, molibden, kobalt va g.), bilkul durust ast. Mavqei M. m. dar tashakkuli boftahoi jism, khususan ustukhonhoi skelet, kalon buda, baroi dar organizm nigoh doshtani muvozanati kislotayu ishqor, dar boftayu hujayraho va moei bayni onho ba vujud ovardani miqdori fiziologii ionhoi gidrogen (yane ba vujud ovardani reaksiyai mutadili muhit) va ba onho bakhshidani khususiyathoe, ki baroi rafti mutadili jarayoni mubodilai moddaho va energiya (az jumla mubodilai obu namak) zarurand, muhim meboshad. M. m. bahri hosil shudanu tashakkuli safeda niz ahamiyati kalon dorand. Mohiyati M. m. baroi faoliyati gadudhoi endokrini (mas., yod baroi gadudi siparshakl), inchunin mavqei onho dar ravandi fermenti ba hama malum ast.
M. m. kislotahoro betasir gardonda, «turshidan»-i organizm yane asidozro, ki ba rafti mutadili reaksiyai mubodilai moddaho khalal vorid sokhta, illathoi gunogunro ba vujud meovarad, peshgiri mekunand. Omuzishi mavqei M. m. dar organizm bahri peshgiri va bartaraf namudani bemoriho, mas., jogari endemi, flyuoroz va g. muhim ast.
Ob muhimtarin qismi tarkibii hamai organizmhost. Hayvonote, ki az ob mahrum gashtaast, badi muhlati kutoh nobud meshavad. Ob moddahoi gunogunro hal mekunad; dar muhiti ob reaksiyahoi gunoguni khimiyavi, az jumla fermenti, ba vuqu meoyand; ob chun mahsuli reaksiyai oksidshavii moddahoi organiki hosil meshavad. Aksar reaksiyahoi khimiyavie, ki asosi faoliyati organizm meboshand, bo ishtiroki ob meguzarand. Taqr. 65%-i organizmi odami kalonsol az ob iborat ast.
Ahamiyati kalsiy dar organizm khele kalon ast. Namakhoi on qismi tarkibii doimii khun va shirai hujayrayu boftaho meboshand; onho ba tarkibi yadroi hujayra dokhil shuda, dar jarayoni inkishof va faoliyati hujayraho mavqei muhim dorand. Kalsiyi khurokro organizm hazm namuda, ba mubodilai moddaho tasiri muhim merasonad, baroi pura sarf shudani moddahoi gizoi dar organizm musoidat mekunad. Payvasthoi kalsiy muqovimati organizmro ustuvor megardonand, tobovarii onro ba omilhoi nomusoidi beruni, az jumla ba siroyati bemorihoi gunogun afzun menamoyand.
Kalsiy qismi tarkibii ustukhonho buda, dar tashakkuli onho mavqei muhim dorad. Boqimondai kalsiy ba tarkibi khunu boftaho dokhil meshavad. Mubodilai kalsiy tavre surat megirad, ki hangomi bo khurok kam vorid gashtan, on az hisobi zakhirai organizm ba miqdori peshtara judo shudan megirad. Dar surati az meyor ziyod istemol kardani namakhoi kalsiy va dar ruda beshtar jabbida shudanu az gurda kam ikhroj shudani on miqdori kalsiy dar plazmai khun meafzoyad (giperkalsiemiya).
Dar shir va mahsuloti shiri – tvorog va panir miqdori kalsiy ziyod ast. SHir va mahsuloti shiri ba hazmi kalsiyi mahsuloti digar niz musoidat mekunand. Zardii tukhm, karam, soya, baze navhoi mohi, jafari va g. niz manbai kalsiy meboshand. Umuman, kalsiy ba qatori elementhoi dushvorhazm dokhil meshavad, namakhoi on faqat dar natijai tasiri kislotahoi talkha hazm megardand.
Fosfor ba tarkibi hamai boftahoi organizm, makhsusan mushakho va magzi sar dokhil shuda, baroi kori mutadili sistemai asab, mushakhoi dil va g. zarur ast. Fosfor dar boftahoi organizm va khurokvori ba sifati kislotai fosfat va payvasthoi organikii on vujud dorad. Mubodilai nisbatan bosurati payvasthoi fosfor asosan dar mushakho ruy medihad.
