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MASTi

mastiMASTi, mastshavi, tagyiri jarayoni fiziologi va ruhi, ki dar natijai istemoli sharob ba amal meoyad. Miqdori muayyani alkuhul khastagii ruhiro yak daraja kam karda, hissi khursandiro ba vujud meorad, kayfiyatro khush megardonad. CHunin hissiyot baroi odam muvaqqati ast. SHakhs barobari afzoishi miqdori spirt ba hayajon meoyad, qobiliyati khudnazoratro gum mekunad, badqahru badjahl, gamginu ruhaftoda meshavad. Odami mast mahz dar hamin holat badakhloqi va jinoyat (avboshi, tajovuz ba nomus, hatto odamkushi) sodir karda metavonad. Holati gamangez va ruhaftodagi, munosibati betafovut ba oqibati raftori khud bazan shakhsi mastro ba khudkushi merasonad. SHakhse, ki dar hushyori yagon marotiba janjol nakardaast, dar natijai yak bor nushidani sharob metavonad raftori noshoista sodir namoyad. Gayr iz in, hangomi yak marotiba istemol kardani miqdori ziyodi sharob sakht zahrolud shudan mumkin ast. Dar surati muntazam va az had ziyod istemol namudani mashruboti spirtdor kas ba on sakht odat mekunad (nig. Mayzadagii muzmin).
Hangomi istemoli mashruboti spirtdor ba qadri az meda va ruda jabbida shudani on miqdori alkuhul dar tarkibi khun meafzoyad. On badi du soat ba haddi beshtarin merasad (dar mavridi istemoli yakkaratai on), bad tadrijan kam meshavad; 10% – i alkuhul tavassuti shush, gurda va pust betagyir az organizm ikhroj megardad (boqimondai onro fermenthoi makhsus oksid mekunand). Alkuhul dar organizm sust oksid meshavad. Usulhoi hozirai tadqiqot muayyan kardaand, ki hatto badi yak bori istemoli sharob miqdori andaki alkuhul tuli 2 hafta dar organizm boqi memonad, harchand dar khun badi 4 – 5 soat on barham mekhurad (dar mavridi yakbora ba miqdori ziyod nushidani sharob – badi 12 soat). Alkuhul gun shuda, bad ba sistemai asabhoi markazi (avval ba tashkilahoi zerqishr va maynacha, sipas ba qishri magzi sar, ki on jo duru daroz meistad) meguzarad. Miqdori kami mashrubot kasro ba hayajon meorad, voyai ziyodi on qishr va markazhoi hayotan muhimi maynai darozruya (nafaskashi, muharriki ragho)-ro bozdoshta, boisi ikhtiloli nafaskashi va gardishi khun meshavad. Hangomi az alkuhul sakht zahrolud shudan, marg faro merasad.
Zuhuri alomathoi avvalini M. ba darajai spirtnokii mashrubot va serii shikam vobasta ast. Darajai M. – ro vobasta ba miqdori alkuhuli ba 1 kg vazn istemolshuda, tobovarii shakhs ba on, inchunin az rui holati organizm hangomi istemoli mashrubot muayyan mekunand. Dar vaqti khastagi va logari andak araq odamro sakht mast mekunad. Dar holati khastagii ruhi boshad, tasiri mastiovari alkuhul kam meshavad. Makhsusan kudakon, kuhansolon, shakhsoni giriftori bemorihoi jigar, meda, ikhtiloli endokrini ba tasiri mashruboti spirtdor khele hassosand. Takhmin mekunand, ki agar konsentratsiyai alkuhul dar khun to 2 ‰ boshad, M.-i sabuk, to 3 ‰ – M. – i miyona va to 4 ‰ – M.-i vaznin mahsub meyobad. Agar konsentratsiyai alkuhul dar khun az 5 ‰ ziyod boshad, on halokatbor ast. Bo vujudi in hangomi dar khuni odamoni gunogun yak khel budani konsentratsiyai alkuhul darajai mastii onho har khel shuda metavonad.
