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MEHNAT

mehnatMEHNAT, faoliyati maqsadnoki inson, ki ba tabiat tasir rasonda, onro tagyir medihad va sarvati baroi zindagi zarurro ba vujud meorad. M. kategoriyai ijtimoi buda, bo jamiyati insoni zich aloqamand ast. Tamomi nemate, ki insoniyat sohib ast, bo M. muhayyo karda meshavad. M. avvalin va asositarin omili mavjudiyati inson ast. Az jihati ijtimoi M. ba fikri va jismoni taqsim meshavad.
Peshrafti tekhnika, mekhanikoni va avtomatonii korhoi zahmattalab va baroi salomati zararnok bahri behtar gashtani sharoiti M., kam shudani bemorihoi kasbi va zarbu lat musoidat mekunad. Ammo yakbora kam shudani M.-i jismoni ba salomati va asabi odam tasiri manfi merasonad. Faqat dar surati bo ham payvastnai M.-i jismoni va fikri, varzishi doimi va durust ba roh mondani mehnatu istirohat qoibliyati koriro solhoi daroz nigoh doshtan mumkin ast. Darajai qobiliyati korii odam ba yak qator omilho vobastagi dorad. M. boyad sarchashmai khursandi va qanoatmandii manavi boshad. SHavqi beandoza ba M. qobiliyati koriro meafzoyad. M. odamro bointizom mekunad, hayotro ba nizomi muayyan medarorad, sarchashmai salomati va bardami meboshad. Vayron kardani nizomi muqarrarii mehnatu istirohat aksar vaqt boisi zafi qobiliyati kori va pir shudani organizm megardad. SHarti muhimi qobiliyati balandi kori tadrijan ba kor doda shudan ast. Odam ba M.-i jismoni nisbat ba M.-i fikri zudtar shuru mekunad. Badi M. – i jismoni u metavonad darhol ba istirohat mashgul shavad, badi anjom yoftani M.-i fikri, baroi digar shudani faoliyati asab muddati muayyan lozim ast. Az in sabab kori boshiddati fikriro 1 – 2 soat pesh az khob qat namudan zarur meoyad, dar aksi hol ba bekhobi giriftor shudan mumkin ast.
Tartib asosi qobiliyati khubi korist. On, odatan, ba khislati odam, ba maqsadi u vobasta ast. Tartibi kor boyad mutadil, maqsadnok va muvofiqi imkoniyathoi fiziologii organizm boshad. Benizomi dar ijroi korhoi tekhnologi, nobarorii kor dar davomi ruz, hafta va moh boisi kam shudani qobiliyati kori, nomutashakkilii kor, sahvu ishtiboh, khastagi megardad. Baroi qobiliyati balandi kori sharoiti mutadili gigieni, rushnoii khub, korgohi muvofiq, tarzi durusti istod, inchunin munosibati nek nisbati hamdigar ahamiyati kalon dorad.
MEHNATI ZANON. Muvofiqi Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston zanu mard dar hamai sohahoi hayoti jamiyati, az jumla dar mehnat barobarhuququq meboshand. Tatbiqi in qonunguzori barobarhuquqi bo rohi ba zan peshnihod namudani kori kafolatnok, yane doimi, ustuvor (az jumla peshnihod kardani huquqi intikhobi kasbu hunar, mashguliyat va kor mevofiqi istedod, qobiliyat, tayyorii kasbi, malumot dar asosi ba hisob giriftani talaboti jamiyat) tamin karda meshavad. Ba mehnati zanon, hamchunin ba mehnati mardon, muvofiqi miqdor va sifati on va ba andozai na kamtar az hajmi minimalii muqarrar kardai davlat haq doda meshavad. Har yak mahdudsozii bevosita yo bavositai huquqi zanon, mas., az rui jinsiyat ba kor qabul nakardan, moneshavi ba peshravii khizmati, baroi mehnati bo mardon barobar muqarrar namudani muzdi kam man karda shudaast.
Qonun khususiyathoi fiziologii organizmi zanro ba nazar girifta, meyorhoi makhsusro muqarrar kardaast, ki onho ba muhofizati salomatii zan va faroham ovardani sharoite ravona karda shudaand, ki ham baroi mehnat va ham baroi ba jo ovardani qarzi modari imkon medihand. Qonun ba korhoi vaznin va korhoi sharoitashon zararnoki hamai sohahoi khojagii khalq, inchunin ba korhoi zerizamini (ba juz baze korhoi gayrijismoni yo korhoi khizmatrasonii sanitari va maishi) istifoda burdani mehnati zanonro man menamoyad.
Barobari dar istehsolot jori shudani komyobihoi ilmu tekhnika, mekhanikoni va avtomatonii ravandi kor, istifodai mekhanizm va moshinhoi hozirazamon imkoniyat dodand, ki doirai faoliyati mehnatii zanon khele vase gardad.
Ba behtar kardani sharoiti kori zanon dar korkhonaho diqqati makhsus doda meshavad. CHun qoida, ba kori shabona jalb namudani zanon man karda shudaast.
On bazan hamchun chorabinii muvaqqati ijozat doda meshavad. Azbaski dar sanoati sabuk beshtar zanon kor mekunand, ba korgaroni ikhtisoshoi asosi va baze ikhtisoshoi yorirasoni korkhonaho rukhsatii harsolai ilovagii muzdnok muqarrar karda shudaast. Nig. niz Imtiyozho ba zanoni homila va zanoni farzanddor, YOrdampuli baroi tavalludi kudak.

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