Miqdori payvasthoi organikii fosfor dar khuni odam tagyir meyobad. Vale miqdori fosfori gayriorganiki to andozae doimi ast (3,0 – 5,5 mg%). Dar surati beshtar istemol kardani mahsuloti shiri, inchunin hangomi baze bemoriho – dardi gurda, shikastagii ustukhon (dar davrai sihatshavi), diabeti qandi, akromegaliya, bemorii Addison va g. miqdori fosfori gayriorganiki meafzoyad. Dar surati norasidani fosfor organizm fosfori boftahohoro budaro sarf mekunad, az in ru miqdori on dar khun tagyir nameyobad (faqat hangomi gum kardani 40%-i miqdori umumii fosfor on dar khun 10% kam meshavad).
Mubodilai fosfor dar organizm bo mubodilai magniy aloqamand ast. Qismi ziyodi magniy dar tarkibi boftai ustukhon joy giriftaast. Dar plazmai khun, eritrositho va boftahoi narm magniy asosan dar holati ioni vujud dorad. YAk miqdori on bo safedaho, makhsusan safedahoi fermenti, payvast shudaast; magniy baroi faoliyati baze fermentho komilan zarur ast. Dar surati ba hayvonot khurondani gizoe, ki namaki magniy nadorad, faoliyati dil khalal yofta, on mefavtad. Agar ba khun miqdori ziyodi namaki magniy guzaronda shavad, holati behushi ruy medihad. Tasiri bozdorandai ionhoi magniyro ba asabiya bo rohi ba khun firistodani namaki kalsiy bartaraf mesozand. Magniy raghoro vase, ikhroji talkharo ziyod mekunad, binobar in bisyor payvasthoi on (mas., sulfati magniy, askorbinati magniy, tiosulfati magniy va g.)-ro chun doru istifoda mebarand. Odami kalonsol boyad har ruz 500 mg, zani homila 925 mg, modari sinamakon 1250 mg, kudakon az 140 mg (3-sola) to 530 mg (14 – 17-sola) magniy istemol kunand. Miqdori magniy dar zardobi khuni odam az rui meyor 1,6 – 2,9 mg% ast.
Kaliy dar jarayoni mubodilai dokhili hujayraho ahamiyati kalon dorad. Bisyor fermentho faoliyati khudro biduni ionhoi kaliy anjom doda nametavonand. Kaliy baroi tamini ustuvorii muhiti dokhilii organizmi odam, inchunin ba mushakho intiqol yoftani impulshoi asab muhim ast. Dar organizm jam shudani kaliy boisi harchi beshtar ikhroj shudani natriy megardad. Kaliy khosiyati peshobroni dorad. Narasidani on dar organizm boisi har guna varam va nojurihoi intiqoli impulshoi asab megardad.
Natriy ahamiyati buzurgi fiziologi dorad. Miqdori natriy dar plazmai khuni odam 300 – 330 mg% ast. Az organizmi odam bo peshob har shaboruz 3 – 6 g natriy ikhroj meshavad. Namaki natriy dar mubodilai ob faolona ishtirok mekunad. Miqdori natriy dar khurokvori kam ast, on ba organizm bo namaki osh – khloridi natriy dokhil meshavad. Norasidani namaki osh dar khurok baroi odam noguvor ast. Odami kalonsol ruze to 15 g namaki oshiro istemol karda, hamin miqdorro az organizm khorij mekunad. Miqdori namaki oshro dar khurok ruze to ba 5 g (be yagon zarare ba salomati) rasondan mumkin ast. Hloridi natriy dar tanzimi mubodilai ob ahamiyati kalon dorad. Miqdori ziyodi khloridi natriy bo peshob va araq khorij meshavad.
Bo vujudi on ki khlor ba organizmi odam asosan ba sifati khloridi natriy dokhil meshavad, rohi mubodilai natriy va khlor gunogun ast. Hlor qobiliyati dar pust tahshin shudan dorad. Hangomi barziyod vorid gashtan dar organizm nigoh doshta shuda, ziyodatii on bo araq khorij meshavad. Meyori khlor dar plazmai khuni odam 340 – 380 mg% ast.
Ikhtiloli mubodilai khlor boisi paydoishi varam, kam judo shudani shirai meda va g. megardad. YAkbora kam gashtani miqdori khlor dar organizm hatto ba marg rasondanash mumkin ast. Taqr. 90%-i khlori khurok bo peshob va tanho 6% bo araq ikhroj meshavad. Dar bayni miqdori khlor dar khun va ikhroji on bo peshob (hangomi bemori) vobastagii bevosita vujud nadorad.
Brom ba organizmi odam asosan bo mahsuloti rastani va miqdori kami on bo namaki oshi omekhta bo brom vorid meshavad. Namaki bromro dar tib ba sifati doru farovon kor mefarmoyand.
