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MIAZ

miazMIAZ (Myiasis; az yun. myia – magas), miazho, bemorii odamu hayvonot, ki dar natijai ba bofta yo javfi organizm roh yoftani kirminai magas ruy medihad. Vobasta ba mavqei kirmina M.-ho sathi va amiq meshavand. Inchunin az rui baze farqiyati amaliyu vogiri M.-hoi sayyori rakh-rakh va nodiri pust niz mavjudand.
Angezandai M.-hoi sathi, odatan, kirminahoi magasi gusht, magasi loshai bahori, magasi loshai sabz, magasi loshai khokistari va hatto magashoi khona meboshand. Magasho ba buyi boftahoi pusida parida omada, dar zakhmu reshhoi fasodnok, kharoshho va dig. joyhoi osebdidai pust, luobpardai bini, chashm, chinhoi atrofi uzvhoi tanosul tukhm meguzorand. Kirminahoi az tukhm baromada khele sershumorand va tamomi mabdai illatro faro megirand. Onho chun qitachahoi safedi khokistari ba nazar merasand (dar on jo kirminaho dar pechutoband).
Az joygirii kirminaho dar zakhm bemor, odatan, yagon norohatie his namekunad. Faqat bazan badan kame khorish yo bijir-bijir menamoyad (dar badan «murgak» medavad). Kirminaho aslan na boftai pusti solim, balki faqat fasod va boftahoi mavjudaro istemol mekunand. Badi ba anjom rasidani davri afzoish, kirminaho az pust judo shuda, berun az badani odam ba zocha mubaddal megardand. M.-i sathi bazan ba tavri shadid jarayon meyobad, ki on hangomi dar atrofi multahimai chashm, luobpardai bini va gush joy giriftani fasod mushohida meshavad. Agar kirminahoi magasi khona ba shosharoha (noyi shoshaguzar, uretra) vorid gardand, M.-i uzvhoi shoshayu tanosul sar mezanad. Dar in mavrid kirminaho ba shosharoha ham dar natijai ba joyhoi iflos aftidani tukhmhoi magas va dar on jo ba kirmina tabdil yoftani onho va ham bevosita az chinhoi beruni uzvhoi tanosul vorid megardand. Agar odam kirminahoi baze navhoi magashoi nomburdaro furu barad va dar ayni hol turshii shirai medaash kam boshad, mumkin ast u ba M.-i ruda giriftor shavad. Dar chunin mavrid ruda dard karda, odamro zurzanii dardnoki dafi zarurat (tenezma) azob medihad, zud-zud darun meravad. Bemori, odatan, shadid va makhsusan hangomi siroyati takror khele tuloni jarayon megirad. Bemor bo najosati obaki kirminahoi zindaro ikhroj mekunad. Kirminaho bo qay niz judo meshavand.
Ba guruhi M.-hoi amiq bemorihoi sabab va khususiyathoi amaliashon gunogun mansuband. YAke az omilhoi umumii onho ba pust, nasji charbii zeri pust va boftahoi daruni vorid gashtani kirmina va nafaqat pusti bemor, inchunin pusti solimro niz faro giriftani jarayoni bemori meboshad. M.-hoi amiq jarayoni badfarjom dorand. M.-i amiqi muqarrari, M.-i afriqoi (yo kordilobioz) va M.-i Amerikai Janubi (yo dermatobioz) az qabili M.-hoi amiq ba shumor meravand.
M.-i amiqi muqarrari ham dar kishvarhoi iqlimashon garm va ham mutadil mushohida meshavad. Angezandai on, odatan, kirminahoi magashoyand. Magasi modina, odatan, dar pusti az kharosh, zakhm, reshi rimnok osebdida tukhm meguzorad. Kirminaho nafaqat boftahoi favtida, inchunin boftahoi solimro niz mekhurand. Hangomi bo diqqat muoina kardan, harakati khosi kirminahoro didan mumkin ast. Onho dar zeri kanorahoi zakhm va chinho guruh-guruh maskan megirand. Kirminaho boftahoro nobud karda, nafaqat sababi osebi onho, inchunin hatto boisi nuqsonhoi amiq megardand. Dar chunin marvid tabi bemor baland meshavad, sar dard mekunad, beholu bemador megardad, az hush meravad va dardi shadidu noorom uro azob medihad.
Gayr az pust kirminaho dar luobpardai bini, dahon, chashm niz joy megirand. Kirminaho luobpardaro mahv namuda, dar boftaho ba khud roh mekushoyand va to mushakpardayu ustukhonparda merasand. Dar natija ikhtiloli pahnoi nafaqat boftahoi narm, inchunin boftahoi tagoyaku ustukhoni halqum, halqbini, kosakhonai chashm, gushi mobayni rukh menamoyad. Hodisahoe niz malumand, ki bemori boisi tabohii purrai guzai chashm, sar zadani ensefalit va halokati mariz gardidaast.
Kirminahoi magasi volfarti dar badani odam 3 – 6 ruz zista, bad judo shuda meaftand. Onho berun az badani odam ba zocha tabdil meyoband, ammo hamin muhlat ba ikhtiloli amiqi pust basanda ast. Bazan magasho az nav dar zakhm tukhm meguzorand. Goho mabdai M.-hoi amiqi muqarrari dar natijai dar on jo tukhm guzoshtani digar shaklhoi magas ba mabdai «omekhta» tabdil meyobad.
