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MASNAVIHOI RUDAKI

Dar tarikhi adabiyoti navini foru tojik Ustod Abuabdulloh Rudaki az avvalin buzurgmardonest, ki masnavihoi nagze navishta, in navi adabiyotro ba poyahoi baland rasondaast. Az in jihat, muhaqqiqoni varzidai Rudakishinos Paul Horn, S. Ayni, S. Nafisi, E. E. Bertels, A. Mirzoev, Ruben Levi, I. S Braginskiy, A. Tohirjonov dar asosi pajuhishi ashori dastrasi Ustod Rudaki ba khulosae rasidaand, ki u chandin masnavi suruda budaast. Az guftori khudi shoir, muosironi u va akhboroti manbahoi adabi ravshan megardad, ki Ustod Rudaki masnavihoe bo nomi «Kalilavu Dimna», «Sindbodnoma» va «Davroni Oftob» talif karda budaast.

  1. «Kalilavu Dimna» mashhurtarin masnavii Ustod Rudaki buda, dar borai on chunin malumot mavjud ast: «Kalilavu Dimna» aslan moli hinduho buda, bo nomi «Panchatantara» ba zaboni sanskrit mavjud budaast. Dar ahdi Husravi Parvezi Sosoni, ki chun Anushervoni Odil (hukmr.531—579) mashhur bud, tabibi eronie bo nomi Barzuya onro az zaboni sanskrit ba zaboni pahlavi gardondaast. Bad az solho adibi arabizaboni eroni Ibn-al-Muqaffa (724—759) «Kalilavu Dimna»-ro az pahlavi ba zaboni arabi bargardondavu tahrirash kardaast. Badan, dar zamoni Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni (941-—943), bo suporishi vaziri u Abulfazli Balami, soli 933 ba zaboni dari (tojiki) gardonda shudaast. Sipas Balami ba Rudaki suporish dod, ki onro ba rishtai nazm kashad. Dar in bora Abumansuri Saolabi dar asari khud «Gurar-us-siyar», ki onro khovarshinosi faronsavi Zotenberg sahvan tahti unvoni «Gurari akhbori muluk-al-furs» dar Parij chop karda bud, chunin akhborot medihad: «In kitob (yane «Kalilavu Dimna» — A. A.) hamchunon dar khazinai podshohoni fors nigoh doshta meshud, to ki Ibn-al-Muqaffa onro ba arabi gardonidavu Rudaki bo amri amir Nasr ibni Ahmad ba sheri forsi kard».157

Az Abumansuri Saolabi khele pesh Abulqosimi Firdavsi roje ba paydoishi «Kalilavu Dimna», ba Eron ovarda shudani on, ba arabi arzi vujud kardanash va onro ba rishtai nazmi forsi kashidani Rudaki dar mavridi tasviri zamoni Husravi Anushervon menavisad:

Nabishtand bar nomai khusravi,

Nabud on zamon juz khati pahlavi.

Hame bud bo arj dar ganji shoh,

Bad-u nosazo kas nakardi nigoh.

CHuninash ba tozi sukhan rondand,

Az on pahlavoni hamekhondand.

«Kalila» ba tozi shud az pahlavi,

Bad-in son, ki aknun hamebishnavi. 

Ba tozi hame bud to   gohi Nasr,

Bad-on gah, ki shud dar jahon shohi Nasr.

Garonmoya Bulfazli dasturi uy,

Ki andar sukhan bud ganjuri uy,

Bifarmud, to porsii dari

Biguftandu kutoh shud dovari.

V-az on pas bad-u rasmu roy omadash,

Bar-u bar khirad rahnamoy omadash.

Hame khosti oshkoru nihon,

K-az u yodgori buvad dar jahon.

Guzorandaro pesh binshondand,

Hame noma bar Rudaki khondand.

Bipayvast guyo parokandaro,

Bisuft inchunin durri ogandaro.

