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MEROSI ILMII IMOMI AZAM VA YO FISHURDAI MUHTAVOYI RASOYIL (ILMI FIQH) -I KALOMII IMOM ABUHANIFA (R)

Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) nakhustin donishmandi buzurgi sohibasari fiqh va yake az nakhustin hakimest, ki maktabi ilmi kalomro asos guzoshta ast va badi khud diqqati tamomi mujtahiddinu muhaqqiqini Islomro baroi tahkim va taqviyati imon va baroi shinokhti haq az botil (na baroi ejodi shak va kufru bidat) ba ilm jalb namudaast.

CHunone ki qablan jo-jo ishora namudem, Hakim Imomi Azam (r) dar ogozi faoliyati ilmii khesh, yane, az solhoi donishanduziash, ki hanuz javon bud, ba falsafai ilmi kalom mashgul va sargarm bud va khudro ahli kalom mehisobid. Ba in khotir ast, ki tamomi osori ilmii u, ki dar rishtai fiqh arzi vujud kardaand, hama dar zaminai Quron va sunnat va niz hikmati ilmi kalom nigoshta shudaand.

Vale dar borai ilmi kalom bayni muhaqqiqin va ulamoyi din, az on jumla aima (imomon)-i Islom, ziyoda az hazoru sesadu dah sol in jonib bahs meravad. YAne, bahs ba on mazmun, ki guruhi jonibdori ilmi kalom buda, az on hamchun asos va zamina va sarchashma baroi tahkim va taqviyati imon istifoda mekunand. Guruhi digar boshand, ba misli aimai Islom-Imom SHofei, Ibni Hanbal va Moliki Anas ilmi kalomro sababgor va ba vujud ovarandai shirku gunoh shakku gumon va kufru bidat donista, nazariyai mani ishtigol ba ilmi kalomro bayon doshtaand. Va payravoni kheshro az mashgul shudan ba hikmati ilmi kalom, ba yak jiddiyat nigoh doshtavu faoliyati onhoro man kardaand.

Baroi rushani andokhtan, ba matolibi bayonshuda, zarur meshumorem, ki ba muhaqqiqin va mutoliini giromi (dar asosi andeshahoi pas az pajuhishhoi amiq, nisbati ilmi kalom bayon doshtavu nigoshtai ustodi faqidu donishmandi fozil Inoyatullohi Iblog) chand nukoti jolibero darj namoem.

Ustod Inoyatullohi Iblog khele khub darj namuda, ki « Imomi Azam (r) dar marhalai avval, ba ilmi kalom mashgul gardid va dar masoyili on daqiq shud va risolote dar on talif kard, vale badan onro tark guft, ammo na ba surati kulli va qati, balki az mudokhila dar qazoyoi kalomi, tavre ki dar fasli avvali kitob ishora kardem, khudro bar kanor kard va ba masoyili fiqhi mashgul shud. Imom dar holi ishtigol ba ilmi kalom niz mutolioti kalomii khudro idoma medod, muntaho in, ki tadrisi u munhasir ba halqai fiqh bud va bo andozai sobiq ba ilmi kalom dilchaspi nishon namedod, zero u maktabi kalomiro asos guzoshta bud, ki baroi rahnamoii mardum, bo rohi rost kofi shumurda meshud va aknun vazifa dosht, ki mutavajjehi maktabi fiqhi gardad (zero ki in ilm dustdoshtatarin ilmi Rasuli akram (s) bud va ilmest jomeasoz S.B.B)., ammo na ba haysi takhribkunandai asosoti kalomi, balki ba unvoni tasisi yak binoyi mustahkam va baso ustuvori dini, dar pahlui binoyi digari dini va yo ba tabiri khudi Imom tasisi: «Halqai fiqhi asgar, bad az takmili halqai fiqqi akbar».47-114.

Bale, Imom Azam Abuhanifa (r) beshak dar andeshai on bud, ki dar asosi Quroni Majid va ahodisi Rasuli akram (s) rohi millionho ummatoni Rasuli giromi (s)-ro ba on tarzu usule, ki shariati gurroyi Muhammadiya (s), az ummaton va payravoni khesh taqozo mekunad, munavvar sozad. «Imom (r) pas az ishtigol ba fiqh na tanho dar fiqh, balki dar tamomi ulumi islomi, doroyi mavqufi muhimi dini gardid va mardum az atrofu aknofi durdast, baroi kasbi donishi mukammal, dar dini Islom, nazdi u murojia mekardand va hej goh shunida nashuda, ki Imom az javob ba savoloti kalomi, mazarat khosta boshad, balki baroi har kas ijozat medod, dar mavridi umuri dini, az vay savol kunand va meguft:

«Hudovando! Agar digaron az mo tangdil meshavand dili mo baroi onho farokh ast» 47-114.

Ore, Hakim Abuhanifa Imomi Azam (r) dar maktabi falsafii khesh dari nazariyai ozodandeshiro ba rui ulamoyi din va hikmat farokh kushoda bud. «Agar Aflotuni yunoni, bar darvozai madrasaash navishta bud; «Kase, ki bo ilmi handasa oshno nest, dokhil nashavad»,Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) va faylasufi buzurg, ki qazoyoi diniro bo diqqati khos taqib mekard, dar ifodoti khud muqayd va mahdud nabud va az vay naql nashuda, ki halqai ilmi va falsafii khudro ba mavzui khose takhsis doda boshad, balki ba mardum ijoza medod, roje ba umuri dinii khesh, bo ozodi va huvviyati komile az vay savol kunand». 47-114.

«Aflotun dar majolisi ilmii khesh jiddi bud va kamtar ba intiqod va mubohisot gush medod, vale Hakim Imomi Azam (r) pas az taammuq va tahqiq, dar qazoyoi dini, az qabili fiqh va kalom meguft: ««-In yak nazariya ast va agar kase behtar az onro arza kunad, bo dilu jon mepazirem».

Bale, in vaz ba havsalai farokhi Imomi Azam (r) dalolat dorad, ki ba har guna savol, az har guna masoyil, dar har mavzu, gush medod». 47-114.

Baze az ulamoyi buzurg, dar borai ilmi kalom tan guftaand va khudro az hikmati in ilm, ba shiddati tom dur giriftaand. CHunonchi guyand: «Imom Rozi dar avoyili hayot, ba falsafa mashgul shud va kitobe dar falsafa va ilmi kalom ba rishtai tahrir ovard va dar avokhiri zindagii khesh az ishtigol ba in ilm khuddori kard va guft: «Man dar tariqi kalomi va ravishhoi falsafi fikr kardam, vale rafi atash va shifoyi marazro dar on surog natavonistam va behtarin roh-rohi Quronro daryoftam. Dar borai tanziyati Hudovand mekhonam:

– «Vallohul ganiyu va antum al-fuqaro». YAne: – «Va Hudovand be niyoz ast va shumo muhtojoned». Va in oyati sharif? «Laysa-kamislihi shayun»: yane; «Nest monandi Hudovand hej chiz» Va: «-Qul huvallohu ahad» «-Bigu Hudovand yaktost». -Va dar borai isbot, oyoti zaylro tilovat mekunam: – «Arrahmon alo al-arsh ustavo», yane: «Hudovand bar arsh ustavo». Va farmuda: «-YAkhofuna rabbahum min favquhum», yane; «-Az Parvardigore, ki boloi eshon ast metarsand». Va: «-Ilayhi yasada kalimal tayyib»; yane, « Ba sui Hudovand baland meshavad kalimahoi pok». CHunonchi az barkhe ulamoyi ilmi kalom rivoyat shuda, ki dar avokhiri zindagi (yane, Imom Rozi) meguft: «Az on chi omukhtam, chize ba dast ovarda natavonistam juz in ki: – Mumkin ba murajjah muhtoj ast va ehtiyoj yak sifati salbi ast. Memiram, vale chize yod nagiriftam». 47-115.

«Pas az mutoliayi mavqufi aima, dar borai ilmi kalom, savole ejod meshavad, ki pas ilmi kalom dar din chi role dorad. Va in dar aqvoli guzashtagon ba se nazariya ishora shuda:

Nazariyai hurmati ishtigol ba ilmi kalom, ba surati mutlaq, ba daleli in, ki sahoba (razialloh) bo vujudi oshnoii tom, ba haqoiq va rumuzi  qazohatu tartibi alfoz, ki masoyili kalomi, az on mustanbit shuda bitavonad, az on khomush mondaand. Va khamushi baroi on ast, ki medonistand sude dar on dida nameshavad va mavridi istinodi onho Hadisi nabavi (s) ast, ki se bor farmuda: «-Halakal mutakallimuna» YAne: «-Halok shavand kasone, ki mubohisot va munozirotro ba haddi okhir merasonand».

