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MAVQEI MINTAQAHOI RAVSHANI VA TAQSIMOTI GARMII OFTOB DAR ZAMIN

Az mushohidahoi mahalaton misolho ored – ba balandii Oftob bar ufuq va az davomnokii ruz vobasta budani garmshavii havoro sharh dihed.

Oftob – manbai garmi va ravshani. Oftob kurai azimi gazmonandi tafson buda, yake az sitorahoi beshumori kayhon ast. On ba sayyoraamon – Zamin nazdiktarin sitora buda, dar masofai qarib 150 mln. km voqe gardidaast. Harorati sathi Oftob qarib +6 000s. qarash to 20 mln. daraja meboshad. On miqdori azimi garmi va rushnoii chashmkhirakunanda meafkanad» Hamai sayyorahon atrofi Oftob, az jumla Zamin, ki dar girdi on davr mezanad, garmi va ravshaniro az Oftob megirand.

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Baroi hosil kardani on miqdori garmie, ki Zamin az Oftob megirad. sadho million stansiyahoi barqi, monandi Norak lozim mebud. Oftob miqdori ziyodi ravshaniro pahn mekunad. Baroi hosil kardani tasavvurot boyad guft, ki baroi ruz barin ravshan kardani khonai masohatash 350 metri murabba dar saqfudevorhoi on  50 hazor lampochkai 60- volta guzoshtan lozim meoyad. Manbai hamai hodisahoi sathi Zamin garmii Oftob meboshad.

Zamin dar mador dar atrofi Oftob bo surati nihoyat baland – 29.8 km/soniya davr mezanad. Dar davomi 45 daqiqai dars hamai mo yakjoya bo Zamin dar Kaykhon rohi beshtar az 80 000 kilometrro tay mekunem.

Garm va ravshan shudann sathi Zamin dar davomi sol. Garmi va ravshani dar sathi kurashakli Zamin nobarobar taqsim meshavad, zero kunji aftidani nurhoi Oftob dar arzhoi gunogun har khel ast. Tasavvur kuned: Zamin dar girdi Oftob tavrs davr mezanad, ki mehvari on nisbat ba sathi mador amudP joy i iriftaasg. On goh tamomi sol andozai kujchi Oftob dar arzho yak khel meshud va dar sathi Zamin hama arzho miqdori yakkhelai garmi megiriftand, ruzu shab hamesha barobar va faslhoi sol ivaz nameshudand.

Vale mehvari Zamin ba sathi mador bo kunji 66.5 moil buda, tarafi shimolash hamesha-ba Sitorai Qutb ravona ast. Zamin voqean mehvar nadorad. In khati tasavvuriest, ki Zamin dar girdi on davr mezanad. Baroi hosil kardani tasavvurot yagon chubcha yo konfetro girifta dar bayni du angusht davr zanoned: on khati tasavvurie, ki du nuqtaro mepayvandad, qismi boloyash guyo “Qutbi SHimoli” va poyonash “Qutbi Janubi” meboshad (CHunin tajribaro khudaton mustaqil ijro kuned).

Agap Zamin dar tuli sol az kishtii kayhoni mushohida karda shavad, malum megardad, ki Oftob doimo nisfi sathi kurashakli Zaminro ravshan menamoyad. Dar in hangom goh Nimkurai SHimoli va goh Nimkurai Janubi ravshan ast. Har du nimkura sole du marotiba yak khel ravshan meshavand.

Ivazshavii faslhoi sol dar natijai harakati Zamin dar girdi Oftob ba amal meoyad. Sababi asosin ba vujud omadani faslhoi sol dar on ast, ki mehvari Zamin nisbat ba sathi madorash 66,5 moil meboshad. Dar natijai in moili nurhoi Oftob dar yak sol du marotiba – yak bor ba Nimkurai SHimoli va bori digar ba Nimkurai Janubi mayl mekunand. In boisi dar yak nimkura faro rasidani fasli tobiston, dar nimkurai digar – fasli zimiston megardad.

Dar davomi sol, yane dar muddati purra dar atrofi Oftob davr zadani Zamin, chor ruz cholibi diqqat ast: 21 mart va 23 sentyabr – barobarii shabu ruz. 22 iyun va 22 dekabr – tavaqqufi Oftob.