Hamchunin, dar muqaddimai «SHohnomai Abumansuri» omadaast: «…CHun shohi hinduvon, ki «Kalilavu Dimna» va «SHonoq» va «Romu Romin» berun ovardavu chun Mamuni pisari Horunarrashid manishi podshohon va himmati mehtaron dosht, yak ruz bo mehtaron iishasta bud, guft: «Mardum boyad, ki to andar in jahon boshand va tavonoi dorand, bikushand, to az u yodgori buvad, to pas az margi u nomash zinda buvad». Abdullohi pisari Muqaffa, ki dabiri u bud, guftash, ki az Kisroi Anushervon chize mondaast, ki az hech podshoh namondaast. Mamun guft: «CHi mond?» Guft: «Nomae az Hinduston biyovard, on goh Barzuyai tabib az hindui ba pahlavi gardonda bud, to nomi u zinda shud miyoni jahoniyon va ponsad khirvor khazina kard.» Mamun on noma bikhostu on noma bidid. Farmud dabiri kheshro, to az zaboni pahlavi ba zaboni tozi gardonid. Pas amiri said Nasr ibni Ahmad in sukhan bishnid, khush omadash. Dasturi khesh – Hoja Balamiro bar on dosht, to az zaboni tozi ba zaboni porsi gardonid, to in noma ba dasti mardumon-andar aftod va har kase dast bad-u andar zadand va Rudakiro farmud, to  ba nazm ovardu «Kalilavu Dimna» andar zaboni khurdu buzurg aftod va nomi u bad-in zinda gasht va in noma az u yodgori bimond. Pas chiniyon tasovir andar afzudand, to har kasro khush oyad didanu khondani on».

S. Nafisi, badi iqtibosi in porcha, meafzoyad: «YAgona chize, ki dar in jo nodurust ast, in ast, ki dar in debocha navishtaand, ki Abdullohi pisari Muqaffa dabiri Mamun bud. Ruzbehi pisari Dodveyh (Doduya) az mardumi shahri Jur, adibi bisyor nomii Eron, ki chun islom ovarda ba nomi Abuamr va ba Abumuhammad Abdulloh maruf shudavu ba Abdulloh Ibn-al-Muqaffa maruf budaast, dar hududi soli 139 (756 — A.A.) kushta shudaast. Mamun dar rabeulavvali 170 (sentyabri 786—A.A.) ba jahon omadavu az 198 to 202 (814—817) khilofat kardaast. Bad—in guna, Ibni Muqaffa 31 sol pesh az valodati Mamun va 59 sol pesh az ogozi khilofati vay kushta shudaast, mumkin nest, ki dabiri Mamun buda boshad. In khato az in jost, ki Ibni Muqaffa «Kalilavu Dimna»-ro az tarjumai pahlavi ba tozi bargardondaast».158 Digar hamai akhboroti debochai «SHohnomai Abumansuri» durust ast.

CHize digare, ki malum ast, on ast, ki «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Rudaki dar vazni ramali musaddasi maqsur talif shudaast, ki arkoni on ba foilotun ( — U — —) foilotun ( — U — —) foilon (— U~ ) barobar ast va az on to kunun 129 bayt ba dast omadaast.

Aglabi pajuhishgaron bar sari in aqidaand, ki dostoni Ustod Rudaki az nakhustin dostonhoi akhloqist, ki dar vaqtash az 12 hazor bayt iborat budaast. Bazeho to 18 hazor bayt guftaand hajmi in masnaviro.

Dar borai zamonu makoni paydoishi «Kalilavu Dimna» donishmandi nomi Rizozoda SHafaq chunin aqida dorad: «Ibni Muqaffa bisyore az kitobhoi pahlaviro ba arabi tarjuma kard va khud niz dar ilmu adab talifote namud. Muhimtarini tarjumahoi vay az zaboni pahlavi «Kalilavu Dimna» ast, ki hanuz boqist va az behtarin kitobhoi adabii arabi ba shumor meravad».159 «Asli in dostoni maruf dar zamoni Sosoniyon az zaboni hindi ba pahlavi naql shuda, bad Abdulloh ibni Muqaffa onro az pahlavi ba arabi tarjuma namud. Garchi «Kalila»-i Ibni Muqaffaro dar davrai Somoni ba forsii manzum va mansur darovardaand, vale on az miyon raftu tanho ashore az «Kalila»-i manzumi Rudaki boqi mond… «Kalila»-i hozir, ki guzashta az asli hindi du-se hikoyati eroni va islomi bar on afzuda shuda, tarjumai Abulmaoli Nasrulloh ibni Muhammad Abdulhamid — az fuzaloi on zamon ast az «Kalila»-i Ibni Muqaffa va on dar avositi qarni shashum, yane dar davrai saltanati Bahromshohi Gaznavi 512-547/1118- 1152 — A. A.) ba amsolu ashore ba forsi va arabi bar on afzud va, alhaq, nasri matin va shevoe bar kor burd, chunon ki onro metavon az kitobhoi adabi dar zaboni forsi shumurd».160 Boz ham u menavisad: «YAke az osori muhimmi Rudaki manzumai «Kalilavu Dimna» bud, ki asli onro donishmandi eroni Ibni Muqaffa az pahlavi ba arabi naql karda bud. In manzuma az miyon raftavu abyote az on dar kitobi «Farhangi Asadii Tusi» va kitobe mavsum ba «Tuhfat-ul-muluk» ba mo rasidaast. Rudaki dar muqobili in khidmat az shoh inom didavu sila yofta va binobar bayte, ki ba Unsuri nisbat doda shuda, chihil hazor diram bigirift».161

