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MEZOLIT VA NEOLIT

Zamoni mezolit va neolitro odatan ba 10–15 hazor sol takhmin mekunand. Lekin davomi in davrai hayoti insoni dar har mahal har khel budaast. Dar asosi malumot va madrakhoi mavjudai arkheologi ba chunin khulosa omadan mumkin ast, ki aholii Osiyoi Miyona dar in davra khele sershumor gardida, dar sharoiti sokhti qabilavii modarshohi zindagoni mekardaand. Dar in davra oloti istehsolot nisbatan mukammal va behtar megardad. Usulhoi navi asbobu olotsozi: sayqal dodan, parma va arra kardan, ki dar guzashta az onho hej asare nabud, ba tavri vase pahn meshavand. Sohahoi navi khojagi, az qabili kuloli, ziroat va chorvodori niz ba vujud meoyand. Muvofiqi sharoiti tabii dar nohiyahoi gunoguni Osiyoi Miyona makonhoi shikorchiyoni mohigir, shikorchiyoni chorvodor yo khud barzgaroni ibtidoi paydo meshavand.

Osori mezolit

mezolitOsori davrai mezolit khususan dar mahalhoi sohili Kaspi ba tavri mufassal tadqiq shudaast. Namunai barjastai on bozyofti diqqatangezi A.P.Okladnikov — gori Jabal meboshad. Malumot va madrakhoi az in jo badastomada dar solhoi okhir ba tavassuti kashfi boz yak makhzani yodgorihoi qadima – gori Zamzamchashma afzuntar gardid. Dar tabaqahoi purshumori maskuni in gorho va digar yodgorihoi nazdiki Kaspi dahho va sadho asbobu abzori khurdi sangichakhmoqi boqi mondaast, ki az bayni onho, alalkhusus, oloti shakli handasi: qitai doira (segment), sekunja, shakli munharif (trapetsiya) jolibi diqqat ast. Malumot va madrakhoi arkheologi shahodat medihand, ki dar davrai mezolit va ogozi neolit dar barobari shikori hayvonot saydi mohi va gizogundori rivoj meyobad. YOdgorihoi sohili Kaspi bo khosiyati khud ba madaniyati hamonvaqtai Osiyoi Pesh qarobat dorand[1].

hangomi kovishi boshishgohi Tutqavul dar mahalli sokhtmoni GES-i Norak osori nodiri mezolit ba dast omad. Dar in jo dar qatori oloti mamuli mezoliti Osiyoi Pesh (kordhoi sangii yakdama, segmentho va g.) oloti dagal-tare niz yoft shud, ki onho mezoliti hazorahoi HIII–VII to milodi Tutqavulro bo madaniyati davrahoi sonitari hisor marbut mesozand. Osori Darai SHur ham makonan va ham tavsifan ba madaniyati nomburda nazdik ast. In osor dar 20 km sharqtari Tutqavul voqe meboshad.

Dar boshishgohi Obikiik, ki dar joi az qatorkuhi Rangintog baromadani rohi Dushanbe – Qurgonteppa joy giriftaast, yak silsila oloti ajoibi mezolit yoft shud.

Ammo osori dar Pomir kashfshuda az in yodgoriho ba kulli farq mekunad. Dar in jo, dar sharoiti favquloddai kuhiston, dar irtifoi mutlaqi az 3,5 hazor to 4,2 hazor metr az sathi bahr, balandtarin dar jahon qarorgohi odamone yoft shud, ki 95 hazor sol pesh zindagi ba sar burdaand (in sana ba vositai tahqiqi fizikii angishti otashdoni qarorgohi Oshkhona muayyan gardidaast)[2].

In khosiyatan madaniyati digarest, ki az mezoliti  garbi ba kulli farq mekunad. Dar on asosan asbobu oloti durusht, misli belchahoi az sangi qayroq sokhtashuda, ba nazar merasand, yane dar in jo beshtar tekhnikai davrai paleolit hukmfarmo buda, az olathoi handasi asare ham dida nameshavad. On aslan qarorgohi shikorchiyon budaast, ki dar fasli tobiston ba in mahalli az sayd farovon kuchida meomadaand. Dar qarorgohi Oshkhona chor tabaqai maskun kashf gardid, besh az 10 hazor olat jam karda shud[3].

