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MIKROBIOLOGIYA

mikrobiologiyaMIKROBIOLOGIYA, ilmest doir ba mavjudoti khurde, ki onhoro bo chashm natavon did. M. sokhti mikrobho, tarkibi khimiyavi va qonuniyati faoliyati hayotii onhoro muayyan namuda, tagyirpaziri va irsiyatu robitai mutaqobilai mikrbhoro bo dig. organizmho, az jumla bo odam va hayvonot, inchunin mavqei onhoro dar tashakkuli biosfera meomuzad. Dar rafti inkishof M. bo shokhahoi zerin judo shud: umumi, kishovarzi, veterinari, tibbi va sanoati.
M.-i umumi qonuniyati faoliyati hayotii mikrobhoro hamchun organizm va mavqei onhoro dar nigahdorii hayoti rui zamin, az jumla dar gardishi karbon, nitrogen, energiya meomuzad. M.-i kishovarzi faoliyati mikrobhoro dar tashakkuli khok, gizoi rastani, konservonii khuroki chorvo (silos), inchunin tasiri onhoro dar inkishofi kasalihoi rastani muayyan menamoyad. Vazifai M-i tekhniki yo sanoati omuzishi jarayoni khimiyavie meboshad, ki zeri tasiri mikrobho paydo shuda, ba hosil gashtani atseton, spirt, kislotahoi oganiki va g. musoidat mekunad. Solhoi okhir dar sohai M.-i tekhniki istehsoli vitaminho, aminokislotaho va antibiotikho khele pesh raftaast. Ba M.-i tibbi bakteriologiya dokhil meshavad, ki on angezandai bemorihoi siroyatiro meomuzad. Mikologiya, protozoologiya, virusologiya niz ba M-i tibbi mansuband. Mikologiya zanburughoi bemoriangez, protozoologiya organizmhoi yakhujayrai kasaliovar va virusologiya virushoi bemorizoro meomuzad.
Bori avval malumoti saheh oid ba mikrobho, dar nimai duyumi a.17 az tarafi olimi golandi A. Levenguk ba dast ovarda shudaast. u bo mikroskopi oddie, ki ashyoro 250 – 300 marotiba kalon nishon medihad, dar ob, chirki dandon va qiyomho «mavjudoti zinda»-ero mushohida namud. Ammo M. chun ilm az nimai duyumi a. 19 bad az tadqiqoti olimi fransavi L. Paster, olimi nemis R. Kokh va olimoni rus I. I. Mechnikov, S. N. Vinogradskiy va D. I Ivanovskiy bosurat inkishof yoftaast. Dar asnoi tadqiqoti L. Paster tarz (mekhanizm)-hoi gunoguni turshshavi daryoft shuda, mavqei mikrobho dar amali gardonidani mekhanizmi turshshavi muayyan gasht. Tadqiqoti L. Paster doir ba angezandai vaboi murg, sukhtani va hori bahri peshgirii bemorihoi siroyati zamina guzoshtand. Pajuhishhoi R. Kokh ba muqarrar namudani angezandahoi sukhtani, sil va vabo imkon dodand. I. I Mechnikov asosguzori talimoti hozirai masuniyati odam va hayvon nisbat ba bemorihoi siroyati meboshad. u jarayoni fagositozro kafsh namud va dar ravandi on vazifai leykositho, hujayrahoi sipurz va magzi ustukhonro muayyan kard. Tadqiqoti S.I. Vinogradskiy mavqei bakteriyahoro dar gardishi nitrogeni tabiat muayyan namud, ki bahri serhosilii ziroat ahamiyati kalon dorad. Dar asosi dastovardtho muyassar gasht, ki bemorihoi siroyati kam, baze kasalihoi benihoyat vaznin, ba monandi nagzak va toun nest karda shavand.
Dar Tojikiston az s-hoi 40 in jonib dar sohai M. tadqiqot mebarand. Dar navbati avval lozim omad, ki tarkib va khususiyati mikroflorai khok omukhta shavand. Sipas tadqiqi gustarishi guruhi bakteriyahoi azotanduzi aerobi dar khokhoi Tojikistoni SHimoli va mikroorganizmhoi khokhoi jumhuri ogoz yoft. S.-hoi 50-um roli mikroorganizmho dar hosil kardani soda (karbonati natriy) va shurkhoki karbonati dar janubi jumhuri, bo tasiri aktinomisetho tagyir yoftani tarkibi khok omukhta shudand. Barobari tasis yoftani In-ti tadqiqoti ilmii sanitariyu bakteriologi dar Dushanbe (1931) M.-i tibbii nazariyavi va amali tashakkul yoft. Az tarafi bakteriologhoi jumhuri etiologiyai bemorihoi ruda, guluzindonak va ahamiyati shaklhoi tagyiryoftai bakteriyahoi isholi khunin mavridi tadqiq qaror giriftand.
Nig. niz Bakteriologiya.

S. Sattorov.

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