 SHiblii Numoni niz taqriban  hamin guna andesha meronad: «Kalilavu Dimna» ibtido az sanskirt ba porsi tarjuma shuda, lekin vaqte ki Abdulloh ibni Muqaffa onro ba arabi tarjuma kard, nuskhai porsii on ba kulli az ravnaq aftodu bad-in jihat Nasr ibni Ahmad Somoni amr kard ba Rudaki, ki onro dar forsi ba hullai nazm biyovarad».162  Bayti  Unsuri, ki  chihil  hazor  diram  az  mehtari khud ato giriftani Rudakiro ba khotir meovard, in ast:

CHihil hazor diram Rudaki zi mehtari khesh  

Ato girift ba nazmi «Kalila» dar kishvar.

Aslan andeshai Unsuri az on bayti khudi Rudaki ibtido megirad, ki dar qasidai «SHikoyat az piri» bayon doshtaast:

Bidod miri Huroson-sh chil hazor diram,

Dar u fuzunii yak panj miri Mokon bud.

Zabehullohi Safo mefarmoyad: «Muhimtarin asari Rudaki, ki aknun juz abyoti parokandae az on boqi namonda, «Kalilavu Dimna»-i manzum ast».163

«Kalilavu Dimna», ki talifash soli 320/932 ogoz gardida, soli 325/937 ba itmom rasidaast, majmui qissayu hikoyathoi pandomezest, ki az zaboni hayvonot naql shuda, masalahoi muhimmi akhloqiyu ijtimoiro dar bar megirad. Rudaki «Kalilavu Dimna»-ro asosan az ruyi tarjumai tojikii Balami ba rishtai nazm kashida boshad ham, dar on hikmati omukhta va tajribai andukhtai kheshro darj namudaast. Az 12 hazor bayti in shohasari Ustod Rudaki kholo yak sadu panjoh bayt boqi mondaast.

Masnavii mazkur asari pandu akhloqi buda, dar on masalahoi targibi akhloqi pok, odamgari, dusti, rafoqat, donish va, baraks, mazammati nuqsonhoi insoni va illathoi jamiyati tasvir meshavad. Ba aqidai Ustod Rudaki, baroi pesh raftani inson du chiz az hama zarurtar ast: omukhtani tajribai zindagi va ba dast ovardani ilmu donish. Ammo sarchashmai muvaffaqiyathoi shakhsii odam ba kushishi maqsadnoki hameshagi, sabru toqat va soloriyu burdbori vobasta meboshad. Dar «Kalilavu Dimna»-i khud Ustod Rudaki yagonagii donishi insoniyat, ishtiroki khalqhoi gunoguni dunyo dar kori ba vujud ovardani khazinai madaniyat, hamesha dar takomul budani ilm va chun nuri marifat dilhoro munavvar gardondani onro takid menamoyad va dar ayni zamon donishro az hama badiho javshan meshumorad:

To jahon bud az sari odam faroz,

Kas nabud az rozi donish beniyoz.

Mardumoni bikhrad andar har zamon

Rozi donishro ba har guna zabon

Gird kardandu giromi doshtand,

To ba sang-andar hamebingoshtand.