Osori neolit

Takhminan 9–7 hazor sol qabl az in asri navi sang ogoz yoftaast.

Dar Osiyoi Miyona se umumiyati madanii tarikhiro, ki az yakdigar bo sharoiti zindagi va osori khud farq mekunand, metavon ayonan mushohida namud. Dar hamin marhila dar hayoti jamiyati insoni tagyiroti tarikhi ruy medihad. Insoniyat az masraf va zakhirai nemat ba tavlid va istehsoli on qadam meguzorad – joi shikor va gizogundoriro ziroat va chorvodori ishgol menamoyad. In digarguniro goho «inqilobi neolit» menomand. Albatta, voqean in tavr nest, balki in nom faqat shartist.

Dar tuli domanai Kopetdog on vaqtho maskanhoi ahli madaniyati Jaytun – qabilahoe, ki az tamomi qavmu toifahoi sokini Ittifoqi Soveti peshtar ba ziroat shuru namudaand, voqe gardida budand. Onho dar dehkadahoi qabilavi, dar khonahoi kulukhi zindagoni mekardand. CHorvodori niz az mashguliyathoi asosii onho ba shumor meraft. Asbobu oloti dehqonii onvaqta aksaran az doshoi sodai sangichakhmoqi iborat budand, ki onho 36,5 foizi olathoi tadqiqshudaro tashkil menamoyand. Az navhoi ziroat beshtar gandum va jav koshta meshud. Dar qatori aslihavu abzori sangichakhmoqi porahoi zarfi gili ham paydo gardidand, ki az mavjudiyati kuloli dar on zamon guvohi medihand. Zarfho dasti sokhta, bazan bo khathoi islimi va naqshunigori turoso oro doda meshudand. In holo qadimtarin namunai osori kulolii Osiyoi Miyona meboshad.

Ba sanati safoliyoti Jaytun khele farovon budani asbobhoi maydai sangi khos ast. Dar in jo paykoni tir yo nayza mutlaqo duchor nashud. Az afti kor, asbobi mehnat va jang az sanghoi mayda sokhta shuda, bad vasl karda meshud[4].

Dar hamon davraho baroi safolpazi kuravu khumdonhoi makhsus vujud doshtand, garchande khudi asbobhoi safoli kam istehsol meshud.

Dar yake az boshishgohhoi madaniyati Jaytun – dar CHuponteppa qabrhoe yoft shudand, ki khususiyati ba khud khos dorand va in khususiyat dar davrahoi soni ham ba nazar merasad va on iborat az hamin ast, ki qabr dar khudi boshishgoh dar rui havli yo dar dokhili khonaho kanda meshud. Dar bayni boshishgohhoi in madaniyat Passochiqteppa maqomi makhsus dorad va mahz dar hamin jo binoe yoft shud, ki, az afti kor, binoi jamiyati meboshad. Dar yake az devorhoi in bino bo rangi siyohu surkh surati darrandagonu charrandagon va naqshi ajoib kashida shudaast[5]. In surat yake az qadimtarin surathoi ruidevori dar SSSR meboshad.

Dar davrai neolit sokinoni sohilhoi kamborishi janubi Turkmaniston baroi obyori zohiran faqat damishi obro istifoda meburdand. Baroi in makhsus juyho mekandand va palho mesokhtand. Dar ayni hol dar majroi mobaynii daryovu daryochaho voqe budani baze boshishgohho shoyad daleli on boshad, ki obi on daryovu daryochaho baroi obyorii zaminhoi labi daryo istifoda burda meshud. CHorvodori khele ravnaq yofta boshad ham, ba tufayli shikor niz khele gusht (dar Jaytun qarib 25%) ba dast ovarda meshud, gayr az in pustu ustukhoni chorvo niz dar ruzgor ba kor meraft[6].