Va niz bo in haqiqat istidlol namudaand, ki agar munoziroti kalomi kori khub va marbut ba din mebud Payombar (s) ba on dast mezad. In ravishro sahoba (razialloh) idoma dodand va ziyodat bar ravishi Payombar (s) va ashob (razialloh)-i u kori durust nest. 47.-115…

Nazariyai digar in ast, ki agar az ilmi kalom istilohoti falsafii yunoni, monandi javhar va araz va gayra, ki dar asri Rasuli akram (s) va sahoba (razialloh) vujud nadosht, mamnu boshad in kor mushkilie nadorad, zero istilohoti har ilm ba garazi taqrib ba fahm, ba shakli sodda va basit bargardonida shuda, va iborati tozae jihati dalolat bar maqsad ba vujud omada, monandi ikhtiroi huruf, ba shakli jadid, ba garazi istifodai joyiz. Va agar ilmi kalom az nigohi mafhum mamnu boshad durust nest, zero maqsudi mo az ilmi kalom ba juz istidlol ba hudusi olam va vahdoniyati Holiq va subuti sifoti U jalla shonahu chizi digare nest. Pas marifati Hudovand (jalla jalolahu) az tariqi dalel chiguna mamnu qaror megirad va agar aybi ilmi kalom ikhtilof, adovat, badbini va gayra natoyiji-boshad, ki az munoqishoti kalomi ba vujud meoyad, shake nest, ki ehtirozi in umur hatmi ast. Agar manzur az faro giriftani ilmi kalom, istidlol va iqoma (barpoy)-i hujjat boshad, kori khube ast va Quroni majid bo oyoti zayl ba in kor ishora mekunad: «-Qul ho-tavo burhonakum» (yane: «Bigu, biyovared daleli khudro») – «Liyahlaka min halaka an bayyinat va yuhiy min hay an bayyinat» (yane: «To halok shavad kase, ki halok meshavad ba dalel va zinda shavad on ki zinda meshavad ba dalel»).

In oyoti bolo va amsoli on dalolat dorad bar sihati istidlol va iqomai hujjat hamchunon oyoti zayl:

«-Qul falallahal-hujjatal-boligat (yane: «Bigu pas baroi Hudovand ast khujjati komil»). Boz omada:

«-Qolu yo Nuh, qad jodalatno fa-aksarat jidolano» (yane: Guftand: «Ey Nuh, bo mo mujodala kardi va ziyodat kardi dar mujodalai mo». Va niz omada: Va tilka hujjatano otaynoho Ibrohim alo qavmihi» (yane: «Va in ast hujjati mo, ki ba Ibrohim dar muqobili qavmash arzon farmudem»). Hamchunin ishora shuda:»-Lav kona fiyhimo olihatan illallohal-fasadato» (yane, «Agar mebud dar osmon va zamin juz Hudovand khudoyoni digare, har oyina zamin va osmon taboh, meshudand») Va boz omada: «-Va in kuntum fi raybim mimmo nazzalno alo ibodino fatavo bi surati min mislihi» (yane: «Va agar dar onchi bar bandai mo furu firistodem shake dored, pas biyovared surae az misli Quron»). Va ishora shuda: «-Qul yuhyihal-lazi anshaaho avvalamarra (t)» (yane: «Bigu zinda megardonad onro kase, ki nakhust ofarida») Va omada: «Jodalahum biallati hiya ahsana». (yane: «Va mujodala kun bo eshon, ba qisme, ki neku boshad»). Hulosa, in hama oyot dalolat dorad bar in, ki istidlol, dar Islom doroi reshai mustahkame ast. «Ilassalomu yalamu valo yalo alah» – az in nuqta naboyad inkor namud, ki istidlol va iqomai hujjat dar asri Payombar (s) va sahoba (razialloh) rivoj dosht (yane, muborizai haqqu botil) bo in farq, ki istilohoti mantiqi va nazariyoti Arastu dar in asr maruf nabud va in amr dalolat mekunad, ki istidlol va tafakkur dar asri saodat, ba peshrafti ziyode noil bud. CHunonchi naql shuda, ki Ali (razialloh,) Ibni Abbos (razialloh)-ro ba muqobili khorijiyon firistoda va bo onho dokhili munozira shud va pursid: ki Dar Imomi khesh chi aybe surog mekuned? Guftand:- Jang kard, vale ganimat va kaniz nagirift. Ibni Abbos (R) guft: – Ganimat va barda (gulom) giriftan makhsusi jangi kuffor ast. Va ba man bigued, agar Oyisha (razialloh dar ruzi jang asir meshud va ba haysi sahmi ganimat ba dastrasi yak tan az SHumo qaror megirift oyo kore, ki az yak bardai oddie giriftani buded, az vay megirifted!? Okhir u ba nassi oyai sharif: «Va azvoja ummahotihum» (yane: «-Va zanoni Payombar (s) modaroni shumoyand»)

– Aynan modari shumo bud. Pas khorijiyon guftand:

– Na!

Va ba nerui in istidlol du hazod khoriji, dar yak ruz az mazhabi galatrohi khud bargashtand (va Hudo kunad, ki firqabozoni gulomi zarkharidi anglishovu amrikoiho va digar khorijiho, ki tesha bar reshai islomi muhammadiya (s) mezanand, ba khud oyandu misli khorijiyon ru ba mazhabi muhazzabi Imomi Azam-Abuhanifa (r) orand va sunnii voqei bishavand) (az kitobi «Ehyo val-ulum»-talifi Imom Muhammadi Gazzoli. j., 1., sah. 102)

Hamchunon Ali (r) bo yak tan az payravoni qadariya munozira kard va Abdulloh ibni Masud (r) bo YAzid ibni Umayra dar borai imon munozira namud. Abdulloh ibni Masud guft:

– Agar biguyam  muminam,  guyo guftaam, bihishtiam- YAzid ibni Umayra guft: – Ey yori Payombar (s) in ishtiboh ast! Oyo imon juz tasdiqi Hudo va farishtagon va kutubi osmoni («Tavrot», «3abur», «Injil» va «Quron») va Payombaron va «Hashr» va «Mizon» va «iqomati namoz va ruza» va «adoyi zakot» chizi digare ast? Mo gunohe dorem, ki agar bidonem omurzida meshavad,  on vaqt metavonem ba bihishti budani khud hukm kunem va az hamin jihat meguem mumin hastem va nameguem az ahli Bihisht meboshem.-Ibni Masud (r) guft: -Ba Hudo, ki rost gufti. Man ishtiboh kardaam (az kitobi «Ehyo val-ulum»-talifi Imom Muhammadi Gazzoli, j.1, sah.102). Imomi Azam (r) zarurati bahsro peromuni mavzuoti kalomi isbot namuda va dar «Fiqh-al-absat» meguyad: «-Boyad donist, ki faqohat dar din (manzuri vay ahkomi asosi ast) behtar az faqohat dar ahkom ast va fiqh iborat ast az oshno shudani nafs ba huquq va vojiboti khesh». Va dar Hadise, ki Dori Qatni va Bayhaqi az Abuhurayra (r) az Payombar (s) rivoyat karda, chunin omada: «-Hudovand, ba hej shakle behtar az faqohat, dar din parastish nashuda». Hamchunon Imomi Azam (r) dar risolai «Fiqhi akbar» meguyad: «Asli tavhid va onchi etimod bar on durust ast in ast, ki biguem «Omantu billoh» yane, ba Hudo imon ovardam».

Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) dar tamomi risoloti khesh, ba mavqufi dinii ilmi kalom ishora mekunad va az on malum meshavad, ki Imomi Azam dar in ilm va dar bahs peromuni masoyili kalomi, dastrasi kofi doshta, arzishi dinii onro meshinosad va etirof mekunad bar in, ki vajoyibi avvalii yak musalmon shinokhtani masoyili «Fiqhi akbar» (mavzuoti etiqodi) qabl az masoyili «Fiqhi asgar», yane fiqhi marbut ba ibodot va muomilot ast. 47. -117.

Pas az juyishhovu puyishhoi bardavom va mutolioti ziyodi ilmi, dar borai ulumi ilohiyotshinosi va ulumi jamiyati va gayra misluhum, Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) dar rishtai ilmi kalom bo yak shujoati mardonagi, tariqat yo khud maktabi kalomii khudro tasis namud, ki mislash dar islom nest, yane pas az Rasuli akram (s) va ashobi Rasul (s) Imomi Azam peshvoyi in tariqat ast, ki shamsheri Haq bar sari ahli botil va firqabozon zadaast.

Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) ba ilmi kalom hamchun ilmi girehkushoi mushkilot va ilmi usuli din ruy ovarda budu ba on murojiat mekard. Az in khotir ast, ki ulamoyi din «ilmi kalomro inchunin ilmi usuli din yo fiqhi akbar niz guftaand va shoyad az in khotir boshad, ki Imomi Azam nakhustin asari kalomii khesh «-Fiqhi akbar»-ro, ki buzurgtarin asari fundamentali va sarchashmavii ilmi fiqh ast, chunin nomguzori kardaand, ki az nomash paydost, ki in nakhustin asari fiqhii dar zaminai Quronu hadis va ilmi kalom nigoshtai Imom Abuhanifa ast, S.B.B). 18.-83.

… Ilmi kalom yake az ulumi islomist. Kalom ilmest, ki dar borai aqoidi islomi, yane, har on chi musalmonon bo on etiqodu imon dorand, bo istifoda az aql bahs mekunad. Odatan tamomi talimoti Islomro ba se guruh taqsim kardaand: 1.Aqoid; 2.Akhloq; 3.Ahkom.