Donish andar dil charogi ravshan ast

V-az hama bad bar tani tu javshan ast!

Dostoni   «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Rudaki bo bayti purhikmati zerin shuru meshudast:

Har ki n-omukht az guzashti ruzgor,

Hech n-omuzad zi hech omuzgor!

In bayt, ki doroi sanati baroati istihlol ast, mazmuni akhloqii dostoni «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Ustod Rudakiro rushan nishon medihad.

A. M. Mirzoev, badi iqtibosi panj bayti bolo, duchor nashudani mazmuni on baythoro dar «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Abulmaolii Nasrulloh gushzad namuda, qayd mekunad: «Masalai dar tarjuma ba manzuri asli «Kalila va Dimna» ba kulli payravi nakarda, baze masalahoi akhloqiro ba on ilova kardani Rudaki yak amri tabiist. Zamoni zindagii shoir yak davrai bedorii fikri milli—khalqi bud, har yak shakhsi peshqadam kushish menamud, ki az iftikhoroti guzashtai khalqi khud har chizero, ki medonad, zinda  gardonad va har amaliyotero, ki ba fikri u sababi rushdu peshrafti mardumi zamon megardad, tashviq namoyad. Dar tarjumai «Tarikhi Tabari» aynan hamin rohro pesh giriftani Balami, yane dar vaqti tarjima ba mazmuni aslii kitob az iftikhoroti guzashtai khalqhoi eroninajod khele chizhoro ilova kardani u durustii in khaqiqatro komilan tasdiq mekunad».164 Mo purra ba in aqidai A. M, Mirzoev rozi hastem.

Sababi har guna zikr shudani miqdori abyoti badastomadai masnavii «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Rudaki (115, 120, 129, 150 bayt) on ast, ki dar vaqthoi gunogun gufta shudaand va raqamho holati hamonruzai «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Rudakiro ifoda mekunand. Mumkin ast, ki bo mururi zamon miqdori in abyot boz ham afzoyad.

Soli 1958 dar shumorai dahumi majallai «SHarqi Surkh» maqolahoi SHarifjon Huseynzoda «Rudaki va folklori tojik» (s. 79—97) va Gazanfar Aliev «Dar borai «Kalila va Dimna»-i Rudaki» (s. 117—126) ba tab rasida bud. SHarifjon Husaynzoda dar mavridi ba ham rost omadani porchahoi dostoni «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Rudaki va asari mansuri Abulmaolii Nasrulloh «Kalilavu Dimna»-ro zikr mekunad, ki dutoi onro meorem. Dar hikoyati buzinagoni asari Abulmaolii Nasrulloh sabt gardidaast: «SHabe chun osii ruzi mahshar bodi shamol inon barkushodavu rikob garon karda daromad va bar buzinagon shabokhun kard. Bechoragon az sarmo ranjur shudand, panohe bijustand, nogoh kirmi shabtobe yoftand dar tarafe aftoda, gumon burdand, ki otash ast, hezum gird kardandu bar on nihodand».

 Az Rudaki:

SHab. Zimiston bud. Kappi sard yoft,

Kirmaki shabtob nogohe bitoft.

Kappiyon otash hame pindoshtand,

Pushtai hezum bad-u bardoshtand.

Dar bobi «Hamomai mutavaqqa» mekhonem: «Dar dunyo hech shodi chun suhbatu mujolasati duston nestu hech gam ba firoqi dustonu faqdi barodaron barobar natavonad bud».

Dar «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Rudaki mekhonem:

Hech shodi nest andar in jahon

Bartar az didori ruyi duston!

Hech talkhi nest bar dil talkhtar

Az firoqi dustoni purhunar!

