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MELANOMA

melanomaMELANOMA (Melanoma; yun. melas, melanos – siyoh va … oma), melanoblastoma, melanokarsinoma, melanosarkoma, melanositoma, nevokarsinoma, omosi badfarjom, ki az hujayrahoi pigmentofar – melanositho tashakkul meyobad. M. bisyor vaqt dar pust ba mushohida merasad, vale on metavonad dar ruda (asosan rudai borik va rost), pardai mayna va harommagz, shabakiya, jismi mijgonshakl, qarniya niz ba vujud oyad. M.-i pust dar beshtarin holatho dar zaminai khol yo melanozi pust inkishof meyobad. Aksaran zanho bemor meshavand; omos dar onho beshtar dar poy (dar mardho dar tan) ba mushohida merasad. Ba paydoishi M.-i pust radiatsiyai balandi oftob, oseb yoftani khol va g. musoidat mekunand.
M. dar ibtido imkon dorad dar shakli papiloma, zakhm yo chizi digar ba vujud oyad; rangi on siyohtob, bazan umuman berang ast. Rushdi manbai avvaliyai bemori az afzoishi andozai kholi pigmenti yo dar pust paydo shudani dogi rangin ogoz meyobad. Ba zuhuroti avvalini M. bazan tagyir yoftani rangi khol, hamchunin az andak oseb zakhminu khunshor shudani on mansub meboshand. Manbai avvalini khurdi omos, ki melanin nadorad (M.-i bepigment), mumkin ba nazar chandon namoyon nagardad. Bo mururi rushdi omosi avvalin dar atrofi on dar pust doghoi pigmenti va dar uqdahoi limfavii kanori metastazho ba vujud meoyand. Metastazho mumkin ast dar shush, jigar, mayna, ustukhon, ruda va dig. uzvhoyu boftaho niz paydo shavand. M.-ro bo usuli sitologi va gistologi tashkhis mekunand.
Muolija va peshomadi bemori ba davrai gustarishi on vobasta ast. Dar davrahoi avval burida dur sokhtani manbai bemori natijai dilkhoh medihad. Dar mavridi dar uqdahoi limfavi vujud doshtani metastaz onhoro burida mepartoyand, khimioterapiya yo immunoterapiya meguzaronand. Metastazi uqdahoi limfa va uzvhoi darun oqibati khub nadorad.

M. S. Isoeva.

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