Ilme, ki guruhi avvalro meomuzad kalom nomida shudaast, ilme, ki mutasaddii guruhi duyum ast akhloq va ilme, ki mutasaddii omukhtani guruhi seyum ast, ilmi fiqh, nom dorad. Kalom metavon guft, falsafai mazhabii Islom ast. Dar dinhoi digar niz falsafai mazhabi vujud dorand, vale na bo nomi kalom. Tafovuti kalom az falsafa dar on ast, ki falsafa dar mavridi hasti-olam biduni pobandi, ba in yo on aqidai dini, bahs mekunad va ammo kalom ilmest, ki baroi hifzu pushtibonii asoshoi talimoti Islom, az hamalotu intiqodhoi mukholifoni on -ilhodgaroyonu dahriyon va faylasufon, ba vujud omada, rui masoyili ilohiyoti (Hudoshinosi) va dar robita bo on hastishinosi va maod (hayoti ondunyovi) va masoyili shinokht- marifat (gnoseologiya)-i va gayra, bo istifoda az usulhoi mantiqiyu (mantiqi sharqi) falsafi bahs mekunad.

Dar mavridi paydoishi kalom niz aqidaho ziyod ast.Bad az gustarishu peshravii Islom, dar khoki kishvarho va millathoi gunogun, ki sathi farhangiyu ilmii balandtare nazar ba arob doshtand, vaziyat nisbat ba sadri Islom tagyir meyobad. Irtibot bo eroniyon, suriyoiyon, rumiyon, misriyon, ki oshnoii tom bo falsafa va ulumi aqli doshtand, barkhurd bo namoyandagoni dinhoi yahudi, zardushti, nasroni va intiqodoti onho va nihoyat paydoishi ikhtilofot; firqahoi bidatgaro, ilhodi, zanodiqa va dahriya, dar dokhil va khoriji Islom musalmononro majbur kard, to ki vositavu rohhoi himoyavu hifz, az aqoidi islomiro justuju kunand. Hamin omilho sababi paydoishi falsafai kalom gardidaand. Ilmi kalomro inchunin ilmi usuli din yo fiqhi akbar ham guftaand. 18.-82-83.

Ilmi kalom ilmi nazariyavi va istidloliest, ki dar mavridi tavhid va sifati Hudovandi mutaol, mabda va maod, nubuvvat, qazovu qadar va gayra misluhum bahs mekunad. Va «ilm-al-fiqh» boshad (az kalimai «faqahai arabi buda, manii donish va fahmishi amiqro dorad) ilmi shariat, ba tanzimdarovaronda va muayyankunandai qavonin va ahkomi sharii ilohi, yane, ilmi ilohiyotshinosist, yane, vozehtar ilmi huquqshinosii islomist, baroi darki ahkomu amrhoi ilohi va shinokhti haqqu botil, dar amvoji purtalotum va pur shuru sharri jomeai bashari…

CHukone,   ki   qablan ishora shud Imom Abuhanifa (r) yake az asosguzaroni ilmi kalom mahsub meshavad. Ammo dar in hukm ham bayni ulamoi din va falosifi islomi bahshoi ziyod ast.

«Zuhuri ilmi kalomro aksariyat ibtidoi asri 8-um guftaand, vale baze ulamoi Islom bar on aqidaand, ki usuli muhokimavu isboti kalomi, dar khudi Quron niz mavjud ast. Davrai muqaddimotii kalomro boshad, ulamo bo tahiyai «Fiqhi akbar» nazdi Imom Abuhanifa (r) irtibot dodaand. Ammo ogozi istidloloti aqli, dar Islom bo nomi Jad binni Darham (qatl.742-743) vobasta ast. U avvalin shuda, dar masalai dini, bo aql etimod kardan va oyoti ba aql mukholifat doshtai Quronro bo tarzi tavil bayon kardan davat namudaast. Bad az u Jahm binni Safvon (qatl.745) kori uro idoma dodaast». 18.-82-83.

Kalom dar lugat ba manii «sukhan va nutq» meboshad. Dar «Lugati Dehkhudo» chunin mani dar in shan vaz shudaast: «Ilmi kalom- ilme ast, ki dar on az zoti sharifi latifi chigun va -bechiguni Hudoyi Taolo va sifoti u va ahvoli mumkinot, az mabda va maod, muvofiqi qonuni Islomi mubin bahs shavad». (Az tarifoti Jurjoni).

Muallifi «Kashfi istilohot – ul – funun» guyad: «-Ilmi kalom, ki onro usuli din niz nomand va Imomi Humom Abuhanifa (r) onro «Fiqhi akbar» khondaast. Dar «Majma – ush – shukuk», ba «ilmun-nazar val istidlol» mavsum shuda, hamzamon ilmi tavhid va sifot niz nomida shudaast».

Alloma Taftazoni, dar «SHarh-ul-aqoid» meguyad: «-Ilme, ki ba ahkomi shari-yane, amali marbut ast, ilmi sharoi va ahkom meboshad; va ilme, ki ba ahkomi asli-yane, etiqodi marbut ast, ilmi tavhidu sifot va ilmi kalom nomida meshavad. In maniroTaftazoni boz ba tariqi zayl bayon doshtaast: «-Ilmi kalom ilme ast, ki bo ovardani dalel va dafi shubhaho, odami qudrat paydo mekunad, ki aqoidi diniro baroi shakhsi digar isbot kunad» (va tiri haq bar qalbi botil zanad,-S.B.B). Aqoid gufta, hamono jami aqidaro guyand. Muhammad Husayni Havqal menavisad, ki «-Aqida rishtai manaviest, ki makhluqro ba Holiq mepayvandad».

Qozii Armavi zimni tafsilu tashrehi mavzui in ilm, ba chunin khulosae omadaast, ki «-Mavzui asosii ilmi kalom zoti Bori Taolo ast. Dar in ilm, bahs az avorizi zotii Hudoyi Taolo shavad, yane sifoti subuti va salbii vay va bahs az afoli Hudoyi Taolo, dar dunyo, monandi hudusi olam va yo dar okhirat, monandi hashru nashr va yo az ahkomi Hudo, dar dunyo va okhirat, chun busi Payambaron alayhissalom».

Hujattulislom Imom Muhammadi Gazzoli (r) meguyad: «-Natijai umdai ilmi kalom in ast, ki poyai tamomi maorif va ulumi islomiro istehkom va ustuvor mesozad. Agar usuli aqoydi islomi sobit nagardad, digar maorifi diniro arzish va ahamiyate namemonad». (Az «Kashfi istilohot-ul-funun»). Paydoishi ilmi kalomi islomi, natijai taloshe bud, baroi difo, az usuli aqoidi islomi, dar barobari hamlahoi payravoni adyoni (dinho) digar, bilkhossa masehiyon, ki bo harbai mantiqi yunoni, be aqidai bunyodi khudro musallah karda budand.

Ilmi kalom, ilmi nazarii istidlolist, ki dar mavridi tavhid va gayra bahs mekunad. Dar doirai ilmi kalom badan, masoili falsafi, ba misli azali yo ofarida budani olam, araz, javhar, harakat, sukut, khalo, zarrot va gayra niz matrah gardidand.

Nakhustin masoile, ki mutakallimoni nasli avval rui on bahshoe monandi bahshoi falsafi orostaand, az inho iborat ast:

  1. CHigunagii vazi imonii shakhsi murtakibi gunohi kabira shuda (gunohi buzurg sodir karda).

2   Masalai sifot va zoti Hudo.

  1. Masalai jabr va ikhtiyor.

Ibni Haldun boshad, roje ba kalom chunin aqidaroni kardaast:

 «- Ilmi Kalom, dar barobari omuzishi ashyoi mazkurai motaqaddam, hamzamon bayongari imon ast». Muvofiqi tashrehoti Ibni Haldun, «imon tasdiq va etirofi qalbi, nisbat ba chize, ki ba zabon gufta shudaast», meboshad. U meguyad, ki «imon mushtamil bar shash rukn ast, zero Rasululloh (s) onhoro dar Hadis tayin kardaast:

Imon ba Hudo, ba farishtagon, ba kitobhoi osmoni (suhufi Ibrohim, Tavrot, Zabur, Injil va Quroni Majid) ba Rasuloni u, ba ruzi Qiyomat va ba sarnavisht (taqdir) khoh khub boshadu khoh bad».

Bad-in tartib, kalom ba manii ilmi shinokhti zoti sharifi chigun va be chiguni Parvardigori subhon tavsif meshavad va fiqh boshad, ba manii «ilmi qonun», yo «ilmi huquq» va «qazo» ast.

Muallifi kitobi «Falsafai ilmi kalom» Ahmadi Orom mutazakkir shuda, ki: «Imomi Azami muazzami sufii Kufi -Abuhanifa (r) az maruftarin shakhsone ast, ki dar poyaguzorii ilmi Kalom sayi balig doshta va on ilm, az jonibi mutaakhkhirin inkishof va takmil doda shudaast».

… Imom Abuhanifa (r) du sifoti Hudoro bayon doshtaast. Sifoti zoti va sifoti feli. Sifoti zotii Hudo haft ast.

– Imom Abuhanifa (r) sifoti zotii Hudoi mutaolro ba in mazmun muayyan va mushakhkhas kardaast; «-hayot, qudrat, ilm, kalom, sam, basar, iroda (inho sifoti zotii Hudovand meboshand, ki qadimiyu azali va abadulabadi donista shudaand).