Gazanfar Aliev roje ba makoni paydoishi «Kalilavu Dimna», dar zamoni Anushervon ba Eron ovarda shudani on va ba arabi onro bargardondani Ibni Muqaffa bo amri Abulfazl Balami va ba nazmi porsii dari onro naql kardani Rudaki tavaqquf namuda, 13 porchai az yak khel manba sarchashma giriftani asari Ibni Muqaffa va masnavii Rudakiro ba isbot merasonad. Faqat abyoti Rudakiro bo porchahoi tarjumai rusii «Kalilavu Dimna»-i arabii ibni Muqaffa muqoisa menamoyad. Masalan, dar bobi «SHer va barzagov» Dobshalim Baydobi faylasuf bo khohishi podshohi Hind chunin tamsil meguyad: «Dar mulki Dastebo yak savdogari davlatmande bud, ki se pisar dosht, ki az isrof kardani sarvati padar ibo namekardand. Ba onho padar pand medod: «Kas agar pulro sarfa karda, ba ziyod namudani on kushishe nakunad, kharji kam niz boisi kambudii sarmoya megardad, chunonchi az surmadon surmaro harchand chun gard megirand, vale bo vujudi in, on ba zudi tamom meshavad. Rudaki menigorad:

Doshti on tojiri davlatshior

Sad qatori sor andar zeri bor…

Garchi har ruz andake bardoradash,

Bofdam ruze ba poyon oradash…

Hamchunon surma, ki dukhti khubruy

Ham ba soni gard bardorad zi ruy.

YO chun sher nakhustin bor ovozi   badhaybati barzagovro meshunavad, az tars melarzad va az Dimna chi budani onro mepursad. Dimna chi budani onro ba u meguyad va meafzoyad: «Guftaand, ki bandi sustro ob mebaradu dili zaifro ovozi baland». Rudaki in mazmunro chunon mohirona ba nazm kashidaast, ki yak budani manbai on va asli arabii «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Ibni Muqaffaro pay burdan dushvor nest:

Dimnaro gufto, ki to in bong chist,

Bo nihebu sahm in ovoi kist?!

Dimna guft uro: «Juz in ovo digar

Kori tu na hastu sahme beshtar!

Ob har chi beshtar neru kunad,

Bandu vargi sustbuda bifkanad.

Dil gusasta dori az bongi baland,

Ranjake boshad-tu ozoru gazand!»

Vaqte ki Dimna bo SHatraba suhbat meoroyad, SHatraba shikoyat mekunad, ki tamakori va khomtamai moro ba vodii sargum andokhta, rohro az har su baroyamon bastaand, misli zanbure, ki dar gulugohi kuzacha gofilband shuda memonad. Zanbur buyi asalro shunufta mast megardad va rohi najoti khudro nameyobad, to in ki ba daruni kuzacha aftoda nobud meshavad. Rudaki hamin mazmunro chunin ifoda mekunad:

Hamchunon kapte, ki dorad angabin,

CHun bimonad dostoni man bar in?!

Hushash omad suyi nilufar shitoft.

Kapt nogah buyi nilufar biyoft.

V-az bari khushbuyi nilufar nishast,

CHun gahi raftan faroz omad, bijast.

To chu shud dar obi nilufar nihon.

U ba zeri ob mond az nogahon.

S. Nafisi 22 mavridi (29 bayt) rost omadani abyoti Rudaki bo «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Abulmaolii Nasrullohro   qayd   kardaast.165

Ustod Rudaki dar «Kalilavu Dimna» borho tarafdori sulh, oromi va oshti budanashro ibroz medorad. Ba aqidai u, sukhani orom dushmanro dust megardonad:

On-k-ro donam, ki uyam dushman ast

V-az ravoni pok badkhohi man ast.

Ham ba har gah dusti juyam-sh man,

Ham sukhan b-ohistagi guyam-sh man.

«Sindbodnoma» masnavii digarest, ki Rudaki dar bahri ramali musaddasi maqsur surudaast. Agar tarikhi itmomi «Kalilavu Dimna»-i shoirro 325/937 va favti uro 329/941 shumorem, metavon hads zad, ki Rudaki shoyad dostoni «Sindbodnoma»-ro qabl az masnavii «Kalilavu Dimna» ba nazm darovarda boshad. Dostonhoi «Kalilavu Dimna» va «Davroni Oftob»-ro ayni yak asar va in du unvonro nomi yak masnavi pindoshtani I. S. Braginskiy166 shoyad hamin dar okhirhoi umrash ofarida   shudani  dostoni  «Kalilavu Dnmna» – i  Ustod  Rudaki boshad.