 Hathoi muvoziero, ki az 30,5-i arzi shimoli va 30,5°-i arzi janubi guzaronida shudaand, doirahoi tropiki (yo tropikho) menomand. YAne in khatho az khati istivoi Zamin dar arzi 30,5° voqe meboshand. Marzhoero, ki dar bayni khathoi muvozii tropikho voqeand. marzhoi tropiki menomand.

Dar har khathoi muvozii tropikho sole yak marotiba Oftob nisfiruzi ba qiyom meoyad, yane nurhoi Oftob ba sathi Zamin rost meaftand. (Dar kharitai nimkuraho tropikhoi shimoyai va janubiro nishon dikhed).

Doirahoi qutbi. Hathoi muvoziero, ki az 66.5° -i arzi shimoly va 66.5° -i arzi januby guzaronda shudaand, doirahos qutbi menomand. YAne khathoi qutbi az khati istivoi zamin dar arzi 66, 5° meboshand. Onho az digar khatqoi muvozi bo on farq mekunand, ki dar onho  sole yak marotiba ruzi qutbi meshav^YA Oda.mon dar in arzho tamomi shabonaruz. yans 24 soat Oftobr^ mebinand (rasmi 83). Badi nim sol tamomi shabonaruz shab» qutbi meshavad.

Davomnokii shabu ruzkhoi qutbi az doirakhoi qutbi ba samti qutbho ziyod meshavad. Masalan, on dar arzi 66.5° yak shabonaruz boshad, dar arzi 70° ba 65° shabonaruz, dar arzi 80° ba 134 shabonaruz, dar arzi 90° (dar qutbho) takhminan ba shashmohi barobar ast.

Az doirahoi qutbi to kutbho (dar nimkurakhoi SHimoli va Janubi) nurhoi Oftob dar tamomi sol toraft beshtar poin aftod, sathi Zaminro nagz garm namekunand.

Dar hamai arzho az doirai qutbi to khati istivo ham shabonaruz ruzu shab ivaz meshavad (doirahoi qutbhoi SHimoli, va Janubiro dar kharitai nimkuraho nishon dihed).

Mintaqahoi ravshani. Trolikho va doirahoi qutbii sathi Zaminro ba mintaqaho taqsim kardaand. In mintakaho bo ravshaniyu miqdori garmie, ki az Oftob megirand, az hamdigar farq dorand. Vobasta ba kunji aftishi nurhoi Oftob va davomnokii ruzu shab panj mintaqai ravshaniro farq mekunand.

Dar bayni khathoi muvozii tropikho mintaqahoi tropiki joy giriftaand (onhoro az globus va kharitai nimkuraho nishon dihed). Sathi Zamin dar in jo tamomi sol garmii ziyod megirad. Binobar in iqlymi mintaqai tropiki garm ast. Mardumi on sole du marotiba tavaqqufi Oftobro dar qiyom mushohida mekunand. Bardavomii ruz dar khati istivo hamesha ba 12 soat barobar ast. Hati muvozie, ki dar masofai yakkhela az qutbkho kashida shudaast, khati istivo nom dorad. Hati istivo kamarbandi Zamin yo khud khati muvozii asosi (0°) ast. Digar khathoi doiravii dar masofai yakkhela ba khati istivo ba tavri muvozi kashidashudaro khathoi muvozi menomand.

Dar mintakahoi tropiki ruzi kutohtarin 10 soatu 30 daqiqa meboshad. Dar Nimkurai SHimoli in ba 22 dekabr, dar Nimkurai Jamubi ba 22 iyun rost meoyad (bo bardavomii ruzi mahalaton dar in vaqt muqoisa kuned). Dar in jo amplitudai harorati solona khele kam ast.

Dar bayni doirahoi qutby va tropikho mintaqahoi mutadili nimkurahoi SHimoli va Januby joy giriftaand. Dar in jo sathi Zamin nazar ba mintaqahoi tropiki kamtar, vale nazar ba mintaqahoi qutbi beshtar garmi va ravshani megirad. Dar miitakahoi mutadil Oftob hej vaqt ba qiyom nameoyad. CHor fasli sol – bahor, tobiston, tiramoh va znmiston aniq mushohida meshavad: dar in hol mavze har qadar ba doirai qutbi nazdik boshad, zimiston hamon qadar bardavomu khunuktar, har kadar ba doirai tropiki nazdik boshad, tobiston hamon qadar bardavomu garmtar meboshad. Iqlimi in mintaqaho mutadil ast. Dar faslhoi gunogun ba in mintaqaho anbuhi havoi arktiki va tropiki dokhil meshavad. Amplitudai solonai harorat ziyod ast va barobari balad shudani arzho on ham meafzoyad.