Sifoti zotii Hudoro afzalulmujtahiddin – Hazrati Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) chunin sharhu tavzeh dodaand:

  1. Hayot. Sukhani Alloh ast: «Allohu lo iloha illo huval-hay-yulqayyum». (Tarjuma: «Hudo yaktost. Juz u mabude nest. Zindai poyanda ast»).
  2. Qudrat. Qavli Parvardigor ast: «Vallohu alo kulli shayin qadir» (Tarjuma: «Va Hudo bar har chiz qodir (tavono ast)».
  3. Ilm. YAne, Hudovand olimu dono ast-olimi sirri val khafiyot. «Va alamu mo tubduna va mo kuntum taktumun» (Tarjuma: «Va medonam on chiro oshkor mekuned va onchiro, ki pinhon mekuned»).
  4. Kalom. Hudovand guyo ast, na ba zabon. Qavli Hudo ast: «Va kallamallohu Muso taklimo». (Tarjuma: «Va kalom kard Hudovandi Taolo, ba Muso sukhan kardane»).
  5. Sam. Hudovand shunavost, na ba gush. U taolo ovozhoro va savthoro bo quvvati sami qadimi khesh meshunavad. Qavli Hudovand ast, ki: « Vallohu samiun alim» (Tarjuma: « Va Alloh shunavo va dono ast». Hudovand sadoi poyi murro dar shabi tor meshunavad.
  6. Basar. Hudovand bino ast, ba hama ashyo. Didani u, yane, binoii u misli banda nest. U bo sifoti qadimi va azalii khud hama duru nazdikro mebinad. Qavli Hudovand ast: «Innalloha basirun bilibod». (Tarjuma: «Har oina Alloh binandai bandagon ast»).
  7. Iroda. Qavli Hudo ast: « Faolun limo yurid» (Tarjuma: («-Mekunad har on chi iroda kunad»). Sukhani Rasululloh (s): « -Moshoallohu kona va mo lam yasho va lam yakun». (Tarjuma: «-Harchi Alloh iroda kunad, meshavad va harchi nakhost, nameshavad»).

Dar zimni in, Imom Abuhanifa (r) sifoti felii Hudoro ham, dar asari marufash «Fiqhi akbar», mutazakkir shudaast, ki on se sifot ast, yane; avvalan ejod, duvvum ibdo va savvum tarziq. Ejod va ibdo ba manii ofaridan ast.

  1. Ejod. Qavli Hudovand ast: «Vallohu akhrajakum min butuni ummahotikum» (yane: «Va Alloh paydo kard shumoyonro az shikamhoi modaroni shumoyon»).
  2. Ibdo (SHuru). Guftai Alloh ast: «Huvallazi khalaqassamovoti val-arza fi-sittati ayyom» (Tarjuma: «U on Hudo ast, ki ofarid osmonho va zaminro dar shash ruz»,)
  3. Tarziq. Hudovand ruzidihandai mardumon ast. Sukhani Alloh dar in khusus in ast: «Allohullazi khalaqakum summa razaqakum» (Tarjuma: «Alloh on zot ast, ki paydo kard shumoro va rizq dod shumoro»). Va Rasuli akram (s) mefarmoyand: «-Holiqu kullu shayin va roziqu kullu hayin» (Tarjuma: «-Hudovand ofarandai har chiz va ruzidihandai har zinda ast»).

Berun az in sifoti yodshuda, Imom Abuhanifa (r) meguyad: «-Alloh paydokunandai olam va mavjudoti on, dar azal meboshad». Rasululloh (s) dar hadisi qudsi meguyad: «-Hudovand ba man chunin guftaast: «Kuntu kanzan makhfiyan fakhalaqtul-khalqa liurifa» (Tarjuma: «Hazinai pushida budam, pas ofaridam khalqro, to donista shudaam»…).

Va boyad takid namud, ki nakhustin nazari Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) ham, dar robita bo ilmi kalom, hamono masalai imon ast, ki oidi in masala dar rafti mavzu mufassalan bayon khohem dosht (makhsusan dar on joe, ki sukhan, bevosita az rasoyili kalomii Imom Abuhanifa rahamulloh meravad, va na dar in muqaddimai mavridi nazari mavzui bahs). Imom Abuhanifa (r) imonro iqrori ba zabon va tasdiqi ba qalb medonad. Va ham Imom Abuhanifa (r) takid mekunad, ki Quron mujizai Hazrati Muhammad (s) ast.

Imom Abuhanifa (r) iqror namudaast, ki ba sababi sodir namudani gunohoni kabira, imon az tani shakhsi mumin ba tamom va be bozgasht khorij nameshavad, yane, u ba tamom kofir nameshavad. Bo sababi gunohoni kabira, foili on dar dunyo va okhirat azob karda meshavad.

Umumiyati fikri Imom Abuhanifa (r) bo ahli mutazila dar on, ast, ki Quron kalomi Alloh ast. Farq miyoni eshon dar in masala on ast, ki Imom Abuhanifa (r) Quronro kalomi Alloh, sifati azalii u va gayri makhluq medonad. Mutazila boshad, tanho Hudoro qadimu azali va abadi medonad. Sifoti uro inkor mekunad va Quronro makhluq meshumorad…

«… Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) dar maktabi kalomii khesh roh va ravishi khosero biduni inki az falsafai Garb va Fors mutaassir gardad, taqib karda va pas az mutoliai umumii nusus va pas az tafahhus va taammuq dar nazariyoti firqahoi muosiri khesh, maktabi kalomii khudro tasis namud. Imomi Azam (r) ba Makkai mukarrama safar kard va bayni masoyili kalomi, ki dar onjo maruf bud, bo mavzuote, ki dar Bagdod, Kufa va Basra ruyi kor bud muqoisa kard va bo qazoyoi mazohibi mukhtalifi tashayyu oshno shud va roje ba khorij, qadariya va mutazila kasbi kofii malumot kard (va khudi Imomi Azam az ashobi ray bud, ki hanafiyonro dar ibtido chunin nom meburdand, S.B.B.,) Imomi Azam (r) dar muddati iqomati khesh dar Makka, ki shash solro dar bar girift, dar pahlui faoliyati fiqhi, ba taqviyai faoliyati kalomi idoma doda, meguyand avvalin bor, ki bo Ato ibni Raboh, barkhurd kard, Ato guft:- Az kujoi?! ( yane, Ato pursid az u).

Guft: – Az Kufa.

Guft: – Az mardume, ki dar dini khud tafriqaho ejod kardaand?

Guft:- Bale.

Guft: – Az payravoni kadom maslak meboshi?

Guft: – Az mardume, ki ba guzashtagon dashnom namedihand. Ba qazo va qadar imon dorand va kasero ba asari gunoh takfir namekunand.

Guft: – SHinokhtam (va pas mulzam shud).

Az in mojaro malum meshavad, ki Imomi Azam (r) dar musofirathoi khud, bo savolhoi kalomi muvojeh meshud va bad az shugl, dar fiqh, in janbaro tark gufta bud va niz az on vozeh meshavad, ki ikhtilof rui mavzuoti kalomi, dar sarzamini Iroq, ba darajai shuhrat rasida va hamai mardum medonistand, ki Iroq markazi firqahoi mukhtalif va mazohibi mutaboyin ast va Iroq ba haysi mahalli firqahoi mutafovut, dar nazar mujassam megardid va tarikh sobit namuda, ki Iroq doroi khususiyati markaziyat va ikhtilofoti fikri buda ast.

Imomi Aeam (r) shohidi afkori mardumi Iroq, dar okhiri asri Ummaviyon va avoyili asri Abbosiyon buda va mashhur ast, ki in asr, asri talbisi aqoyid va padidahoi tozai fikri, dar atrofi mavzuoti kalomi, az qabili qazo va qadar, irodai inson, husn va qubh: hikmat va mukallifiyat, adolati Hudo va soiri masoyili kalomi buda va mubohisavu munozira, jihati hifzi aqoidi poku nobi islomi, az mafosidi dushmanoni din, az umuri zaruri shumurda meshud… Az jumlai daloyili iddaoyii mo in ast, ki YUhannoi Dimishqii Masehi, to asri Hishom binni Abdulmulk, dar khidmati Ummaviyon bud va ba musalmonon tariqi mujodalaro, dar umuri din meomukht va mardumro ba rohi galat hidoyat mekard (misli Abdulloh ibni Sabbohi-yahudi, ki az dini masehi ba Islom garavid va tafriqaho barangekht, ki az tafriqahoi u firqaho dar Islom ba aujud omad, S.B.B.,) va az firebkorihoi u yake in bud, ki meguft: -Vaqte arabi az tu bipursad, ki Maseh kist? Bigu kalimai Hudo khalimai Alloh), badan masehi, az musalmonon napursad, ki Maseh har Quron ba chi nome yod shuda? Taban musalmon majbur ast biguyad: – Ism al-Maseh Iso binni Maryam rasululloh (Salomullohialayh) «kalimat -al-qoho ilo Maryam va ruh minhu» ba juz in nest, ki Maseh-Iso pisari maryam Payombari Hudo va kalimai ust, ki onro ba Maryam afganda va ruh ast, az jonibi U. Badan az vay boyad pursid, ki kalima va ruhi Hudo makhluq ast, yo gayri makhluq? Pas agar guft: -Makhluq ast: Boyad khud ilova kunad, ki Hudovand bud va kalima va ruh nabud, zero agar tu chunin bigui, arabi ba roz pay mebarad, zero kase, ki ba in amr mutaqid ast, dar nazari musalmonon zindiq ast.