Vozeh namudani nomi masnavii marbut ba Sindbodi Rudaki niz base dushvor va, hatto,    gayrimumkin ast, ki on chi boshad: «Sindbodnoma» yo «Kitobi Sindbod» va yo «Qissai Sindbod» va gayra. Vale sarfi nazar az in hama, «Sindbodnoma»- i Ustod Rudaki az osori purarzishi zamon ba shumor meraft. In asar dostone bud dar borai shohzoda va haft vazir,  ki  asli  on az manobei  hindi girifta shuda, ba nasri porsii miyona, arabi va forsii nav daromada, az in asari  hamosi  faqat  chand  bayt sher  boqi  mondaastu bas».167 Nakhustin bor Paul Horn soli  1897 dar asosi mushohidai T. Nyoldeke ba khulosae omada  bud, ki Rudaki osori «Sindbodnoma»-ro niz nazm karda budaast va in du dar haqiqat az hikoyati duvumi shabi chahorumi kitobi «Alfa layla va layla» meboshad:

Guft: «Hangome yake shahzoda bud,

Gavharivu purhunar, ozoda bud.

SHud ba garmoba darun yak ruz gusht,

Bud farbehu kalonu khubgusht…»

Soli 1966 donishmandi tojik Jumaboy Azizqulov tahti unvoni «Munosibati «Sindbodnoma»-i Zahiri bo abyoti Rudaki»168 maqolae muntashir namuda, ba tahqiq ovard, ki baythoi naqlshudai Rudaki ba haft hikoyati «Sindbodnoma»-i Zahirii Samarqandi, ki soli 555 (1160) tanzim gardidaast, barobar meoyand. Sipas, soli 1972, J. Azizqulov dar yake az jalasahoi «Solonai Rudaki» guzorish doda, ibroz namud, ki alhol chihil bayti «Sindbodnoma» – i Rudaki malum buda, joyi 18 bayti on aniq ast. J. Azizqulov abyoti Rudakiro bo nashri tanqidii «Sindbodnoma»-i Zahirii Samarqandi, ki soli 1948 dar Istonbul ba ehtimomi eronshinosi turk shodravon Ahmadi Otash ba tab rasidaast, muqoisa namuda, ba in khulosa omadaast. In khulosai muhaqqiq bisyor muhim ast. Avvalin porchai az «Sindbodnoma» pindoshtai T. Nyoldeke va P. Horn dar asl ba hikoyati «Zani sohibjamol bo mardi baqqol» rost meoyad, ki dar tahriri Rudaki chunin omadaast:

On gurunju on shakar bardosht pok

V-andar on dastori on zan bast khok.

On zan az dukon furud omad chu bod,

Pas falarzangash ba dast- andar nihod.

Mard bikshod on falarzash, khok did,

Kard zanro bongu guftash: «Ay palid!..

Dar «Sindbodnoma»-i Zahiri mekhonem: «..gushai chodar bikshodu turunju shakar bargiriftu porae khok dar chodar bast. CHun kor ba anjom rasidu  shugli  khilvat  ba  itmom  anjomid, zan  batajil  az dukon berun omadu rohi khona bargiriftu chodar hamchunon basta peshi dehqon nihod. Dehqon gushai chodar bikshodu nigoh kard, qadre khok did dar vay basta, guft: «Ay zan, khok mebinam!…» (s. 131).

J. Azizqulov se bayti parokandai zerini Rudakiro ba ham payvast donista, qarobati onhoro bo hikoyati «Gandapir va mardi javon bo zani bazzoz» gushzad menamoyad, ki mo komilan bo u muvofiq hastem:

To ba khona burd zanro bo dilom,

SHodmona zan nishastu shodkom.

Pas shitobon omad inak pirzan,

Ruy yak su, koga karda kheshtan.

Andar omad mard bo zan charb-charb,

Gandapir az khona berun shud ba tarb.

Zahiri hikoyatro chunin menigorad: «(Gandapir) az in turrahoi mumavvahu muzakhrafoti muzavvar chandon erod kard, ki zan bad-on rozi shud, ki darvaqt biravadu uro bibinad… Gandapir guft, ki to man mutolaa bikunam, ki dar khona hozir ast yo ne, tavaqquf kun. Pas ba nazdiki javon raftu guft: «Muhayyo bosh vusuli maqsud vurudi matlubro». On goh nazdiki zani bazzoz raftu guft: «Hez, to bo tolei sadu foli farkhunda ba nazdiki hakim ravem.» Pas bar meode, ki nihoda bud, ba khonai javon omadandu zamone gamu shodi guftandu bisoti mubosatat bigustardandu hijobi mujonabat az miyon bardoshtand. Va chun soate baromad, gandapir bo bahonae az khona berun omadu har duro dar khona ba salvatu khalvat bigzosht» (s. 252—253).