Ruzho Nimkurai SHimoli Nimkurai Janubi
21 mart 1)  Har du nimkura yak khel ravshan, shabu

ruz barobar ast (12- soat)

2)   Nurhoi Oftob ba khagi isgivo rost

meaftad;

3)   Barobarii bahorii shabu ruz

3) barobarii shabu ruz
22 iyun 1)  beshgtar ravshan ast;

2)   ruz az shab daroz ast;

3)  Xathoi qismati khattiqugbi dartuyai

(shabonaruz to khati muvozii 66,5 arzi shimoli rovshan ast (ruzi kuzbi,’

4)    Nurhoi Oftob ba arzn 23.5° arzi

shnmoli rost meaftad.

1) kamtar ravshan ast;

2)  ruz az shab kutoh ast;

3)   haman qismati nazdi-

qutbi dar tuli shabo naruz to khati iuno-zed 66.5° arzi januby soya act (shabi kugbP/

23 sentyabp 1) Har du nimkura yak khel ravshan ast. shabu

ruz barobar mebotad (12- coati);

2)   Nurhoi Oftob dar khati istivo rost

meaftad;

3)   Barobarin tiramohu shabu ruz

3) barobarii bahorui shabu ruz
22 dekabr 1)  Kamtar ravshan ast;

2)   Ruz az shab kutoh ast.

3)   Hamai qismash nazdiqutb dar tuli shabu

ruz to khati muvovsh aroi shimati

dar soya dat (shabi qutbgu

3) Barobarik tiramoknn shabu ruz

Qismathoi bo doirahoi qutbi makhdudi sathi Zamin mintaqahoi qutbi nom dorand. Dar in cho mintakahoi qutbi SHimoli va Januby joy giriftaand (Onhoro az globus kharitai nimkuraho nnshon dihed. Tobiston ruzi qutbi bosh ham, vale Oftob dar ufuq past voqe ast va sathi Zamiiro khele kam garm mekunad. Oftob dar fasli zimiston muddati daroz namudor nameshavad. Dar mintaqahoi qut anbuhi havoi khunuki arktiky tamomi sol hukm meronad, az in ru iqlimi khunuk khos ast (Az globus panj mintakai ravshani nishon doda, onhoro nombar kuned).

Sababhoi asosii gunogunii iqlimi Zamin harkhela arzi geografi va balandii mahal az sathi bahr, bardavom: ruz, shakli relef va gayra meboshand. Kunji aftidani nurho Oftob ba sathi Zamin har qadar ziyod boshad, havo hamon qad garmtar meshavad, yane iqlim ba mavqei geografi niz vobasta ast. In vobastagi hanuz ba olimoni YUnoni  malum bud.

Dar zamoni hozira dar tashakkuli iklim naqshi inson niz kalon ast.

Savol va suporish

  1. Manbai asosii hamai hodisahoi rui Zamin chist?
  2. Doir ba mekhvari Zamin va moilii on nisbat ba sathi mador chiro naql karla mstavonsd?
  3. Dar borai ba vujud omadani min gaqahoi ravshanii Zammn nakd karda, bigued, ki makhalaton ba kadom mnntaqahoi ravshany mansub ast.
  4. Mintakakhoi tropiki va mutadilro muqoisa karda, farqi onhoro muayyan kuned.
  5. Dar kharitai angorii (bematn) nimkuraho doirahoi qutbro bo qalami kabud, tropikhoro bo qalami surkh ishora kuned. Mintaqahoi tropikiro bo khathoi kanda-kandai surkh, mintaqahoi mutadilro bo khathoi sabz, mintaqahoi qutbiro bo khathoi bunafsh (yo kabud) rang kuned. Nomi mintaqahoro navised. Mahali shumo dar kadom mintaqa voqe ast?
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