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MO CHY TAVR MEBINEM? CHASHMHO

CHashmi odam shakli kuraro dorad, Qutri on taqriban bo 2,5 sm barobar ast. CHashm az berun bo pardai chashm (skle­ra) (1) pushonida shudaast. (1). Tarafi peshi pardai chashm rushanu shaffof buda, vay qarniyai chashm(2) nom dorad.

Andake onsutar az qarniyai chashm ina- biya (3) qaror dorad. Bayni qarniya va ina- biya moei shaffof (4) qaror dorad. Moddai makhsus ba inabiya rangi jolibu notakror ato menamoyad. Dar inabiya surokhie vujud dorad. In surokhi mardumak (gavharak) (5) nom do­rad. Vobasta ba rushanii rang kutri mar­dumak ba tavri reflektory az 2mm to ba 8 mm tagyir meyobad. Az aqibi mardumak zujoja (khrustalik) (6) qaror dorad. Zujoja – in jismi shaffof buda, ba linza shabohag dorad.

Mushakhoe (7) hastand, ki dar yak lahzai mushakhkhas shaklashro digar mekunad.

Vaqte odam ba ashyoe, ki dar nazdiky qaror dorand, nigoh mekunad, in mushakho

shakli zujojaro nisbatan barjastatar mekunand. Qismati boqimondai chashm bo jismi shishamonand (8) pur shudaast. Qari chashm bo yak shabakiyai murakkab (9) rupush shudaast.

Dar shabakiya (tur) reseptorhoi asaby, ba monandi chubakho va kolbaho qaror do­rand. Range, ki tavassuti qarniya intiqol meyobad, ba kasri (shikanishi) beshtar ru ba ru meshavad. Aksi ashyo ba shabakiya dar shakli sarchappagiyash meaftad.

Tasiri rang ba nughoi asabi binoy (chubakho va kolbaho) dar chashmoni mo ehsosi binoiro bedor mekunad.

Agar ashyo khele dur qaror doshta boshad, pas hangomi rasidani aks ba shabakiyai zujoja (khrustalik) tarang nameshavad. Hangomi nazdikshavii ashyo zujoja ba hadde qabz meshavad, ki aks dubora ba tur meaftad.

Dar chashmoni baze odamon aks na ba shabakiya (setchatka), balki pesh az on meaf- tad. CHunin odamon ba tavri vozeh ashyoero, ki dar duri qaror dorand, dida nametavo- nand. CHunin kambudii binoiro nazdikbiny menomand.

Inro metavon tavassuti aynakhoi linzaashon furukhamida isloh kardan mumkin ast. Kambudi binoy, ki aksi ashyoi dar dur qarordoshta, ba shabakiya (tur) meaftand, durbiny menomand.

CHunin kambudiro metavon tavassuti aynakhoi linzaashon barjasta raf namu- dan mumkin ast.

A Bo chashmoni khud ehtiyotkor boshed! Kitobro dar masofai na kam az 25-30 sm bikhoned.

Dar olami hayvonot azoi bosira (binoi) khele rangorang meshavand. Onho juft, tanho, jam, buzurgu kuchak meshavand. Baze az hayvonot mija namezanand, chashmoni baze hayvonho serharakat buda, mijaashon tez-tez mezanad va mardumaki chashmona- shon serharakat meboshand.

Ba in nigoh nakarda, prinsipi faoliyati chashmho baroi hamagon komilan yakson meboshad.

Qarniyai chashmi mohiho hamvor buda, zujojaashon – kurashakl meboshad. Mohiho ba dunyo nazdikbin tavallud meshavand. Qabati durakhshandai pushti chashm – oina meboshad. In qabat shuoi rushnoiro inikos namuda, dar torniky rushan meshavad (tavri misol, onro dar akulaho didan mumkin ast). Baze az mohihoi qarioby chash­moni kaloni teleskopy doshta, qobiliyati daryoft kardani rushnoii khiraro (rasmi b) dorand. Guzai chashmi onho shakli daroz doshta, qarniyaashon barjasta, zujoja va mardumak kalon meboshand. CHashmoni baze mohiho, ki dar jarfu umqi ob qaror do­rand, sokhtori poyamonand dorand (rasmi 6-g). Mohihoi chorchashmae, ki dar sathi ob dar justujui gizo shino mekunand, mardumakashon ba samti amudy kashida shudaast. Dar qarniya rakhhoi ufuqii pusty ba qismathoi boloiyu poyony taqsim shudaast. Vaqte mohy dar ob shino mekunad, sathi ob ba mobayni chashm rost meoyad va qismati boloii chashm, har on chizero ki dar osmon qaror dorad, mebinad. Qismati poyonii on on chi- zero mebinad, ki zeri ob qaror dorad.