Ftor ba miqdori khele kam dar hamai boftahoi odam mavjud ast. Dar khuni odam niz az 0,03 to 0,07 mg% ftor hast. Ustukhonho (10 – 30 mg%), makhsusan dandon (siri on 120 – 150 mg%) nisbatan ziyodtar ftor dorand. Dar joyhoe, ki miqdori ftor dar obu khurokvori kamtar ast, bisyor odamoni giriftori kariesi dandon meshavand, barziyodii ftor bemorii flyuorozro ba vujud meorad.
Yod dar hamai boftahoi odam, vale asosan dar boftahoi gadudi siparshakl, aniqtarash dar tarkibi gormonhoi on – triyodtironin va tiroksin mavjud ast. Organizmi odami kalonsol qarib 25 mg yod dorad, ki 10 – 15 mg-i on dar gadudi siparshakl jam shudaast. Ehtiyoji odam ba yod dar yak shaboruz 100 – 150 mkg ast. Az narasidani yod dar tarkibi gizo faoliyati gadudi siparshakl khalal yofta, on kalon meshavad.
Ohan ba tarkibi payvasthoi organikii az jihati biologi bagoyat muhim – gemoglobini khun, mioglobin, fermenthoi katalaza, sitokhromho dokhil meshavad. Qarib 70%-i hamai ohani organizm dar gemoglobin gird omadaast. Ahamiyati asosii fiziologii ohan dar jarayoni khunofari ishtirok doshtani on ast (nig. Hun). Narasidani ohan boisi kamkhuni megardad. Kudakon bo zakhirai ziyodi ohan tavallud meshavand. Miqdori gemoglobin dar eritrositho va miqdori eritrositho dar khuni kudakoni navzod haftahoi avvali badi tavallud nisbat ba davrai minbadai hayot ziyodtar ast. Badi chand haftai ba dunyo omadan, surati mahvi eritrositho dar organizmi kudak az surati hosil gardidani onho ziyod meshavad, vale barziyodii ohan dar organizm boqi memonad. Qobiliyati ohanro nigoh doshta tavonistani organizmi kudak ahamiyati kalon dorad, chunki dar shiri modar beshubha ohan namerasad. Kudak az zakhirai ohani organizmi khud taqriban yak sol tamin meshavad. Ohan dar jigar (makhsusan jigari khuk), jafari, magzi sar, zardii tukhm, zanburughoi safed va mahsuloti digar bisyor ast. Ohani tarkibi mevayu sabzavot (shaftolu, seb, ispanokh va g.) shoyad az sababi kislotai askorbinat doshtan zudhazm meboshad. Zardobi khuni mardi kalonsol 120 mg%, zani kalonsol 80 mg% ohan dorad.
Mis dar organizm ba tarkibi baze fermenthoi oksidkunanda dokhil meshavad. Ahamiyati mis dar jarayoni khunofari khele kalon ast. Miqdori mis dar plazmai khuni odam 0,1 mg% -ro tashkil medihad. Mis ba kori gadudhoi usorai dokhili misli insulin tasir merasonad, az hamin sabab bemoroni giriftori diabeti qandi bazan payvasthoi misro istemol mekunand.
Miqdori mis dar jigari gov, khuk, zanburugi shampinon, jigar baze mohiho nihoyat bisyor meboshad.
Ahamiyati mikroelementho (kobalt, stronsiy, mangan, ruh, seziy va g.) niz baroi organizm bagoyat buzurg ast. Organizm ba miqdori nihoyat kami in elementho ehtiyoj dorad, vale onho dar mubodilai moddaho khele zarurand. Mavqei biologii kobalt beshtar bo ishtiroki on dar faoliyati fermentii vitamini V12 aloqamand ast. Strontsiy ba tarkibi ustukhoni odam dokhil meshavad. Huroke, ki az meyor ziyod stronsiy dorad, ikhtiloli ustukhonbandi (ba nom rakhiti strontsiy)-ro ba vujud meorad. Nishonahoi on ba rakhiti muqarrari monand boshad ham, vale az istemoli vitamini D tabobat nameshavad. Mangan ba tarkibi molekulai baze fermentho dokhil shuda, faoliyati onhoro metezonad. Ruh dar fermentho vujud dorad, ki onho be hamin element faoliyati khudro gum mekunand. Miqdori kami seziy ba tarkibi boftai hayvonot dokhil meshavad; mavqei biologi va fiziologii on purra muayyan karda nashudaast.

J.S. Langarieva.

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