YUhannoi tahrifkor mavozii munoziraro ba musalmonon nishon medod, ammo manzuri u juz safsatavu magolata chize nabud, zero musalmonon meguyand: -Iso. kalimat-Alloh, ba in mani ast, ki Iso ofarida shuda (dar batni dukhti bokira Maryam, S.B.B.). va ruh ast az jonibi Hudo (yane, ruhulquds, S.B.B.,), yane, ruhe ast, ki bo in kalima khalq shuda, na in ki ruhi khudi Hudo ast (ki chunin andesha rondan khatost, S.B.B.)… Hamchunon YUhanno afkori fosiq va fosidro dar bobi mavzuoti kalomi, dar atrofi taloqu nikoh, taqdis, hajar-ul-asvad va tashbehi on ba ehtiromi salib va gayra aqvoli fosid talqin mekard, ki az mulohizai in sharoit ahamiyati maktabi kalomi, ki Imomi Azam (r) bo nerui aqlii khesh tasis namud, hamchunon arzishi ravishi Kalomie, ki vay ba vujud ovard, vozeh megardad, zero maktabi kheshro dar sarzamine bunyod guzorid, ki nazariyoti mutafovut va afkori mutanoqiz, dar on hukmravi dosht va piloni khudro dar fazoe pesh burd, ki dar on muhabbat va nafrat, komyobi va nokomi, harakat va sukut, haq va botil va dahho umuri zid va naqizi yakdigar mavjud bud. In maktab, ki ba dasti Imomi Azam (r) tasis gardid, inkishof yoft va dar sarzamini tanoqizoti fikri resha girift va az yak lihoz binoi toza va az jonibe dunbolai binoe shumurda meshud, ki az tarafi sahoba (razialloh) dar borai qazoyoi kalomi tasis yofta bud… CHunonchi makotibi Ashari, Motaridi va gayra, madorisi ahli sunnat va jamoat, dar haqiqat, idomai madrasai kamnaziri kalomii Hazrati Imomi Azam (r) shumorida meshavad, ki bayni hardu tafovuti bisyor juzi ast (Imruz boyad mo misli Ali salomulloh va misli Imomi Azam razialloh alayhi firqabozoni zarkharidi khorijii yuhannosifatu yazidsifati firqaboz, yane alafiyu khalafi bo dalelhoi Quronu Hadis va afkori ijmoi ulamoi shahiri hanafi va jumla ulamoi ahli sunnatu jamoat istodagari kunem, zero maqsadi in firqabozon fasod kardani islom az reshu bun ast).

Bale, qazoyoi kalomi, az in Madrasa ba vujud omada va ba haysi mabodii dini qaror girift, ki qarnho az yak zabon ba zaboni digar intiqol yoft va meyobad. Va yak manbai asosi, baroi mazhabi ahli sunnat va jamoat gardid. Imomi Azam (r) bo zuhd va taqvoi kammisli khesh, yak qismati umdai saqofati islomiro tamsil mekard va mekhost baroi in dini mubin va rohi rostin khidmati shoistae anjom dihad, (ki arobi firqaboz dar in kor ojizand, S.B.B.,) va az tariqi donish va ilmi kalom, fiqh va gayra az on difo namoyad. Tarikh sobit karda, ki Imomi Azam (r) dar tuli hayoti khesh, az tahsil va justujuvu pajuhish va omukhtani ilm boz nanishast.

U ba Makkai mukarrama musofirat mekard va vaqtro ganimat donista, az Ato ibni Raboh istifodai ilmi menamud. Hamchunon dar Makka, dar payi faro giriftani ilmi Ibni Abbos (r) kushon bud. Tavre, ki ilmi Ibni Umar (r) va nazariyoti uro az Nofe ba dast ovard, az ulumi Ibni Masud va Ali (r) ba vasilai shogirdoni onho, ki dar Kufa mezistand, mustafid gardid. Va niz az mutoliai tarikhi zindagii vay barmeoyad, ki bo Zayd ibni Ali (r).Muhammadi Boqir ibni Muhammad Abdulloh ibni-Al-Husayn (r) va amsoli eshon (az jumla Imom Jafari Sodiq rahmatullohi, S.B.B.). muloqot va az suhbati onho istifodai ilmi karda ast. Garchi mashhur in ast, ki istifodai vay az in donishmandon khos dar rishtai fiqh buda, vale shakhsiyati ilmii u monei in qazovat ast, zero imome, ki dar tamomi bakhshhoi dini am, az usulu «furu taammuq va diqqat dosht, garchi ba darajae rasida bud, ki mardum az vay istifoda mekardand, ba vay iqtido mekardand, va mushkiloti khudro hal menamudand, bo on ham az talabi ilm ser nashuda bud (va shiori u in hadisi Rasuli akram sallallohu alayhi va sallam bud, ki omada: «-Az gahvora to ba gur donish biju», S.B.B.). va niz namekhost, ki munoqishoti ilmii khudro khususi yak rishta gardonad va az vay shunida nashuda, ki dar muqobili pursishi mardum, roje ba masoyili kalomi gufta boshad, ki kalomro tamoman tark gufta va az javob ba eshon mazarat khosta boshad (u tark gufta bud, tudai johtalabonu nasabkhohoni sohibshajararo, ki gofil az masali arabii «Maguy, ki jaddi tu kist, biguy, ki tu khud kisti», khudro ahli kalom mehisobidand, dar bahsho bo mardum ojiz omada, bayni khud az tafriqai khesh firqahoi galati ejod mekardand; Imomi Azam maktabi kalomii in tuda «ustodon»-i kalomro tark guft, ammo u dar asosi ilmi kalomi voqei, ki muborizai shadidi haqqu botil ast maktabi kalomii kheshro asos guzosht va baroi isboti on «Fiqhi akbar» -ro binvisht -Sayid Burhoniddini Buzurgmehr) zero munoqishoti dini, ba surati mustaqim va yo gayrimustaqim  bo tamomi bakhshhoi dini irtibot dorad. Va baso qazoyoi fiqhi ba mavzuoti kalomi marbut ast, monandi masalai half (qasam) ba Quron, ki ba mavzui khalqi Quronro inki Quron makhluq ast yo gayri makhluq, ki nazariyai avvaliro dushmanoni Imom bar vay tuhmat bastaand, marbut meboshad va az rasoyili Imom ba sarohat malum ast, ki vay tarafdori nazariyai duvvumi buda ast, hamchunon aksari juziyoti fiqhi», ba masoyili kalomi, be aloqa nameboshad, pas mulohizai nukoti favq ba kulli nodurust ast, biguem Imom janbai kalomiro yak qalam tark gufta ast. Ey kosh medonistem, ki maqsud az in tark guftan chist? Oyo Imom az in mutanaffir shuda? Va yo mutarif (iqror budan) bud, ki munoziroti kalomii u bo firqahoi mukhtalif bejo buda, mukholifonash haqbajonib meboshand va yo inki ba ilmi kalom az nigohi din hej guna niyozmandi ehsos nameshavad va bilokhira, az inki Imom qabl az ishtigol ba fiqh, ba ilmi kalom mashgul buda, murtakibi ishtibohi sakhtu buzurge shuda? Taqozoyi mo az mardumi munsif (ba insof) in ast, ki ba in pursishho (hini pajuhishhoi khesh peromuni ahvolu osor va mazhabi Imomi Azam, S.B.B.). javobi adolatmandona biguyand, to haq ba chehrai voqeiash namoyon shavad. 47,-121.

Bo takid metavon guft:-Faylasufe, ki hayoti khudro vaqfi khidmati ulumi dini karda va tedodi ustodoni u az tabaqai tobiin az chahor hazor (ki bo har yaki eshon didor kardavu bahs karda va az eshon ba goyati tamom darsi hikmati dinivu irfoni girifta S.B.B.). tajovuz mekard, (misli Zayd ibni Ali, Muhammadi Boqir, Imom Jafari Sodiqi muhaddisi be misl) ki az on jumla Lays ibni Sad, Molik ibni Anas-Imomi dorul Hijrat (Madinai munavvara, ki ravzai muboraki Rasuli muazzam va mukarram sallallohu alayhi va olihi va sallamro ba ogushi khud mahfuz medorad, S.B.B.,) va gayra meboshand joiz nest ba vay chunin tuhmati noravo basta shavad, ki az ilmi kalom eloni bezori namuda dar hole, ki muassisi yak qismati umdai on, yane, mazhabi ahli sunnat va jamoat buda va dar nashr va ishorai on ranjhoi farovonero dar sohai ikhtilofoti fikri, mutahammil shuda va bo daloyili qonekunandavu burhonhoi qoteona bar mukholifini riyokoru tahrifgaro (misli firqabozoni imruza, ki bardurug khudro ba ahli salafussolihini zamoni Rasululloh (s) nisbat medihand) piruzi yofta va daloyilro bo dar nazardoshti avzoi tarafi muqobil jam va tartib karda va pas az tay namudani in marohil az ilmi kalom (ba khotiri tanzimi fiqhi islomi, ba niyati difoi Islom va hifzu ehtiromi shariati gurroyi Muhammadiya (s) va rohnamoii ummatoni Payombari giromi sallallohu alayhi va olihi   va   ashobihi   va   sallam,   S.Burhoniddini   Buzurgmehr). mutanaffir shuda ast. 47.-122.