Ba chashmoni pashsha nigoh kuned. Dar rasmi 6-a chashmoni pashsha, dar rasmi 6-6 – guzinai (varianta) kalonkardashudai on nishon doda shudaast. Azbaski chashmoni pashsha az chashmakhoi ba har su ravonapguda iborat meboshad, maydoni binishi onho kalon meboshad. Binoishi parrandaho tez meboshad. Guzai chashmi onho kalon buda, sokhtori on makhsus meboshad. Az in ru, maydoni binishi onho vase meboshad. Guzai chashmoni parrandahoe, ki doroy binoishi tez dorand (kargas, uqob), shakli taqriban oluboluii «teleskopy» (tukhmshakl) dorad, (raem 6-d).

Sokhtori chashmoni baze az hayvonho (gurkharho (rasmi 6-e) ba sokhtori chashmi inson monand meboshad( rasmi 6-j). CHashmoni baze hayvonot ( masalan, buqalamun) davr mezanand, chashmoni khargush boshad dar pakhduhoi cap qaror dorand. In imkon medihad, ki besh az 180° mushohida kunand

Dar tabiat chashmoni hayvonot shaklhoi gunogun dorand, ba har nav qaror doda shudaast, ranghoi gunogun dorand. Vale sokhtori onho komilan yakson mebo­shand (rasmi 7).

Pashshahoe, ki dar fasli tobistonu tiramoh moro noorom mesozand, nazdik ba 100 «chashmak»-hoi odi- fasetok dorand. Onho dar qismati boloii cap, ki shakli kura dorand, qaror dorand. Jolib az hama – pashshaho (khomushakho) shabona mebinand. Malum megardad, ki binishi pashshaho az rushnoi vobasta nest. Isbot shuda, ki onho garmiro, misli rang mebinand. Az in ru, onho varidro( venaro) dar toriky zud paydo mekunand. Jolib az hama on ast, ki onho chy tavr khunro mebinand. Dar dahon pashsha suzani naychashakl dorad. Vale onho tavassuti suzani mazkur yakbora nesh namezanand. Onho tavassuti jogi tezi poyonii khesh pustro burida, sipas tavassuti suzan «narkoz mekunand». Ba sukhanoni digar, onho ba khun moei makhsusro, ki az on odam dardro his namekunand, ravon mekunand. In moe peshi rohi galizshavii khunro dar joyi neshzadashudai pust megirad. Azbaski pashshaho in hamaro dar zarfi yakchand soniya ba ijro merasonand, dar aksariyati mavridho mo inro paykhas namekunem.

Zoviyai (kunji) binoishi inson barobar ba 180 daraja, az oni kabutaron 340 daraja meboshad.

Darchand chashmoni bumho (chugzho) nisbatan kalon meboshand, azbaski onho ba tarafho harakat namekunand, zoviyai binishi onho dar holati oromy 80-110 darajaro tashkil mekunand. Ba in nigoh nakarda, gardani plostikii on qobiliyati ba osoni 360 daraja davr zadanro dorad.

Bum nisbat ba inson qobiliyati shabona dah marotiba beshtar didanro dorad. Dar muqoisa bo baze parrandagon Bumho qobiliyati 6 marotiba beshtar durro di­danro dorand.Jolib az hama on ast, ki bumho ranghoro farq namekunand. Ba iborai digar, onho khdma chizro dar rangi siyohu safed mebinand. Hissi shunavoii onho khele taraqqi kardaast. Dar torikii komil onho metavonand bo daqiqi joyi mushhoro az ruyi kadamashon muayyan kunand. Bad-in tartib, dar mavridi ham uzvi shunavoy va ham uzvi binoy donistan jolib ast.

Pursishho

  1. Sokhtori chashi chy tavr ast?
  2. Oyo azoi binoii hama hayvonot barobar taraqqi kardaast?
  3. Oyo hama shaklkhri chashmon yakkhelaand?
  4. Sokhtori chashm chy Guna ast? SHumo dar mavridi kh.ar yake az in sokhtor chy medoned?
  5. Az rui rasmhoi 6-7 shaklhoi chashmro takhdil bikuned.
  6. Oyo azoi binoii hama hayvonot yakkhelaand?
  7. Bo mavodhoi marbut ba rushdi azoi binoii hayvonot az rui kitobi «Asrori Tabiat» shinos shaved.
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