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MIZOJ

MIZOJ, sirisht, nihod, tabiat, khulq, khususiyati botinii tabiii odam, muvofiqi nazariyai tibbi qadim va tibbi khalqii yak qator mamlakathoi SHarq sirisht va tabiati inson ast, kayfiyatest, ki az omezishi chor unsur (yo anosiri arbaa) – otash, bod, khok va ob ba ham merasad. M. dar asosi irtibot va aloqamandii chor unsur, ki nom burda shudand, 4 khilt (moddahoi asosii moei dokhili badan – khun, balgam, safro va savdo) va 4 khususiyati iqlimi – harorat (garmi), burudat (khunuki), rutubat (nami) va yubusat (khushki) kashf va muqarrar karda shudaast. Onho ba tabiati 4 fasli sol (bahor, tobiston, tiramoh va zimiston) va 4 uzvi asosii badan (dil, mayna, sipurz va jigar) nisbat doda shudaand. Nazariyai M. az qadimtarin va mashhurtarin nazariyahoi ilmi tib meboshad. Ba aqidai bisyore az ulamoi tib chor unsur, ki onhoro arkon yo asli hamai jismho niz menomand, basit (gayri murakkab) budaand, yane bo gayri zoti khud tarkib nayoftaand va hangome, ki arkon bisyor reza-reza meshavand, azoi onho bo ham omekhta gardida, ba hadde felu afol menamoyand, ki surati vahdati kayfiyati digare, surati vahdoni hosil mekunand, ki on M. ast. Sababi paydoishi bemoriho, tamomi khususiyathoi fiziologii badani inson (az kudaki navzod to kuhansolon), norasoiho va digargunihoi iqlimiyu jugrofi dar asnoi bemori, tabiati khurok, nushokiho, doruho va g. hama vobasta ba M. donista meshud. Ba qavli Arastu, Buqrot va Jolinus akhloti chahorgona (chor khalt), yane khun, balgam, safro va savdo, har kadom dar badani inson az unsurhoi muhimi beruna (az 4 unsur) ba vujud meoyand. Abualii Sino in nazariyaro rad namuda, isbot mekunad, ki akhloti chahorgona dar dokhili uzvhoi khudi badan hosil meshavand. Akhloti chahorgona dar yak rang, dar yak holat va mizon nameistand, balki hamesha dar holati tagyir va harakat meboshand va manbai quvvahoi asosii organizm (hayvoni, nafsoni, his, harakat va tafakkur) ba shumor meravand. Tavsifi in akhlot, tabiati onho, salohiyat va foidai onho dar badan dar jadval doda shudaand.
Fiziologi rus I. P. Pavlov nakhustin bor khelhoi mizoji odamonro az rui navhoi sistemai asab judo karda, 4 guruhi onro – sangvini (damavi), kholeri (savdovi), melankholi (safroi) va flegmati (balgami) muqarrar va az jihati ilmi asosnok namud, ki in guruhho ba nazariyai M. muvofiqat mekunand va har yake az onho, chunon ki dar jadval dida meshavad, ba afzaliyati in yo on khilt dar badan aloqamand ast.
M.-i inson ba chigunagii omezishi chor unsur va 4 khosiyati onho vobastaast. Az in jihat M. ba du nav taqsim meshavad: M.-i mutadil va M.-i nomutadil. Ba iborai tibbi guem, «chun ajzoi arkon (chor unsur) mumossi yakdigar shavad, kayfiyati mutazodai baze dar baze amal kunad va agar mizoj bar manhaji vasat (ba yakdigar maylkunanda) dar miyoni kayfiyoti mutaada voqe shavad, chunin mizojro mutadili haqiqi khonand. CHunin mizoj vujud nadorad, onro faqat ba tariqi faraz tavon angosht». YAne M.-i mutadil (M.-i odami javonu solim, ki az har jihat – az jihati quvva, his, tafakkur, zakovat va g. komil boshad) dar tabiat vujud nadorad yo kam vomekhurad. Ammo M.-e, ki dar miyoni kayfiyati mutazoda moili yakdigar boshad, yane M.-i nomutadil, iborat az 8 qism ast: 1) faqat moil ba harorat (garm); 2) faqat moil ba burudat (khunuk); 3) faqat moil ba rutubat (tar); 4) faqat moil ba yubusat (khushk); 5) moil ba harorat va yubusat (M.-i otash); 6) moil ba harorat va rutubat (M.-i obu havo); 7) moil ba burudat va yubusat (M.-i khok) va 8) moil ba burudat va rutubat (M.-i ob).
M.-i nomutadil 4 daraja doshta, har kadome ba 3 poya taqsim meshavad. Hamai jismho, mineralho, khurokvori, nabotot, doruho, az jumla uzvhoi hayvonot, az rui rang, buy, tam va tasiri khud ba organizm muvofiqi hamin darajaho va poyaho tasnif karda shudaand. 4 darajai M.-ro az rui tasiri doru ba organizm muayyan mekardand, ki meyori on taqriban chunin bud (ba iborai tibbi): 1) agar miqdori kami on ba badani ahdos (javon va solim) kayfiyate ziyodu golib nanamoyad, miqdori bisyor va takrori istemoli on tagyiri kame namoyad, ammo noqisu mukhtal (vayron) nasozad, darajai avvali guyand; 2) agar miqdori kami on kayfiyati golib va zoid namoyad, ammo ziyodatii miqdor va takrori istemoli on ba haddi zarar va fasod narasad, darajai soniya nomand; 3) agar ziyodatii miqdor va kasrati istemoli on ba zararu fasod va nuqsonu ikhtilol rasad, lekin muhlik (halokatovar) naboshad, darajai solisa guyand; 4) agar zarari bisyor va azim dar ruh va quvvaho namoyad, ba haddi halokat rasonad va muhlik boshad, darajai robia nomand. Tibbi qadim chunin meshumorad, ki mizoni 4 akhlot yo M.