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MIQYOS VA NAMUDHOI OH

Az tarifi naqsha fahmidem, ki miqyos (masshtab) shakli khurdkardai qitai sathi Zamin meboshad. Baroi khurd karda ba naqsha giriftani qitai sathi Zamin az miqyos istifoda mebarem. Dar mahale, ki onro mo ba naqsha megirem, masofa bo metr va kilometrho chen karda meshavad. Muvofiqi Miqyosi intikhobkardaamon onhoro ba santimetr va millimetrkho tabdil doda, naqshai mahalro tartib medihem.

Miqyos gunogun meshavad: adadi, khatti va nomi.

Miqyosn adadi. Pesh az on ki ba miqyosi adadi shinos shavem, boyad donist, ki khudi miqyos chist? Miqyos adadi kasri buda, surati on vohid va makhraji on shumoraest, ki dar naqsha nisbat ba mahal chand marotiba khurd karda shudani masofai asliro ifoda menamoyad. Agar mukhtasar karda guem, miqyos nisbati masofai nuktaho dar naqsha bar masofai aslii onhoro nishon medihad.

miqyos

Miqyos dar khama qismi naqsha yak khel meboshad. On oa mo buzurgii nazar ba mahal dar naqsha khurd kardani masofaro anik nishon medihad. Baroi misol naqshai dar Miqyosi 1:1000 tartibdodaro (rasmi 6) takhlil menamoem. Dar on khududi mahal (tamomi masofai makhal) nisbat ba aslash 1000 marotiba khurd karda ba naqsha girifta shudaast. Dar poyoni naqsha bo tanosubi 1:1000 navishta shudaast, ki onro miqyosi adady menomand, chunki vay faqat bo adad ifoda shudaast. On dar naqsha nisbat ba makhal chand marotiba khurd kardani masofaro ifoda mekunad. Darajai khurd kardani masofaro az raqami makhraji kasri miqyosi adadi fahmidan mumkin ast. Agar raqam dar makhraji kasr khar qadar kalon boshad, masofa dar naqsha mutanosiban hamon qadar khurd, agar khurd boshad, kalon nishon doda meshavad.

  1. Miqyosi khatti. Dar naqsha Miqyosi khatti bo khathoi rost ifoda karda meshavad. Onro ba qismathoi barobar taqsim namuda, dar khar yak hissai taqsimshuda masofai asly, yane ba makhal barobarro menavisand. Ba hamii sabab in mnqyosro mnkyosi khatti menomand. Kashidan va tartib dodani on dushvor nest. Baroi in avval dar okhiri qismi chapi naqsha khathoi rosti muvozy kashida, ba miqdori 1 sm judo karda, az tarafi rosti on 0 meguzorem. Bad az on in 1 sm-ro ba 10 hissai barobar taqsim menamoem. Sipas az 0 cap karda porchai boqimondan khathoi rostro ba qismho (1 sm) taqsim namuda, dar boloi har yak qism masofai aslii ba mahal muvofiqbudaro menavisem. In namudi miqyosro hangomi az rui naqsha ijro kardani korhoi chenkuni vase istifoda mebarand. Tavassuti on masofai bayni nuqtaho va andozai obekthoi dar naqshai mahal sabtgardida khele aniq chen karda meshavad. Az rui miqyosi khatty va bo yorii pargor na tanho darozii khathoi rost, balki darozii khathoi kajro ham muayyan kardan mumkin ast.
  2. Miqyosi nomy. Baroi sahekhtar va behtar kashidan va chen kardani masofai baynn nuqtaho va andozai predmetho dar naqsha az Miqyosi nomi niz istifoda mebarand. Odatan onro bo kalima ifoda mekunand. Dar naqshae, ki (rasmi 7) bo miqyosi edadii 1:1000 tartib doda shudaast, 1 sm dar naqsha ba 1000 sm dar mahal rost meoyad. Agap onro bo Miqyosi nomi ifoda namoem, dar on surat vay chunin navishta meshavad: 1 santimetr 10 metr. Inro buzurgii miqyos menomand. Bo on masofai bayni du nuqtai mahal muayyan karda, dar naqsha kashida meshavad. Hamin tavr, Miqyosero, ki bo kalima ifoda karda meshavad, miqyosi nomi menomand. Masalan, darozii bogi nazdi makgab chn qadar ast? Agar darozii bo jadval chenkardai bogi nazdi maktab 7 sm va buzurgii Miqyos 10 m boshad, baroi yoftani darozii on 7 sm-ro ba 10 m zarb mezanem: 7 • 10 m = 70 m. Az in jo malum meshavad, ki darozii bogi maktab 70 m budaast.

Odatan dar naqshakho mahalro dar miqyosi na khurdtar az 1:10000 inikos mekunand. Dar poyoni naqsha har se namudi miqyos: adady, khatti. nomy navishta meshavand.

Savol va suporish

Miqyos chist? On baroi chy lozim ast? 2. Kadom namudhoi miqyosro medoned va onho az yakdigar chy farq dorand? 3. Masofai 55 metrro bo Miqyosi 1 sm – 10 metr bo tarzi khati rosg ifoda kuned. 4. Az naqshai atlas (sah. 5) darozii rohi ohanro muayyan kuned. Baroi chen kardani on az porcha istifoda bared. 5. Dar Miqyosi adadi chand marotiba khurd kardani masofaro az chy fahmidan mumkin ast?

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