Hazrati Imomi Azam (r) dar asri tobiin umr ba sar meburd va khud mudom shohidi bahsu munozirahoi tuloni, bayni namoyandagoni firqahoi ibtidoii Islom bud. Va onjo, ki az zindagii khudi Imomi Azam (r) ravshan megardad, u bo bisyore az ulamoyi davr, bahri daryofti haq az botil va saheh az nosaheh ziyoda bahsho va hatto mujodalaho kardaast.

«Dar Jomei masonid»-i Imom, talifi Imom Horazmi tazakkur yofta, ki az Abuhanifa (r) manqul ast, ki: – Hej kasero dar hozirjavobi, behtar az Zayd ibni Ali ibni Husayn (r) nayoftam. Ba vay guftam, qazoyi ilohi, ba maosi (gunoh) taalluq megirad?

Guft: -Oyo nofarmonii Hudovand ba ijbor meshavad! Pas sang bar dahonam kuft.

In mojaroro Talha ibni Muhammad dar «Musnad» («Jami hadis»)-i khesh zikr karda va az on barmeoyad, ki Imom munoziraro dar Mavzuoti kalomi, balki tark nagufta, zero Imomi Azam (r) on shakhsiyati tavongaru donishvar vazifa dosht, ki dar munoziroti kalomi ishtirok varzad va dar on amiqu daqiq fikr kunad va baroi muboriza bo tabaqoti galatrav omodagi girad, yane, bo firqahoe, ki bazan bo dushmanoni Islom, ba garazi ejodi fasod va fitnai dini balki musalmonon (misli Abdulloh ibni Sabbohi yahudi, ki fitnaho bayni musalmonon barangekht va az fitnahoi u firqahoi ba ham ziddu mukholif dar bayni musalmonon paydo shud, ki dar ibtido to omadani Abdulloh ibni Sabboh tamomi musalmonon ahli sunnat va jamoat budand va hama az rui farmudai Quronu ahodis, yane, sunnati janobi sarvari olam, yane, Rasuli akram sallallohu alayhi -va olihi va sallam amal mekardand va ikhtilofote dar bayni eshon nabud va khulosa badi rui kor omadani Abdulloh ibni Sabboh va chun u shaykhulnajdiyon tukhmi tafriqu tahrif, riyo va khudgaroivu khudpisandi va khusumatu kinu adovat, dar sabzmarzi purfayzu futuhi Islom koshta shud (chun firqagaroyonu tahrirbozon), vale ruze meoyadu haq ba haqdor merasad. Ba qavli shohsanami khubruyonu lolarukhon va andalebi khushbayoni chamansitoni Hind shohdukhtari porsiguy Zebunniso:

Navmed naboyad shudan az gardishi ayyom,

Har shom, ki oyad zi pasi on sahare hast.

Bale, mo ham ba umedi onem, ki ba irodai Parvardigor tamomi firqavu mazohibi Islom ba ham meoyandu bahri obodi va osoishtagii bani bashar va najoti inson az rui Quroni karim va sunnati Rasuli giromii Hudo (s) mekushandu amal mekunand va rohero pesh megirand, ki eshonro ba asli khud mepayvandad. Zero az, parokandagii mo musalmonon    gavhari maqsud ba dast nameoyad. Behtarin mazhab mazhabi Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) ast, ki az on buyi Quronu buyi khushi Rasululloh va ashobi kirom (r) ba mashom merasad.

Olami bashariro bo hikmati Quron, ki dasturoti ilohii rohnamovu rohkusho va najotbakhshi basharist, obod boyad kard va ham muvofiqi Hadis va na bo yaroqu asliha va fitnavu fasod va ibodathoi riyokorona chun firqabozon, ki in kor-kori ojizonu zaifon ast. Mo, ki doroyi dini mubin hastem va az ummatoni soleh, yo khud vorisoni Rasuli akram sallallohu alayhi va olihi va sallam va jamii ashobihi ajmain hastem, boyad az sunnati rasuli giromi (s) va rohi sayid, yane, peshvoyi khud berun poy naguzorem va durdonavor dar sabzhalqai Islom ba ham oyem va ba rohi sirotal mustaqim, ba suyi pesh gom binihem. Najotbakhshi mo va muttahidsozandai movu shumo va tamomi bashar tanho Islomi jovidonsabz va adolatparvar ast (va na bahoivu firqai, tahrir va boz adyoni bardurugu mazohib va firqahoi «tozazuhur»-i botila,-SB.B). Vozehtar in, ki mo boyad chun donaho ba sabzhalqai hayotbakhshandai Islom ba ham oyem va ehtiromi bani basharro, ki mo hama bandai Hudoi yagonaem, ba jo orem… Abulmaony Bedil ham farmuda, ki:

Be rishta parokandagii dona ayon ast,

Az sabha maju rabt, chu zunnor namonad.

                                                   S.B.Buzurgmehr).

hamdast meshudand va onro vasila baroi maqomhoi siyosii khesh qaror medodand va yo baraks az ikhtilofoti siyosi, baroi tafriqai dini  bahrabardori  mekardand.  In  bud,  ki  bo  rui  kor  shudani firqaho  musulmonon  mutafarriq, yane,   parokanda   shudand   va mardum ba takfiri yakdigar shuru kardand». 47-122 (misli imruz, ki az fitnai tahrir va firqagaroyoni khalafiya firqaho va fitnaho dar olami islom ba vujud omadaast).

Asre, ki Hazrati Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) dar fazoyi on umr ba sar meburd, asri purtalotum bud va «Imomi Azam (r) dar hamchu fazo va dar miyoni chunin sharoit maktabashro bunyon guzosht. Vay az hama beshtar tarafdori sulhu safo, mehru muhabbat bo hamsoyagon va khomush namudani fitna bud va murtakibi kabiraro garchi hazoron gunoh az vay sar zada boshad, ba kufr mahkum namekard va korashro ba dargohi barhaq, yane, Hudovand havola mekard (va bo in usuli kori khud bo duston muruvvatu bo dushmanon madoro mekard, S.B.B.), ishtibohi mukholifonro tavzeh va onhoro bo daloyili ilmi va gayriqobili inkor ba haqoiq rahnamoi mekard. Vazi Imomi Azam (r) dar maktabi kalomiash badon memonad, ki guyo dar ijtimoi murakkab,az payravoni firqahoi mukhtalif khitobae erod mekunad va bo har tabaqa qisme muzokira mekunad, ki sababi qanoat shavad va onhoro yak ba yak tavzeh menamoyad, ki ba ishtibohi khesh, yane, roje ba sabbshaykhayn va ittihodi onho ba gasbi haqqi Ali razialloh multafit (mutavajjeh) gardond va ba ahli bayt biduni ifrot va dar dokhili chavkoti sharu din muhabbat varzand, ba qisme, ki har musalmon ba doshtani on majbur ast. Baze kason, ki haqiqati aqvoli Imomro dark nakardaand uro, yane, Imomi Azam (r)-ro shia khondaand va mo dar oyanda tahqiq khohem kard, ki Imom az ahli tashayyu ba mafhume, ki maruf ast nabuda, balki badin mani ast, ki u ba ahli bayti nubuvvat muhabbati be andoza dosht va in aloqa az haddi etidol khorij nabud. 47-123.

Imomi Azam (r) shakhsiyati ajibe budaast va bo hama bo lutfu marhamati khosa murojiat va guftuguvu musohiba mekardaast! U yak insoni bagoyati tamom halim va khoksor budaast. Joe omada: «Imom mardumi mutazilaro bo lutfi khose ba taammuq dar oyote mekunad, ki mazhabi onhoro tardid menamoyad. Mazhabi etizol doroyi nuqtai ifrotie buda, monandi nafiyi sifat az Hudovand va isboti martabai mutavassit bayni kufr va imon va amsoli on. Va Imom ba in tartib az ehsosoti ifrotii eshon mekost va tarafi digar ishtibohoti khorij va ravofizro angushtnamo mekard va «eshonro ba surati umum mekushid tabaqoti mutafarriq bo ham nazdik shavand va hamagi firqai muttahidero ba vujud orand, ba guzashtagon dashnom nadihand, inson boshand va ba kufri Hazrati Ali (razialloh) yo Muoviya (razialloh) hukm nakunand, gunahkorro kofir nadonand (az baroi maqosidi garaznoku ahdofi siyosii khud mardumro ba kufr hukm nakunand va qasamhoi shari, misli taloq, mardumro ba har su davat nanamoyand, misli Abdullohi Sabbohi yahudi, S.B.B.,) va ba rekhtonidani khuni yakdigar iqdom navarzand, balki adovatu kinai bayni hamdigarii khudro yak su guzoshta, dar bandagii Hudo, barodari hamdigar (ba qavli Rasuli akram salam: «-In-namal muminu ikhvatun» yane: «Mumin barodari mumin,» S.B.B.,) boshand. In hama ahdof dar munoziroti kalomi va fiqhii Imomi Azam (r) va az ruknhoi asosii afkoru andesha va darkhosthoi Imom dar du maktabi marufi u, yane, maktabi kalomi va maktabi fiqhii vay, ba surati vozeh jilva mekunad, zero zaboni narm, dili garm va adami khushunat az odoti barjastai vay bud. CHunonchi az risolae, ki ba shogirdash nakhustqazoiyulquzzoti Islom-Abuyusufi YAqub ibni Ibrohim ibni Holid-Al-Kufi Al-Ansori navishta vozeh meshavad. Dar in risola pesh az, on, ki shogirdashro tavsiya ba khidmati dini, ijtimoi va akhloqii jomea tashviq farmuda meguyad: «-Az jangu durushti bigzar, kase ki ba tu nosazo meguyad, ba vay nosazo magu va haqro ba kase, ki ba sukhanoni tu gush faro medihad birason: -Ba mardum taklife ravo mador, ki bar tu ravo nadorand va on chiro, ki baroi khud ba niyati neku kori khayr mekhohand tu ham ba on rozi shav…». 47-123.

