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MEBEL

mebelMEBEL, asbobu anjomi khona va istehsolot. Baroi sokhtani M. takhta, plastmassa, metall va dig. masolehro istifoda mebarand. M. – hoe mamul gashtaand, ki az chand qism iboratandu yak bloki mukammalro tashkil medihand.
M. chunin talaboti hatmii gigieni dorad: boyad ba andozai tani odam va sinnu sol muvofiqat kunad, zero mizhoi khatnavisi, kursiho va M.-hoi nomuvofiq boisi kaj gashtani sutunmuhra, tarangii mushakho va khastagi meshavad.
M. boyad az masolehi ba nami tobovar sokhta shavad, joi bisyorro ishgol nakunad va manzilro torik nasozad. Makhsusan ba M.-i istehsoli ahamiyat doda meshavad. Dar in mavrid tasiri onro ba salomatii korgaron va mahsuli mehnat ba nazar megirand. M.-i kori boyad ba jismi odam chun takyagoh boshad, shiddati mushakhoro to metavonad sabuk kunad, ba faoliyati muntazami mushakhoi badan yori dihad, kasro khasta nasozad.
Sokhti nishastgohi aksari moshin va mekhanizmhoro muvofiqi standarti davlati tahiya va az jihti ilmi asosnok karda mesozand. Odatan qirra va sathi onhoro hamvor va sufta mekunand. Hangomi sokhtani kursihoi kori sharoiti istehsolotro ba nazar megirand; dar mavridi zaruri M.-hoi harakatkunanda, davrzananda va takyagohu poymonakdor sokhta meshavand.
Mebeli kudakon boyad ba qad va tanosubi jismi kudak muvofiqat kunad. In sharti zarurii shakli durust giriftani qomat ast. Dar jumhuri mebeli kudakonai andozaash harkhela, az jumla baroi kudakoni sinni yasli va tomaktabi istehsol karda meshavad. M.-i kudakonro hamvor sokhta, qirrahoyashro sufta mekunand (to ki zud va khub shusta shavad), bo ranghoi sabzi kushod, zardi jigari, qahvarang va g. pardoz medihand.
Kati kudakon boyad takhtagi va metalli boshad. Onro dar joi ravshan, durtar az asbobhoi garmkunanda va daru tirezaho meguzorand. Kudakro to shashmohagi dar kati balandi devorhoyash past, badi shashmohagi dar kati pasttar, vale devorhoyash panjarador khobondan lozim ast. Kudakoni sinnashon az 3-sola bolo metavonand dar kati be devor khob ravand. Bistar (matras)-i kudak boyad hamvor, andake sakht boshad va nagz shusta shavad. Ba rui bistar jildi pakhtagin kashida onro haftae 1 – 2 bor shustan lozim. Pesh az khob ba bistar matoi obnoguzar (kleyonka yo ruykashi selofani) va joypush mepushonand; bokhabar boyad shud, ki on ba devorhoi kat jafs shavad, dast yo poi kudak ba rogi kat darnamonad. Sari har chand vaqt rakhti khobro ba berun barovarda shamol dodan lozim. Bistari muloimi pari yo pakhtagiro istifoda burdan joiz nest, zero on harakati kudakro mahdud mekunad, kudak az had ziyod garm meshavad, qaddu qomati u shakli nodurust megirad. Toza kardani in guna bistar mushkil ast.
Hamin ki kudak mustaqil menishastagi shud, uro ba kursii makhsusi baland shinonda khurok medihand. In guna kursi dar vaqti zaruri ba miz va kursii past tabdil meyobad. Agar kudak mustaqil khurok khurad, uro ba pasi mizi balandiash muvofiq meshinonand. Dar rui miz va kursi boyad orinji kudak dar tahti kunji rost qat shavad. Balandii nishastgohi kursi boyad ba darozii soq, yakjoya bo panjaho va poshani poyafzor barobar boshad. M. – i kalonsolonro bo rohi pastu bolo kardani nishastgohi kursi va intikhobi poymonak ba qadu qomati kudak muvofiq mekunand.
Kudaki khurdsolro (az 7 – 8 – mohagi to 1,5 – 2-solagi) baroi bozi dar katchai tetipopo (manej) meguzorand. Bo in maqsad katchai devorhoyash balandi panjaranokro niz kor farmudan mumkin ast. Az on rakhti khobro megirand, to ki kudak naaftad.
Baze modelhoi maneji bachagonaro az chorchubai plastmasi sokhta, ba on tur mekashand. CHunin manejho khele qulay buda, onhoro az yak jo ba joi digar kuchondan va ba qismho judo kardan mumkin ast. Muhimash in ki onho joi bisyorro ishgol namekunand. Baroi bachahoi sinni tomaktabi mizchai kursidor hatmist. On baroi rasmkashi, bozihoi ruimizi, az jumla mashguliyat bo konstruktori bachagona khele muvofiq ast. Mebeli bachagoni sinni miyona va kalonsol az divan-kat, jevoni makhsusi kitobu libos, mizi kori yo sekreter iborat ast. Muvofiqi qoidahoi gigiena ba mebili bachagona nitroemal yo laki berang memoland.