Dar makoni in madaniyat – Jaytun niz chandin mujassamachahoi gilii hayvonot va odamonro yoftaand. In mujassamaho, ba aqidai V.M.Masson, mabadhoi qabilavi meboshad[7]. Zamon va tarikhi mavjudiyati yodgorihoi asosii madaniyati Jaytun hazorai VI pesh az milod ast.

Qabilahoe, ki ba umumiyati digar taalluq doshtand, dar dashtu julgahoi Osiyoi Miyona, khususan dar vohai Bukhoro va kanorahoi bahri Aral hayot ba sar meburdand. YOdgorihoi az onho boqimondaro bo nomi «madaniyati Kaltamanor» yod mekunand. Vay asosan madaniyati shikorchiyon va mohidoron buda, bo hamin jihat az madaniyati pesh az in zikrshuda tafovut dorad. Kaltamanoriho, zohiran, dar marhalahoi okhiri taraqqiyoti khud ba rom kardani hayvonot va az khud kardani ziroati ibtidoi shuru namudaand. Sanai mamuli mavjudiyati in umumiyati qabilavi hazorai IV–III pesh az milod ast.

hamin tariq, dar on zamon inkishofi nomavzuni madaniyathoi asri sang ba amal meoyad. hafriyoti Jonbozqalai 4, ki az on jo boqimondahoi manzili kaloni girdashakli az chubu qamish sokhtashudai ba jamoai qabilavii iborat az 100 nafar va beshtar az on taalluqdoshta paydo gardid, hayoti qabilahoi kaltamanorro khele barjasta tasvir menamoyad. hamin nav manzili boz ham kalontar dar qarorgohi Kovati 7 yoft shud.

Hususiyati madaniyati Kaltamanor az olathoi khurdi sangichakhmoqi va inkishofi tekhnikai vasla zohir megardad. Sangi chakhmoq az kuhi Sultonuizdog ba dast ovarda meshud. Dar in jo koni sang va ustokhonai sokhtu pardokhti oloti sangichakhmoqi (Burli 3), ki ba davrai Kaltamanor taalluq doshtaast, paydo gardid. hamchunin az maskanhoi qadima bisyor asbobhoi safoli, az jumla safolhoi naqshunigorin yoft shudand[8].

Dar kuhiston va mahalhoi nazdi kuhsori Osiyoi Miyona umumiyati qabilavii sevum – madaniyati hisor makon yofta bud. In voqea ham «neoliti kuhiston» ast, yane davraest, ki bo sharoiti makhsusi zindagonii odamoni daranishin tavsif meyobad. Nakhustin muhaqqiqi madaniyati hisor A.P.Okladnikov jihathoi nihoyat farqkunandai olathoi sangii in madaniyatro, ki qismi asosii onhoro asbobu abzori qayroqsangi tashkil dodaand, khotirnishon namuda bud. Bozyofti chunin asbobu olot dar Osiyoi Miyona meboshad. Hususiyati digari in madaniyat iborat az on ast, ki dar bayni yodgorihoi on az asbobhoi safoli hej yak asare dida nameshavad. Ba aqidai A.P.Okladnikov, ahli madaniyati hisor avvalin barzgaroni viloyathoi kuhiston buda, dar barobari ziroat va chorvodori shikor ham dar hayoti onho mavqei khudro nigoh medoshtaast. Bozyofthoi Tutqavul (sohili chapi daryoi Vakhsh dar nazdikii Norak), ki on jo dar masohati kalone makoni bisyortabaqa va purosori onvaqta tadqiq meshavad, tarikhi paydoish va jarayoni inkishofi madaniyati hisorro ravshantar khohad namud.