-i inson dar badan boyad ba darajai zaruri, yane qadre boshad, ki baroi organizm hatman lozim ast. Agar ba sababi sharoiti iqlim yo rioya nakardani rejim va g. in mizon vayron shavad, on boisi bemori va hatto halokat megardad. Bemoronro dar asosi prinsipi «unsurhoi ba ham zid» muolija mekardand. Mas., bemorie, ki az afzoishi mizoni garmi va khushki paydo shudaast, bo doruhoi khunuk va tar, ammo bemorie, ki ba sababi afzudani mizoni khunuki va nami paydo shudaast, bo dorui garmu khushk muolija karda meshud. Agar M.-i bemor garm va doruhoe, ki ba u dodan zarur ast, niz tabiatan garm boshand, ba on doru to darajai muayyan giyoh yo khurokhoi tabiatan khunuk ilova karda meshud va g. Muvofiqi nazariyai tibbi qadim M.-i odamon ba jins, sinnu sol, iqlim vobastaast. Dar «Al-Qonun» gufta meshavad, ki M.-i kudakon va navrason nazar ba kalonsolon garmtar va namnoktar, M.-i kuhansolon sardu khushk, M.-i zanon nazar ba M.-i mardon khunuktar va namnoktar, M.-i sokinoni mamlakathoi shimol nazar ba M.-i shakhsone, ki dar janub istiqomat mekunand, namnoktar ast. Ba har uzvi dokhilii badan M.-i makhsuse niz khos meboshad. Ba qavli Ibni Sino tartib va nisbati uzvhoi garmi badan chunin ast: garmii M.-i ruh ziyodtar ast (>) az dil > khun > jigar > shush > mushakho >sipurz > gurda va g.; uzvhoi M.-i khunuk: balgam khunuktar (>) az charbu > muy > ustukhon > tagoyak > payho > pardaho > asabho > harommagz > maynai sar > pust va g.; uzvhoi tar: rutubati balgam ziyodtar ast (>) az khun > ravgan > maynai sar > harommagz > piston > tukhmdon > shush > jigar > sipurz > gurda > mushakho > pust; uzvhoi M.-i khushk: khushkii muyho ziyodtar (>) az ustukhon > tagoyak > payho > pardaho > ragho > asabhoi harakat > dil > asabhoi hissiyot > pust. Agziya va adviya (khurokvoriho va doruho) ba chunin guruhho taqsim meshavand: 1) gizoi mutlaq – khurokvorihoe, ki faqat khususiyati gizoi doshta, M.-i odamro tagyir namedihand; 2) davoi mutlaq – moddahoe, ki khosiyati gizoi nadorand, vale metavonand M.-i odamro digar kunand; 3) gizoi davoi – moddahoe, ki khosiyati gizoii onho nazar ba tasiri davoii onho ziyodtar yo qavitar ast (bodiring, kadu, kharbuza, angur, shalgam, sabzi, mosh, lubiyo va g.); 4) davohoi gizoi – moddahoe, ki tasiri davoii onho nisbat ba khususiyati gizoiashon ziyodtar ast (nano, sir, kosni, tut, olu va g.); 5) moddai zulkhosiyatayn – dar barobari tasir ba M. boz tasiri makhsus ham dorand. Mas., zahrho, ki baraksi faoliyati organizm tasir karda tamomi uzvho, quvvaho va garmii tabiii badanro kharob namuda, boisi dardu mashaqqat va hatto holati margovar megardand; podzahrho va taryokho, ki bo tasiri makhsusi khud quvvaho, garmi va tanzimi badanro barqaror, tasiri zahrhoro bartaraf va organizmro solimu mustahkam menamoyand.
Akhlot Tabiat Salohiyat Anvoi mizoji odamon
Hun (lot. Sanguis) hor va ratb (garm va tar) mizoji bod Lavni (rangi) u ahmar, tami u dilnokash va shirintar az digar akhlot, foidai u dar badan in ast, ki tagziya, taskhin va tartib mekunad Sangvini
Safro (yun. Chole) hor va yobis (garm va khushk) Lavni u ahmar moil ba sufrat (zardcha), tami u talkhtar, foidai u dar badan on ast, ki chize az u bo khun munzam shavad, tagziyai baze azo kunad hamchun riya va bahdat, khud talattifi khun boshad, qati rutuboti lazja (chaspak) az jigar kunad va badanro garm dorad, muovini dafi fuzulot shavad. Holeri
Savdo (yun. Melancholia borid va yobis (khunuk va khushk) Tami u tursh ast, salohiyati on dorad, ki chize az on bo khun munzam shavad, baze azoro hamchun ezom (ustukhon) gizo dihad va az tehol (sipurz) ba zammi meda munsib shavad, bar shahvat biyafzoyad va khuni raqiqro galiz gardonad chun bo u mukhtalit shavad. Melankholi
Balgam (limfa; yun. Phlegma borid va ratb (khunuk va tar) Tami on ba tami ob qarib ast, salohiyati on dorad, ki khun shavad, foidai u dar badan on ast, ki agar vaqte badan gizo nayobad, tabiati uro nafj (nami) dihad va ba martabae rasonad, ki gizo shavad va niz az favoidi u on ast, ki tartibi azo kunad alalkhusus mafosilro (bandu bugumhoro). Flegmati

Ad.: Kapranov V. A., Rahim Hoshim, Hikmati asarho, D., 1975; Abuali ibni Sino, Qonuni tib, kitobi I, D.,1991; Zohidov H., Kanzi shifo, D., 1999.

YU. N. Nuraliev.

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