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MODDADOI SODDA – OMEHTAI MODDAHO

Holo dar ilm yak chand million modda malum gardidaast. Dar yak modda tavri vase tahlil gardida, nomi marbutai khudro giriftaast.

▲ Moddahoe, ki az atomhoi yakkhela iboratand, moddahoi sodda nomida meshavand.

Ba moddahoi sodda dokhil meshavand: vodorod, kislorod, grafit, sulfur va hama fizilot (metallho): ohan, mis, magniy va gayra. Grafit az yak navi atom – tanho az uglerod, ohan tanho az atomhoi ohan, mis tanho az atomhoi mis iborat hastand.

Dar hayoti ruzmarra mo hamesha omekhtai moddahoro duchor meoem. Burro dar ob munhal namuda, omekhtai obu burro ba dast meovarem. Hissachahoi burro bo chashmoni odi didan mumkin ast. Vale na hamesha metavon az rui namudi zohiriyashon omekhtai moddahoro muayyan kardan mumkin ast.

Masalan, shir ba nazari mo moddai yakjinsa menamoyad. Vale agar onro dar zeri zarrabin, yane mikroskop bubined, pas dar on qatrahoi maydai shinokunandai ravganro didan mumkin ast.

Pas shir in omekhtai moddahost.

Nishonai makhsusi omekhtaho in makhdulho meboshand. Agar shakar, namakro dar ob andokhta, bichunbonem, pas ba joyi moei gayrishaffof mahduli shaffofi sha­kar va namak hosil meshavad. SHakarro dar on na tanho tavassuti chashmoni odi, bal­ki zeri mikroskop niz didan gayrimkon ast. Vale ba osoni muhtavoi shakarro dar mahlul mushakhkhas kardan mumkin ast, agar mazai onro bichashem va onro boloi shishai toza bichakonem va khushk namoem. Hangomi khushk kardan shakar dar shisha dar shakli kristalchahoi mayda boqi memonad.

Dar yod dored! CHashidani mazai moddahoi noshinos mumkin nest!

Qabl az omukhtani mavod onro az chizhoi digar chudo karda, az omekhtagiho toza boyad kard.

CHunin metodhoi chudo kardan az omekhtagiho, chun takshin namudan, tasfiya namudan, bug kunonidan mavjud meboshand.

Onhoro dar misoli toza kardani namaki oshy barraey menamoem.

  • Suporishi amaly:

TOZA KARDANI NAMAKI OSHY

  1. Obro ba istakon rekhga, sipas az boloi on namaki chirkinshudaro biposhed. Onro tavassuti chumcha omekhta karda, mahlul sozed. Vaqte namak hangomi omekhta kar­dan digar az mahlul shudan bozmeistad, ilova namudani namakro dat kuned.
  2. Pas az chand muddat dar tagi istakon namakreza shuru ba tahshin shudan meku- nad. In kadom metodi tozakuny ast?
  3. Tasfiya namudani mahluli galizi namak. Baroy ogozi kor yak varaqi tasfiyakunandaro bigired. Boyad, ki varak, shakli murabba doshta boshad. Varaqro chorqat namuda (hamon tavre ki dar rasmi 25 nishon doda shudaast) kanorahoi onro bo qaychi biburred.

In tasfiyai kogaziro ba dahana, yane qifi shishagin bikhaled.

Ba boloi filtr (kogazi tasfiyavi) mahluli galizi namakro bo chubaki shishagin, ki nugi on ba devori dahana (qif) ravona shudaast, birezed. Dar in mavrid favrai moe ba devorhoi dahana mezanand. Agar favrai moe ba kanorai boloii tasfiyai kogazin barkhurand, pas vay medarad.

  1. Bukhor kardani mahluli tozakardai namak. Ba zarfi fakhfurin kame moei tasfiyashudaro birezed va yo ba boloi shisha bichakoned. Onro garm namoed. Vaqte dar satqi shishagin kristalchahoi namak paydo meshavand, garm kardanro bas kuned. Namaki hosilshudaro bo namaki peshina muqoisa bikuned.

Pursishho

  1. Kadom moddaho sodda nomida meshavand? Misolho biyovared.
  2. SHir chy guna modsa ast?Namakro chy tavr toza kardan mumkin ast?
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