Bale, haq ba jonibi Imomi Azam (r) ast, ki shakhsi tolibilm va umuman har yak fardi solimaql va musalmon boyad mumin boshad va bo khulqu atvori hamidai khud sohibehtirom boshad va bo atrofiyoni khud bo muruvvat raftor kunad va boyad bidonad, ki «Mumin barodari mumin ast». Va nihoyat az hama muhim on ast, ki inson boyad az kibru gurur, riyokori va khudmanishi ori boshad, ki takabbur az peshai shaytoni   lain ast. Hamesha boyad bikushem, ki bo mardum va dar bayni  mardum  boshem  va  ba domi  havovu  havasi dunyovu  nafsi shaytoni giriftor naboshem, zero buzurgon farmudand, ki: «-Hohi nashavi rasvo, hamrangi jamoat bosh!» Va yo khud shohbayti SHaykh Attori Valiro metavon baroi taqviyati guftahoi bolo misol ovard, ki oidi mazammati kibru gurur khele khub farmuda:

Har, ki shud az kibr bolo gardanash,

Duston gardand okhir dushmanash.

Hama on vasiyatho va sadho naziri on, ki Imomi Azam (r) ba shogirdonash tavsiya karda, doroyi arzishi khubi ilmi, dar sohai fiqh va kalomu ijtimo meboshad.

Ore, Imom marde bud sulhpisand, afifu pokdomon va az ikhtilof nafrat dosht, chunonchi in ehsos dar munoziroti kalomii vay va dar vasoyoi u mashhud ast va ruhiyai on dar muhovaroti ijtimoi mahfuz buda, arzishi on az nazari munsif (shakhsi boinsof) pushida nest. Hamchunon tavsiyai u baroi shogirdi marufash Imom Abuyusufi YAqub, ki ba darajai buzurgi ilmi rasida va dar muhovaroti ilmi, ba khubi yod meshavad va hatto hamesha khulafoyi davr va hukumravoyoni asri khudro mudom nasihat va rahnamoi mekard, ba taaqqul (yane, khiradmandivu mutafakkiri, S.B.B…,)-i Imomi Azam (r) dalolati vozeh dorad va nishon medihad, ki Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) behtarin khadamotero baroi rohnamoii mardum va tarbiyai shogirdoni donishmandash anjom doda ast (ki orzui Rasuli akram va maqsadi on Hazrat (s) ham chunin tarzi rohnamoi bud). 11.47-124.

Bahsi mavzui in bakhsh kame tul kashid,(mazarat, az mutoliini borikbin) va holo sukhan, ki ba ananai baze nigorishot to ba in jo rasida, zarur meshumorem, ki zikru nigorishi chand nukoti bayonnashudaro, ki dar sarogozi mavzui in bakhsh, vozehtar, dar sarlavhai in mavzu ovarda budem (oidi nomgui rasoili kalomii Imomi Azam raziallohu anhu va bayoni fishurdai muhtaviyoti onho), bo chand jumlae ba anjom birasonem.

Boyad biguem, ki to ba imruz peromuni osori ilmii mansub ba Hazrati Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r), bayni muhaqqiqini tarikhi dinu mazohibi Islom va bayni ahli ilmu hikmat bahshoe joy dorand. Ammo nazdi mo ravshan in ast, ki munosib, ba andozai nasibamon, ki Hudovand ba mo arzoni doshta, az osori garonsangu merosi qudsiyonavu jovidonai beshumori Hazrati Imomi Azam Abuhanifa raziallohu anhu, to ba imruz (boyad zikr namud, ki 1300-solagii buzurgdoshti in abarmardi jahoni, bo qarordodi YUNESKO, KUI-KONGRESSI UMUMIJAHONII ISLOMI – Mutamar al-olam al- islomi, va LOI – LIGAI OLII ISLOM – Robitat al-olam al-islomi, soli 2000-i melodi, dar tamomi olam bo tantana jashn girifta shud), bo guzashti ayyomu havodisi ruzgor, az qari nihonkhonai daryoi purtalotumi tarikh, ba dasti gavvosoni daryoi ilmu-mani, yane, mujtahiddin va sarrofoni gavharshinosu juyandagoni borikbin va muhaqqiqonu muarrikhoni bostonguhar, shash, gavhari noyobi dinu hikmat, yane, shash risolai dini-mazhabi (dar asosi Quron va Hadis) (va ba qavle haft risola ba u mansub ast) – Imom Abuhanifa (r), yane, «Fiqhal-akbar» («Fiqhi akbar» niz guyand), «Fiqhal-absat» (fiqhi gusturda, yane, mufassalbayonshuda), «Al-olim val-mutaallim», va «Kitob-al-Osor», «Risolai Abuhanifa, ba Abumuslim Al-Batti» Imomi Basra» va «Al-vasiyat», ki dar rishtai fiqh va ilmi kalom nigoshta shudaand, oshkor gardidavu ba dast omadaand, ki mahz bo kumaki Hammod (r)-pisari Imomi Azam (r) va shogirdoni sodiqash Abuyusufi YAqub ibni Ibrohim ibni Holid ibni Muhammadi Qozi, Imom Muhammad ibni Hasani SHayboni, Imom Zufar ibni Huzayl, Abumuqotili Samarqandi, Imom Abumutei Balkhi va naberaash Imom Ismoil ibni Hammod ibni Abuhanifa (r) va digaron, badi darguzashti Imomi Azam (r) girdovari shudaand. Zero, ki aksari talimot va sukhanronihovu ahodisi ovardai Hakim Imom Abuhanifa (r), dar fiqh va digar ulumi dini, ba tarzi shifohi budaast.

YAk nuktai digarero boyad qayd namud, ki baze az sarchashmahoi ensiklopedii ilmii muosir (az jumla «Islom-malumotnomai mukhtasar», Dushanbe «Irfon»-1990, sah.,30-31) dar asosi takya ba digar mavodi ilmi «Musnad». («Jami hadis») nom asarro niz ba Imom Azam (r) nisbat dodaand, ki on ham boshad guyo az tarafi shogirdonash jamovari karda shudaast. Vale yak chiro boyad qayd namud, ki voqean Imom Ahmadi Hanbal niz «Al-Musnad» nom asari mashhur dorad, ki to ba ruzgori mo omada rasidaast. Ammo ba «Musnad» nom asare, ki taaluq ba Imomi Azam (r) doshta boshad to ba imruz dar dast nadorem. Vale hej joi taajjube ham nest, ba on ki Imomi Azam (r) voqean chunin asare (kitobi «Hayrot al-hison…». ham shahodat medihad, ki Imomi Azam sohibmusnad ast) doshta boshad, zero Hakim Imom Abuhanifa, mashhur ba Imomi Azam (r) barin shakhsiyati buzurgi ilmu mani, ki dar har nafasi khud hadise purhikmat az Rasuli akram salam, ba shogirdonu payravonash bayon medoshtu meguft, metavonist, ki dahho chunin asare doshta boshad, va yo hikmatnomae nigoshta boshad va yo ba shogirdoni khud, baroi kitobat bayon doshta boshad. Zero az zindagii u malum meshavad, ki u hamchun payravi Quronu Hadis tamomi ahodisi az ustodon azbarkardai khud va ahodisi az ashobi kirom (r) va tobiin jamovardai khudro kitobat mekardaast. Muhimtarin manbae ki saviyai kalomii Imomi Azam (r)-ro muarrifi mekunad va namoyon medorad, in talimoti kalomii ust, ki pas az tahqiqi asnodi on va itminon ba in, ki nisbati on ba Imomi Azam (r) durust ast, dar pahlui nazariyote, ki az tariqi digar az Imom ba mo rasida, bo yak silsilai nazariyoti kalomii u, az khilol (miyon)-i talifot oshno meshavem. Dar borai talifoti Imomi Azam (r) maonuddin (sitezakor, khasm, yane, badkhoh va dushman)-i vay izhori shak namuda va khostaand sobit kunand, ki in risoili kalomi, dar voqe az Imom nest, hamchunin payravoni firqahoi mukhtalif kushidaand, az tariqi tavlidi shak, dar mavridi rasoyili mazkur afkor va nazariyoti ahli sunnat va jamoatro (ki behtarin daloyilu nazariyot va afkoru andeshahoi rohnamoest, ki dar asosi du sarchashmai muqaddas Quroni majid va ahodisi Rasuli giromi sallallohu alayhi va olihi va sallam, ki az jonibi Imomi Azam razialloh va niz shogirdoni u, baroi munavvarsozii rohi ummatoni Payombar sallallohu alayhi va olihi va sallam va amali namudani sunnat va ormonhoi neki janobi sarvari olam Hazrati Muhammadi Mustafo sallallohu alayhi va olihi va ashobihi ajmain, yane, ehtirom va hifzi sharu din, tanzimu tartib va ejod shudavu nigoshta shudaast, bo unvoni maktab va yo mazhabi hanafiya, S.B.B…,) mukhtal (yane, khalalyofta va sustu taboh sozand.S.B.B.,) gardonand.