 CHunon ki mushohida mekuned, dar qarobati porchahoi mazkuri Rudaki va Zahiri shakke buda nametavonad.

CHunin ba nazar merasad, ki masnavii «Sindbodnoma»-i Rudaki az dostonhoi arzishmandi akhloqi va omuzishi tadvin gardida, az pandu andarz shodob buda, bo sabki oli nigoshta shuda budaast. Sad dareg, ki in hama ganji bashariyat az bayn raftaast! Ammo umedvorem, ki bo sayu kushishi hamagon boz abyotu porchahoi nav ba navi Ustod Abuabdulloh Jafari Rudaki har chi beshtar dastras khohand shud. SHoyad surogi   «Sindbodnoma»-i     Hoja     Amid   Abulfavorisi Fanoruzi, ki soli 339/950 az pahlavi ba forsii dari gardonda shuda bud, niz paydo gardad. Ay kosh!

  1. «Davroni Oftob». Az chunin masnavi doshtani Ustod Rudaki nakhustin bor muallifi «Farhangi Jahongiri» Mir Jaloliddin Husayn Ibni Fakhriddin Hasan Injui SHerozi, ki farhangashro soli 1017/1608 ba itmom rasondaast, khabar medihad: «Ustod Rudaki dar kitobi «Davroni Oftob» gufta:

Az Huroson parvazi tovusfash

Suyi Hovar meshitobad shodu kash.

Mehr,  didam, bomdodon chun bitoft,

Az Huroson suyi Hovar meshitoft.» 

S.Nafisi chunin doston doshtani Ustod Rudakiro rad mekunad. U avval menavisad: «SHoyad on masnavii «Davroni Oftob», ki «Farhangi Jahongiri» ba Rudaki nisbat doda, hamon tarjumai manzumi «Sindbod» buda boshad va yo in ki baze hikoyati «Sindbod»-ro Rudaki dar manzumai «Kalilavu Dimna»-i khesh gunjonidaast. Dar har hol, on chi musallam ast, in ast, ki baze az mazominu matolibi kitobi «Sindbod» dar miyoni ashori bahri ramali Rudaki dida meshavad. Agar «Davroni Oftob» ba juz «Kalilavu Dimna»-vu «Sindbodnoma» buda boshad, zohiran u se manzumai bahri ramal doshtaast». Bad u dar «Takmila»-i asarash makhsusan takid menamoyad: «Dar sahifai 427 va 235, binobar guftai muallifi «Farhangi Jahongiri» va «Farhangi anjumanoroi Nosiri» in nuktaro ovardaam, ki Rudaki yak masnavi ba ismi «Davroni Oftob» doshtaast. Dar on mavqe mutavajjeh nabudam, ki in nukta ba hej vajh durust nest, zero guzashta az in ki bisyor dur menamoyad Rudaki nomi yake az masnavihoi khudro «Davroni Oftob» guzoshta boshad va kalimai «Davron»-ro, ki dar on zamon chandon royij nabudaast, dar nomi kitobe ba kor burda boshad va tarkibi «Davroni Oftob» baroi masnavi munosibat nadorad va beshtar bo kitobe dar akhtarshinosi yo koinoti javv munosib ast. SHere, ki dar on jo shohidi kalimai «barvaz» ovardaand, ba hamon vazni «Kalilavu Dimna»  va  «Sindbodnoma»-i  Rudakist. Daleli  in  ishtiboh in ast, ki in sher:

Az Huroson barvazi tovusvash

Suyi Hovar mekhiromad shodu kash.