Durakhshidani chashm, qadre surkh shudani ruy, ziyod gashtani mahsuli gadudhoi charb va araq, sust shudani nabz avvalin alomathoi M. meboshand. Odami mast garmi, sustii foram, kushodashavii ishtihoro his mekunad. Ehsosi khushnudii ruhi va jismoni (ba nom eyforiya), yane kayfiyati khush, oromii faoliyati ruhi va jismoni, ravshanii taassuroti his ba vujud meoyad. Badi 10 – 30 daq. gavharaki chashm vase, nabz va fishori khun mutadil meshavand. Ba qadri afzoishi voyai alkuhul faoliyati ruhi va jismoni meafzoyad, yane qadamho kaloni noustuvor, ovoz baland, nutq berabt, tarifu tavsifi az budash ziyod, sifati kor past meshavad. Garizaho oshkor shuda, khislathoi pushidai shakhs (rashk, havobalandi, ranjish va g.) zohir megardand.
Hangomi ba darajai miyona budani M. kas tadrijan khobolud va behol shuda, khobash sakht mebarad. Badi bedor shudan, ehsosi beholi, shalpari, kamishtihoi, hissi vazninii sar, norozigi az khud va atrofiyon, khashmgini ba vujud meoyad. Qobiliyati ruhi va jismonii shakhs sust megardad.
Dar vaqti M. – i vaznin kas joi khudro muayyan karda nametavonad, nutq sust meshavad, aloqai hissiyot az badan meravad. Aksar vaqt qay (chun reaksiyai muhofizi organizm) mushohida meshavad. Barobari afzoishi zahroludi ikhtiloli shuur afzuda, nafaskashi va tonusi dilu rag sust megardad, beharakati, kamquvvatii mushakho, garangi rukh medihad. Falaji markazi nafaskashi, inchunin inkishofi igmo (koma) shakhsi mastro ba marg merasonad. Holati khumori badi M. – i vaznin beshtar ayon meshavad. Odami mast badi hushyor shudanash voqeahoi bo u ruydodaro ba khotir ovarda nametavonad. Muddati chand shaboruz mumkin ast khob vayron shavad. Dar chunin holat oqibati istemoli doruhoi khobovar noguvor khohad shud. Dar baze mavridho ba nom M. – i patologi inkishof meyobad, ki on bo ikhtiloli vaznini shuur, vasvos va firebi ehsosot meguzarad. M. – i patologi baroi atrofiyon va khudi shakhs khatarnok ast.
YOri hangomi zahroludi az alkuhul. Pesh az hama zuran qay kardan zarur ast, to ki boqimondai alkuhul az meda dur, jabbishi minbaadi on ba khun qat va zahroludi peshgiri karda shavad. Dar in mavrid tasiri ob chun vositai qayovar kam, bazan hatto khatarnok ast (ob ba khirnoy daromada nafastangi yo gazaki uzvhoi nafaskashiro ba vujud ovardanash mumkin ast); gayr az in ba odami mast hamesha miqdori darkorii obro nushonidan imkon nadorad (on miqdor obe, ki ba u menushonand surati jabbishi alkuhuli medaro tezonida, mastiro ziyod mekunadu bas). Angezishi bekhi zabon usuli bekhatari qayovari ast; dar in hol ba shakhsi mast yori rasondan darkor, to ki mavodi qay ba rohi nafas dokhil nashavad ( uro kham karda, sarro rost nigoh doshtan lozim). Agar shakhsi mast daroz kashida boshad, hangomi qay sarashro poyon karda, ba pahlu megardonand. Baroi bartaraf namudani tahayyuj va ziyod kardani tonusi mushakhoi dil kordiamin, korvalol, valokordin dodan mumkin ast. Valerianka (chakra, qurs) tasiri khub merasonad. Istemoli doruhoe man ast, ki raghoi iklilii dilro vase mekunand (nitroglitserin, validol); in doruhoro faqat hangomi dard kardani dil (agar shakhsi mast pesh onhoro ba tavsiyai dukhtur istemol karda boshad) dodan mumkin ast. Agar badani shakhsi mast garm va surkh shuda boshad, uro orom karda, khob meravonand. Dar surati paridani rang va khunuk khurdan, uro darhol bo kurpai garm pushonda, ba poyash garmkunak meguzorand, spirti navshodir (ba miqdori kam, to ki luobpardahoi rohi nafas nasuzad) buy kunonda, adonizid yo kordiamin medihand, dukhturro davat menamoyand.

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