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MATERIYA – MODDA VA JISM

Olami moro ihotakunanda moddi meboshad.

Hama chize, ki insonro ihota mekunad, materiya nomida meshavad. Vay az hej kujo paydo nashuda, khud az khud az bayn nameravad. Hamchunin materiya ba azoi hissi odam (ba tavri mustaqim va gayrimustaqim) tasir rasonida, ehsosro barmeangezad (rang, ovoz, maza, andoza, shakl, buy, rushnoi).

Modda – in yake az navhoi materiya ba shumor meravad. Istakon az shisha, mekh az ohan, chumcha az alyuminiy, sim az ruh sokhta meshavad. Ob, shisha, ohan, ruh, alyu­miniy namunai moddaho ba shumor meravand. Har on chize, ki az moddahoi gunogun sokhta shudaand, tavri misol, istakon, mekh, chumcha, sim, jismho nomida meshavand. Jismhoi gunogun metavonand az yak modda sokhta shavand: (tavri misol: chumcha, panja( vilka), qadah -az alyuminiy) va baraks, har on chize, ki ba jismho monand hastand, metavonand az moddahoi gunogun sokhta shavand .Tavri misol, istakonhoe, ki az shisha va filiz metall sokhta shudaand.

On gulyakhhoe, ki dar ruzhoi zimiston az bomi khonaho avezon meshavand, qatrahoi ob va meh – in hama jismhoe meboshand, ki az yak modda, yane ob iborat meboshand. Vale gulyakh moddai sakht buda, qatra moe va meh (tuman) moddaest dar holati gazshakl.

Dar sharoiti mutadil moddahoi sakhtro fipgurdan va yozondan mushkil ast. Onho qajmi khudro nigah medorand. Baroy on ki shakli moddahoi sakhtro digargun namoem, tavri misol, baroi qat kardan yo shikastan, moro zarur ast, to kushishi ziyode ba kharj bidihem.

A Moddahoi sakht khosiyati hifz kardani shakl va andoza meboshand. Vale moe ba osony shakli khudro digar mekunad.

Vay shakli on zarfero megirad, ki mo onro merezem. Dar sharoiti mutadil tanho qatrahoi kuchak metavonand shakli khudro- yane kuracharo doshta boshand. (rasmi 16). Tavri misol, chunin nav kuracharo hangomi paydo shuda- ni shabnam dar ruyi bargho didan mumkin ast.

SHakli moero metavon ba osony tagyir dod, vale hajmi onro digar kardan mushkil ast. Dar in robita bo in padida metavon yak misoli tarikhiro yodovar shud. Obro ba kurae, ki az ruh sokhta shu- daast, rekhtand. Baroi on ki ob az surokhi narezad, onro kafsher kardand.

Pas az in, baroi on ki obro bifishorand, ba kura bo putki ohanin kuftand. Dar natija chy shud? Hangomi bo putk zadan ob fipturda nagardida, az bayni devorhoi kura berun jahidaast. Moe hajmro nigoh doshta, vale ba osony shaklashro tagyir medihad. Bisyore az gazho shaffof va berang meshavand. Az in ru, mo nametavonem onhoro bubi- nem. Vale hangomi harakati tez, masalan, hangomi savor budan dar avtomobil va yo qatora, vaqte shamol ba vazidan shuru mekunad, mo his mekunem, ki dar girdi mo havo mavjud ast. Istakoni sarchapparo bo havoyash ba ob cap medihem. Ob ba istakon dokhil meshavad. Ammo havoi dar daruni istakon buda, kujo meravad? Havo az rasidani on fishurda shud. Gaz ba osony fishurda meshavad. Hangomi fishurdashavii havo dar tub, hamon lahza tagyiryobii hajmi tub ba nazar merasad.

Gaz nisbat ba moe khususiyati hazorho marotiba beshtar fishurda shudanro do­rad. Gazho doroy on khususiyathoe meboshand, ki moeho va moddahoi sakht nadorand: gazho tamomi hajmi zarfero, ki dar on qaror dorand, faro megirand.

ASOSITARIN NUKTAHOI MAVZU

Holati chahorumini moddahoro plazma menomand. Gaze, ki hama va yo qismi beshta- ri molekulaho ionshuda meboshand, plazma nomida meshavad. Ionho – in hissachahoe meboshand, ki shumorai elektronhoi manfii kheshro yo ziyod yo kam kardaand. Plazma dar tabiat bisyor vaqt hamchun navi chahorumi moddaho ba nazar merasad. Oftob va digar sitoraho tajammui plazmahoi andozaashon az hama kalon shumorida mesha- vand. Qabati olii atmosferai Zamin dar natijai tasiroti gunoguni beruna plaz- mai suet ionshuda shumorida meshavad. Az in ru, in qabatro ionosfera menomand. Quvvahoi beruna, ki ba qabati berunai atmosfera tasir merasonand, tasiri rushnoii Oftob va shuoi kayhoni ba shumor meravad.

Pursishho

1 Materiya chist?

  1. Modda chist?
  2. Moddaho doroy kadom holatho meboshand?
  3. Modsahoi sakht doroy kadom khosiyatho meboshand?
  4. Moe doroy kadom khosiyat meboshad?
  5. Gaz doroy kadom khosiyat meboshad?
  6. SHumo dar borai plazma chy medoned?
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