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MASUDI SADI SALMON

Masud dar Lohur, dar khonavodai daftardori darbori Majdud ibni Masudi Gaznavi ba dunyo omad. Padarash Sadi Salmoni Hamadoni mardi fozile bud. Iqtisodu siyosati davlatdorii ahdi Gaznaviyonro khub medonist, goh-gohe sher ham menavisht. Pisarash-Masudro, ki hamnomi farzandi nakhustini Sulton Mahmudi Gaznavi bud, khele khub tarbiya dod, ilmu adab omuzond. Masud avval dar Lohur, bad dar Gazna tahsil kard. Bar ilovai zaboni modariash forsi- tojiki, zaboni hindi va arabiro khele khub yod girift, aspsavori, tirandozi, chavgonbozi, musiqi va adabro omukht.

sadi-salmonTufayli zakovati asli, ilmu donish va odobi nekash dardoirahoi darbori Gaznaviyon misli padarash nomu shuhrati khosae paydo kard. Hamin bud, ki vaqte Sulton Ibrohimi Gaznavi (hukmroniash solhoi 1059-1099) soli 1076/77 hokimiyati Hindustonro ba pisarash — Sayfuddavla Mahmud suporid, Masudi Sadro dar rikobi u guzosht.

Tufayli shinosoii sobiqa Sayfuddavla uro ba khidmati darbor paziruft. Dar andak muddat Masud dar darbor obruyu etibori khosaero sohib shud, yake az shakhsiyathoi nazdiki sulton gardid. Dar doirahoi adabii Lohur va Hindustonu Gazna chun shoiri khushtabi qasidasaro shinokhta shud va amvolu davlati nazarrase nasibash gasht.

Hamai in ba solhoe rost meoyand, ki dar sarzamini Movarounnahru Huroson qabilai digari turk — Saljuqiyon nufuz paydo karda, tasiri onho ba davlati Gaznaviyon ruz ba ruz meafzud. Hatto baze amironu vazironi gaznavi nisbati Saljuqiyon oshkoru nihoni husni tavajjuh doshtand. Azjumla, hukmroni Hinduston- Sayfuddavla Mahmud ham. In asror ba padarash — sulton Ibrohimi Gaznavi oshkor shudu vay soli 1086/7 farzandi jigarbandashro ba khiyonatkori muttaham donista, dar yak shab dastu po basta bo chande az muqarrabonash ba zindon partoft. Masudi Sadi Salmon ham ba nosiposi badnom shuda zindoni gardid.

Badi dah soli ruzgori bisyor khushi shohonazindagii talkhu zahrogini dahsolai Masudi Sadii Salmon dar zindoni qalahoi Su, Dahak, Noy shuru shud:

Haft solam bikuft Suvu Dahak,

Pas az onam se sol qalai Noy.

Az boisi nohaq, bo tuhmat ba zindon aftodanash nolayu figoni Masudi Sad ba falak pechida boshad ham, ba unvoni Sulton Ibrohim va nazdikoni u dahho madhiyaho, qasidaho, shikoyatnomaho navishta boshad ham, kase ba dodash narasid.

Masudi Sad to ruzi okhiri zindoni budanash ba in amri nohaqi ruzgor tan nadod. Qalamash az navishtan boz naistod. Mavzui markazii ashori zindonii u shikoyat az nobasomonihoi zamon, jabru zulmi tudai hokimon ba sari om-

mai benavo, lazzatu kayfiyati ozodi ba har qimate, ki boshad, mahrumiyat az didori yoronu payvandon budaast. Dar in hangom u aslan qasida menavisht, shohu amironu darboriyonro mesutud, to qulfi dilashon kushoda shavadu uro az zindon raho kunand. Vale ku didai haqbin?

Ejodiyoti zindonii u dar anvoi qasidavu gazalu ruboiyu masnaviyu mustazod va gayra ba unvoni “Habsiyot” dar adabiyot malum ast. Dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik shoironi zindoni chande budand va on jo asarho ejod kardaand. Vale hej kadome chun Masudi Sadi Salmon in qadar tuloni va takror ba takror sokini zindon nabud va in qadar bisyor sheri zindoni naguft. Umuman, devoni mukammali MasudiSadi Salmon 15500 bayt dorad, ki beshtarash dar zindon suruda shudaast.

Sulton Ibrohimi Gaznavi du sol pesh az vafotash (soli 1096) ba khotiri dustash — Abulqosimi Hos, ki mardi fozil, shoir va dusti Masudi Sad bud, Masudi Sadi Salmonro az habs ozod kard. Vaqte Masud ibni Ibrohim (solhoi 1099-1115) ba joi padarash ba takhti shohi nishast, u pisarash — SHerzodro hokimi Hinduston va mardi fozilu siyosatmadori dono — Abunasri Porsiro peshkoru sipahsolori u tain kard. Abunasr yake az dustoni nazdiki Masudi Sadi Salmon bud. Kori Masudi Sad boz omad kard. Tufayli khayrkhohii Abunasr Masudi Sad hokimi viloyati tozafathshudai Hinduston — CHolandar tain gardid. Dere naguzashta Abunasri Porsi az vazifa barkanoru Masudi Sadi Salmon bori duyum ba muddati 9 sol dar qalai Maranj zindoni shud. Masudi Sad dar qasidai “SHikoyat az sioyati Abulfaraj” meguyad:

Mar turo hej boke n-omad az on-k

Nuzdah sol budaam bandi.

Boyad guft, ki behtarin solhoi umri azizi shoir, yane solhoi az 40 to 60 dar zindonho sipari gardid. Ammo u noumed nashud, har chi ki yak inson dar in solho baroi insonhoi digar kori khayre boyad bikunad, kard.

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