M.-i afriqoi beshtar dar Afriqo pahn gashtaast. Angezandai on magasi Cardilobia anthropofaga meboshad. Modinai magas dar khoki az pasafkandu peshob iflosshuda sadho tukhm meguzorad. Kirminahoi az tukhm baromada hangomi tamos ba pusti odam va baze hayvonot (sag, kallamush) vorid megardand. Ba bemori beshtar kudakon dar natijai khokbozi va kalonsoloni mashguli kishtukor giriftor meshavand. Badi 1 – 2 ruz joyi voridgashtai kirmina mabdai purkhun paydo karda, dar buni on hangomi palmosidan khessai girehnok his meshavad. Dar ruzhoi avval barobari kalon shudan, khessa ba girehi puchakshakl tabdil meyobad. Dere naguzashta buni on narm megardad va madda mekunad. Hangomi madda kardan, gireh va atrofi on sakht dard menamoyad. Holi bemor vaznin gashta, beholi rukh medihad, azoi badan dard mekunad va mumkin ast harorat baland shavad.
Dar ruzhoi 12 yo 15-umi bemori madda kafida, az surokhi on ki ba javfi gireh payvast ast, kirmina namoyon meshavad. Darozii kirmina dar in davrai inkishof 10 – 15 mm ast. Sipas on az badan judo shuda, dar khok ba zocha mubaddal megardad. Dere naguzashta zakhm shifo meyobad. M.-i Amrikoi Janubi asosan dar kishvarhoi subtropikii Amerikai Lotini mushohida meshavad. Angezandai on kirminai kharmagasi odam meboshad. Hangomi bemori modinai magas dar badani hasharoti dubolai khunmak (pashsha, kurpashsha, magas) va baze shaklhoi kana tukhm meguzorad. Dar on jo az tukhm kirminaho mebaroyand. Sipas hangomi ba badani odam nishastani chunin hasharot kirmina darhol ba pust vorid megardad. Badi chand ruz dar joi voridgashta khessai gazakgirifta, sipas girehi zeripusti paydo meshavad, ki ba madda tabdil meyobad. Madda kafida, az on miqdori kami zardobu fasod mebaroyad. Sipas dar joyi madda surokhi boqi memonad, ki baroi nafas kashidani kirmina zarur ast. Dar surokhii madda kirmina bad az 1 – 1,5 moh inkishof yoftan (dar in muddat darozii on 20 – 25 mm ast), az badani odam badar meoyad va dar khok ba zocha mubaddal megardad. Dar in davra odam norohatii ziyod his namekunad, faqat joyi zakhm, makhsusan dar davrai ba voya rasidani kirmina, kame dard mekunad. Bemori, odatan, nek meanjomad.
M.-i sayyori rakh-rakhro kirminahoi baze khelhoi kharmagas ba vujud meovarand. Kirminaho ba qabati poyoni pustparda vorid shuda, dar on jo ba khud rohhoi kaju kileb mekushoyand. Bemori ham dar manotiqi garmser va ham dar kishvarhoi iqlimashon mutadil vomekhurad. Dar solhoi okhir M.-i rakh-rakhro bisyor olimon tavsif kardaand, angezandai on kirminai kharmagasi oilahoi gunogun meboshad.
Ba bemori odamon beshtar tobiston giriftor meshavand. Modinai kharmagas ba pashmi chorvo tukhm meguzorad. Dar davrai maskuniyati khud kirminaho dar daruni pust roh kushoda, boisi khorish megardand. Hangomi joyhoi khorishnoki badanro lesidani hayvonot kirminaho ba zabon, sipas ba medayu ruda meguzarand. Dar medayu ruda ba voya rasida, kirminaho bo najosati hayvon khorij meshavand. Odam beshtar az hayvonote, ki dar badanashon (pashmashon) kirminahoi davrai avvali inkishofro dorand, siroyat meyobad. Kirmina bo uzvi gazandai khud (changakhoi khitini) qabathoi boloi pustpardaro surokh karda, voridi on megardad. Sipas dar pustparda va pust rohhoi darozi nohamvor (ba misoli naqb) mekushoyad. Dar joyi voridgashtai kirmina donachai khorishnok mebaroyad. Kirmina faqat shabona harakat mekunad va har shab az 4 – 5 to 25 – 30 sm rohro tay menamoyad.
Bazan bo yorii suzan kirminaro berun ovardan imkonpazir ast. Hangomi bemori varami rakhhoi nakhustin tadrijan past, rangashon jigari gashta, bazan pust merezad. Ba bemori zanon va kudakoni nafispust giriftor meshavand. Bemori shakhsro norohat namesozad, faqat u kame khorish va suzish his mekunad.
Baroi peshgirii M.-ho rioyai qoidahoi behdoshti shakhsi, tozayu ozoda nigoh doshtani manzil, obodonii mahalhoi aholinishin, nest kardani magasho, pushida mondani khurokvori zarur meboshand.
Ad.: Zoirov P. T., Bemorihoi pust, D., 1999; hamon muallif, Bolezni koji, D., 2002; hamon muallif, CHastnaya dermatologiya i venerologiya, D., 2007.

P. T. Zoirov.

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