Imom Horisi (r) dar «Al-kashf al-kabir» meguyad: «-Ibni Muborak (r) roje ba fazoyili Imomi Azam (r) rivoyoti ziyode zikr karda, zero vay ba surati mustaqim va yo ba vasilai digaron az vay shunida meguyad: – Imomi Azam (r) doroyi talifoti ziyod dar rishtai kalom meboshad». 47.-125.

Imom Abulmuzaffari Isfaroini (mutavaffii soli 471 hijri) risolahoi «Al-olim val mutaallim», «Al-fiqkh, al-akbar» va «Al-vasiyat»~ro ba sarohat ba Imomi Azam (r) mansub namuda va dar kitobi khesh «At-tabsir fid-din» (sah.,113) meguyand «-Agar kase khosta boshad sobit kunad, ki bayni du guruh, (maqsadi Isfaroini du guruhi mavridi bahs ast) ikhtilof vujud nadorad, lozim ast to kitobi «Al-olim val-mutaallim»-talifi Imom Abuhanifa (r)-ro tahti mutolia qaror dihad, dar in kitob dalolilu burhoni ziyodero dar muqobili ilhod (az din bargashtagi) va bidat (guyo chizi nav, vale be bunyodu be sobiqa va burhoni poydarhavo, S.B.B.,) mulohiza mekunad va roje ba aqoidi mutakallimin (ahl al-kalom) va raddiya bar mukholifin, sharhe dar on nigoshta shuda, hamchunin dar kitobi «Al-fiqh al-akbar», ki az tariqi qobili itminon va ba asnodi saheh az Nasir ibni YAhyo (r) rivoyat shuda, ki u az Abumutei Balkhi (shogirdi Imom Azam) va vay az Abuhanifa (r) rivoyat karda va niz kitobi «Al-vasiyat», ki Abuhanifa (r) onro bz Umar ibni Usmon Al-Batti (Imomi Basra) navishta va dar on bar afkori ahli bidat khati batlon kashida shuda ast». 47. – 125.

Dushmanon va mukholifoni Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) ba haddi ifroti ba muqobili u barkhosta, rasoyili kalomii ba Imomi Azam (r) mansubiyat doshtaro inkor namuda, ustodi va peshvoii uro dar ilmi kalom didavu donista rad kardaand. Onjo chunin ast, ki omada: «Baze muallifin manoqibi Imomi Azam (r)-ro tasreh kardaand, ki mutazila iddao mekunand, ki Imomi Azam (r) dar ilmi kalom talife nadorad». Onho ba in tartib mekhohand biguyand, ki «Al-fiqh al-akbar» va «Al-olim val mutaallim» az talifoti Imomi Azam (r) nest. Ba daleli in, ki kutubi mazkur hovii aksari mabodii ahli sunnat va jamoat ast, dar hole, ki Imom payravi mazhabi mutazila meboshad (Hosho (!) hargiz) va in du kitob az talifoti Abuhanifai Bukhori ast. Vale, in iddao ba tamom va komilan galat ast, zero dar in kutub nazariyote ba mulohiza merasad, ki bo ravishi kalomii Imom, ki az tariqi digar dastrasi most, mutobiq va muvofiq meboshad va dar on dalele baroi in, ki du kitobi mazkur talifi Imom nest, ba nazar namerasad». 47. -126.

Va joe digar omada: «Mavlono shamsulmillat vad-din Barotaqinii Imodi meguyad: – In du kitob az talifi Abuhanifa (r) ast, va tedodi ziyode az donishmandon bo in nazariya hamnavo meboshand. Bore yak shakhs ki dar asri Mamun kutubi Imom Abuhanifa (r)-ro ba ob shusta bud, az tarafi Mamun baroi chunin raftorash shadidan mujozot gardid». 47. – 126. Pas metavon hukm kard, ki iddae az mutaziliyon, ki aqidaashonro nisbati Imomi Azam (r) va asarhoi talifnamudai u bayon doshtaand botil buda, yak adovat va dushmaniest, nisbati Imom Abuhanifa(r) va nodidagiest, nisbati istidloli khudododi oidi ilmi kalom va fiqh doshtai Imom Abuhanifa (r). Zero agar Imom Abuhanifa (r) asari talifnamudae namedosht, shogirdonash Mavlono Imodi va dahho digaron ba muallifi asarhoi kalomi va fiqhi budani Imomi Azam (r) shahodat namedodand va on shakhs baroi dar ob andokhtani kutubi Imom hamchun shakhsi johilu nodon, yane, avomunnosi kurdil, az jonibi khalifa Mamun sakht ba itob girifta nameshud. Vale, chi metavon guft, ki zindagi khud zarbai pay dar pay ast va maydoni muborizai haqqu botil ast (misli imruza afrodi khalafi, ki muborizahoi ayyorona va inglisonavu garbiyona va sabbohiyonai khudro bo mazhabi muhazzabi hanafiya shuru kardaand). Hasmoni Imomi Azam (r) misli abrhoi siyoh bo on qalbhoi purkin va baso toru afkori botilashon, hama noumed raftand, ki raftand. Ammo «CHarogi ummat»- Imomi Azam (r) hamchu sham khudsuziho kard va hayoti khudro vaqfi rohi haq kard, va tavassuti afkoru andeshahoi voloyash osmoni olami Islomro munavvar va rohi millionho ummatoni Rasuli akram (s)-ro dar rohi Quron va muvofiqi sunnat va ahodisi nabavii on Hazrat (s) durakhshon namud va harchi qudrate, ki dar vujudi muborakash dosht tavonist, ki ziyoda tiri haq ba sui botil zanad. In ast, ki 1310 sol in jonib hama ummatoni solehi Rasuli akram (s), yane, firqai ahli sunnat va jamoat va tudahoi rushanfikr va dilogohu bedormagzi jomeai bashari uro, yane, Imom Abuhanifa (r) -ro hamchun peshvo, yane, Imomi Azam va faqehi kabiru imomi shahir meshinosand. YAne, Imomi Azam (r) on shakhsiyati kamnazir va nobigavu insoni komil ast, ki dar haqi u metavon chunin hukm va ba tarzi kholisona va biduni garaz bahodihi kard, ki u voqean Abuhanifa ast va ham Abuladl astu val-insof, yane, namunai barjastai insoni voqei va ormoni, vozhetar bandai solehi khudotarsu khudoshinos, yane, muminu musalmon va akhiran ummati shoistai Rasuli akram (s).„

«Imom Abumansuri Motaridii Samarqandi boshad, daloyili kheshro dar atrofi mavzuoti kalomi, ba risoloti Imom (Abuhanifa) ittiko bakhshida va az on malum meshavad, ki dar borai in talimot tahqiq namuda va intikhobi on, ba Imom (Abuhanifa) dar nazari vay sobit buda, chunonchi az talifoti u niz malum megardad. Hamchunin Imomi Mujtahid Abujafari Tahovi, dar kitobi khesh bo nomi «Bayon etiqod ahl-al-sunnat val-jamoat alo mazhabi fuqaho al-millat Abuhanifa, Abuyusuf va Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan», ki ba «Aqoidi Tahovi» maruf ast, az hamin ravish istifoda karda ast…». 47.-126.

Va haq ba jonibi muhaqqiqi varzidai jabhai faoliyati kalomii Imomi Azam (r), ustod Inoyatullohi Iblog ast, ki pas az muqoisai nuskhahoi gunoguni risolahoi matbu va khattii mansub ba Imomi Azam Abuhanifa (r) ba khulosae omadavu guftaand, ki: «Vaqte nazariyoti kalomii Imom (Abuhanifa)-ro, ki az khiloli rasoyili matbu va khattii u namudor ast, bo nazariyoti vay, ki az tariqi digare ba dastrasi mo qaror girifta muqoisa mekunem, bayni onho tavofut ba nazar namerasad va on goh hej kase (az muhaqqiqon va muddaiyon, S.B.B.,) munkir shuda nametavonad, ki risolai mazkur az talifoti Imom Abuhanifa Al-Kufi) nameboshad, hamchunon asnode, ki dar on mulohiza meshavad va silsilai on murakkab az rijoli barjasta va qabili itminon buda, daleli qavi ast baroi on, ki in kutubi ilmi az talifoti Imom (Imomi Azam Abuhanifa) ast na az Abuhanifai Bukhori va gayra» 47. -126;

Ba qavli ustodi mushikof va borikbinu baso fozil Inoyatullohi Iblog «inak dar borai risolahoi mansub ba Imom (Abuhanifai tojikzaboni Kobulii -Kufi)-i Azam (r) yak andoza rushani meandozem.

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