Mebeli maktabi. On az mebeli muqarrari na tanho bo andoza, balki bo namudi zohiriash niz farq mekunad. Mebeli bachagona chand vazifaro ado karda metavonad. Hangomi kharidani mebel qadi bacharo ba nazar giriftan darkor. Baroi daroz kardani muhlati istifodai mebel baze modelhoro tavre mesozand, ki dar rafti istifoda andozai onro muvofiqi inkishofi bacha tagyir dodan imkonpazir boshad.
Mebeli maktabi baroi tajhizondani sinfkhonaho peshbini shudaast. Ba mebeli maktabi parta, miz, kursi dokhil meshavad. Vobasta ba sinnu soli khonandagon balandi va rangi mizu kursihoi maktabi gunogun ast. Mas., mebeli № 1 baroi khonandagoni qadashon 1000 – 1150 mm peshbini shuda, boyad rangi noranji doshta boshad; balandii sathi korii miz 460 mm, balandii kursi 260 mm meshavad.
Kormandoni tib boyad nazorat kunand, ki mebeli maktabi hatman tamgai fabrikavi doshta boshad.
MEVA, uzvi rastanihoi pushidatukhm. Arzishi gizoii M. asosan ba miqdori karbogidratho, vitaminho, kislotahoi organiki, moddahoi minerali, pektini va dabbogii tarkibi on vobasta ast. Kislotahoi organikii tarkibi M. (javhari limu, kislotai seb va sirko) muvozanati kislotayu ishqori organizmro nigoh medorand; in guna kislotaho makhsusan dar limu, olu, olubolu, zardolu ziyodand.
Namakhoi mineralii M. khushhazm meboshand. Makhsusan namakhoi kaliy khele muhimand; onho dar tarkibi zardolu, olubolu, gelos va olu ziyodand. Namaki kaliyi zardoluqoq va gulung dar organizm khub hazm meshavad. Seb, nok, zardolu va shaftolu doroi namakhoi khushhazmi ohan meboshand.
Taninho (ba moddahoi dabbogi mansuband), ki tasiri vitamini S-ro meafzoyand, dar tarkibi bihi, nok, seb, khurmo, anor bisyorand. Dar onho moddahoi pektini niz mavjudand, ki ba kori uzvhoi hozima taqviyat mebakhshand.
M.-hoi tukhmdor beshtar fruktoza, M.-hoi donakdor boshand, glyukozayu sakharoza dorand. Dar M.-hoi sitrusi 50 – 90 mg% vitamin jam meshavad. M. zakhiragohi tabiii vitaminhost. Mas., 100 g M.-i nastaran to 1500 mg% vitamini S va 5 mg% karotin (provitamini A), M.-i siyohqot boshad, to 400 mg% vitamini S dorad. M.-hoi zardolu, olu, angat ba miqdori ziyod karotin dorand; vitamini R dar nastaran, mevahoi sitrusi, gubayrai siyoh bisyor ast. Angur, anjir, bektoshi, zardolu, shaftolu, olubolu, olu, seb, bihi, aflesun, noranj va g. dar tarkib beshtar qand (glyukoza, fruktoza, sakharoza) dorand. Dar tarkibi aksar navhoi olu va olubolu kislotahoi organiki farovon buda, baroi hazmi gizo musoidat mekunand. Baze az M.-ho (bihi, seb, shaftolu, aflesun, khurmo va g.) ba miqdori ziyod moddahoi pektini dorand. Pusti M. nisbat ba gushti on servitamin ast.
M.-ho harguna khurokro dar organizm nagz hazm mekunand. Onho faoliyati gadudhoi guvorishro angekhta, jarayoni hazmi gizoro ba tanzim medarorand.
M. baroi odamoni sinnu solashon gunogun, khususan kudakon, shakhsoni solkhurda, zanoni homila va shirmakon gizoi khele zarurist. M. hamchun gizoi muolijavi niz purbahost. On khususan baroi bemorone, ki ba ikhtiloli gardishi khun, ateroskleroz, bemorii gipertoniya, amrozi gurda, gazaki rudai gafs va qabziyat giriftorand, ahamiyati kalon dorad.
Ba odam makhsusan M.- i taru toza sudbakhsh ast. Hangomi zakhirai M. va pukhtani khurishi mevagi kushidan lozim ast, ki khususiyathoi foidanok va vitaminhoi on nigoh doshta shavand. M.-ro bevosita pesh az pukhtani kompot toza va reza mekunand. Onro boyad ba obi jush andokhta pazand, vale az had ziyod naboyad jushonid. Dar sanoat va ruzgor M baroi istemol bo rohhoi gunogun zakhira va tayyor karda meshavad. Tarzi hozirazamoni konservkunoni imkon medihad, ki khususiyathoi sudmandi M. to andozae mahfuz monand.
Dar rui M. mumkin ast har guna mikrobho (az jumla mikrobhoi bemoriovar), tukhmi kijja, inchunin moddahoi khimiyavi (doruhoe, ki ziddi zararrasonhoi rastani istifoda burdaand) vujud doshta boshand. Binobar in pesh az istemol onhoro bo obi garm shustan hatmist. Istemoli baze M. va gujummeva goho boisi paydoishi allergiya meshavad.
Nig. niz ba maqolahoi judogona dar borai anvoi mevaho.

S. M. Gulov.

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