Dar Tutqavul chor tabaqai maskun (du tabaqai madaniyati mezoliti hazorai H–VIII pesh az milod va du tabaqai mutaalliq ba khudi madaniyati hisor) kashf gardid. Dar tabaqahoi madaniyati hisor boqimondahoi otashdoni nimdoirai az sang chidashuda, iichunin «khonachaho»-i makhsusi az devorahoi chandqabatai sangi binoyofta paydo shudand. In guna sufachaho, ki zohiran hamchun bunyodi manzilhoi sabukbori chubi khizmat mekardaand, dar hafriyothoi SHarqi Nazdik niz daryob gardidand»[9].

Dar bayni beshtar az 40 hazor masnuoti asri sang, ki az hafriyoti Tutqavul ba dast omadaast, tabarhoi khubi sufta, kordhoi tez, abzorhoi dastii khonagi: darafsh, parma, belcha va bisyor olathoi sokhtu pardokhti chub mavjudand. Aslihai asosii shikori az nayza va sinon iborat bud, ki ba dastahoi chubi yo ustukhoni teg nishonda, bo mum va shiresh mahkam mekardand. Qismati asosii yodgorihoi madaniyati hisorro olathoi kaloni sangi qayroqi tashkil menamoyand. Asbobu oloti ustukhoni khele kam ba nazar merasad. Az hafriyoti in nohiya ustukhonho – avvalin osori antropologii ahli madaniyati hisor niz yoft shudand.

Muvofiqi usuli radiokarbi muayyan kardand, ki tabaqai boloii maskuni hisor 5150±140 sol pesh az milod vujud doshtaast.

Muqarrar kardani asoshoi iqtisodii marhalai tutqavulii madaniyati hisor nihoyatdaraja dushvor ast. Vale az madrakhoi arkheologi chunin barmeoyad, ki on maskani shikorchiyon va gundorandagoni nemathoi tabii nabuda, balki odamoni navakak ba shaklhoi istehsolkunandai khojagi qadamguzoshta meboshand. Iqtisodiyoti sokinoni qadimai Tutqavul beshtar ba marhalai «paydoishi ziroat va chorvodori» nazdik ast. YAk qator nishona va alomatho guvohi medihand, ki chorvodori mavqei asosi doshtaast. Dar bayni ustukhonhoi miqdoran kami hayvonot, ki az tabaqahoi maskuni berun ovarda shudaand, ustukhoni buz va gusfandi khonagi ba nazar merasand.

holo dar dasti mo baze dalelhoe mavjudand, ki baroi muayyan kardani hududi intishori madaniyati hisor imkon medihand. In nav yodgoriho asosan vohahoi sarzamini imruzai Tojikistonro faro giriftaand. YOdgorihoi mushobehi in, ki dar digar nohiyahoi kuhistoni Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla dar shimoli Tojikiston, Fargona va sohilhoi Issiqkul duchor meoyand, mutaassifona, to hol durust omukhta nashudaand.

Tarikhi mavjudiyati madaniyati hisor va sanahoi asosii osori on niz muayyan karda shud. Malum gardid, ki in madaniyat na kamtar az se hazor sol (hazorahoi VI–III pesh az milod) davom kardaast. YOdgorihoi davrai avvali in madaniyat dar Tutqavul, davrai miyona dar Kui Bulyoni Dangara va nihoyat davrai okhiri on dar Teppai Goziyoni hisor mahfuz mondaand[10].

Masalai guzashtan az madaniyati hisor ba fuluz hanuz ba darajai kofi tadqiq nagardidaast.

[1] Okladnikov A.P., 1966 a.

[2] Butomo S.V. va dig., 1964.

[3] Ranov V.A., 1962 b.

[4] Masson V.M., 1971, sah 27

[5] Dar hamon jo, s.51.

[6] Dar hamon jo, s. 81–89.

[7] Masson V.M., 1966 b, s. 88.

[8] Tolstov S.P., 1948 a. s. 59–66; Vinogradov A.V., 1968; Korobkova G.F., 1969.

[9] Iraidwood R.J. 1967, r. 106-107.

[10] Korobkova G. F., Ranov V. A., 1968.

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