dar   borai   raftani  oftob   az   Huroson   (mashriq) ba Hovar   (magrib)  ast va paydost dar kitobi digare, ki marjai muallifi «Farhangi Jahongiri» budavu muallifi «Farhangi anjumanoroi Nosiri» az    on giriftaast, dar sadri in bayt chize monandi in tavjeh: «Rudaki  dar  davroni oftob,  yane  baroi sayru harakati oftob guftaast» va muallifi «Farhangi Jahongiri» «Davroni Oftob»-ro yake az masnavihoi Rudaki pindoshtaast».170 M. Zand «Davroni Oftob»-ro bo «Sindbodnoma»   yak  masnavi    medonad.171    Vale  A. Mirzoev durust gushzad menamoyad, ki mavzui kitobi «Davroni Oftob» tasviri sayri oftob va masoili ba hamin aloqamand budaast, ki on ba mundarijai dostoni «Sindbod» nazdikie nadorad.172

Mo bar on aqidaem, ki dostoni  «Davroni Oftob» masnavii judogonai Ustod Rudaki, gayr  az «Kalilavu Dimna»  va  «Sindbodnoma» buda, in se masnavi dar yak vazn insho gardidaand.

Mavzui «Davroni Oftob» sipehrshinosi, jugrofiya va yo nujum budanash ham joyi taajjub nadorad,  zero pizishki hamzamoni Ustod Rudaki -Hakim Maysarii Sugdi asari khud «Donishnoma»-ro doir ba tib dar bayni solhoi 367—380 (977—990)  talif  kardast, ki on ham ba nazm buda, hovii 4500 bayt ast va, khushbakhtona, aknun muntashir ham gardidaast. Ba andeshai mo, dar mavzuhoi ilmi   asarhoi manzum navishtan mahz az masnavii Ustod Rudaki «Davroni Oftob» ba hukmi anana daromadaast.

Faqat chahor bayti poyonro az masnavii «Davroni Oftob» shumorem ham, malum megardad, ki on dar voqe roje ba harakati oftob, mavqei joy giriftani burji javzo, ki nomi tojikii on «barra» zikr shudaast, az khurshedbaro, yane Huroson ba tarafi Hovar, ki ba manii mashriq ast, shitoftani mehr, ki nomi digari oftob ast, dar nimruzon, yane nisfi ruz, bar boloi sar rost omadan va begohi- dar oftobnishin nopadid gashtanash, yane az Huroson ba Hovar (magrib) rasida, az chashmho noayon gardidanash va, hamchunin, dar fasli bahoron sabz gardidani jahon (ruyi geti) sukhan meravad:

Az Huroson parvazi tovusvash

Suyi Hovar meshitobad shodu kh(v)ash,

K-Oftob oyad ba bakhshash zi bara,

Ruyi geti sabz gardad yaksara!

Mehr, didam,  bomdodon chun bitoft,

Az Huroson suyi Hovar meshitoft.

Nimruzon bar sari mo barguzasht,

CHun ba Hovar shud,   zi mo nodid gasht.

In bayt ham, yaqin, az masnavii «Davroni Oftob» ast:

Akhtaronand,  osmonshon  joygoh,

Haft tobanda davon dar duvu doh.

Manii bayt on ast, ki akhtaron, yane sitoraho, dar falak joy girifta, haft tobanda, ki haft sayyorai mashhur (Moh, Atorud, Zuhra, Hurshed, Mirrikh yo Bahrom, Mushtari, Zuhal yo Kayvon)-and, dar girdi zamin doimo charkh zada (davon buda), dar davomi yak sol muvofiq dar duvozdah burji falaki joy giriftanashon faslu mohhoi solro barqaror megardonad. Manoi «du» ravshan ast. Ammo «doh» shakli digari «dah» buda, bo taqozoi vaznu qofiya chunin suratro girifta, dar bayti digar ba surati aslii khud (Haft solor, k-andar in falakand, — Hama gird omadand dar duvu dah) istifoda shudaand.

Ustod Rudaki, bar zammi in se masnavi, masnavihoi digare ham doshtaast. Az baythoi parokandae, ki dar farhangho va kitobhoi tarikhu adab sabt shudaand, malum megardad, ki u muallifi shash masnavii digar budaast, ki ba juz vazni onho digar az mazmunu muhtavo, nomu tarikhi ejod va hajmashon hech chizi digar malum nest. In masnaviho dar avzoni zerin suruda shudaand:

  1. Masnavi dar vazni mutaqoribi musammani maqsur, ki arkonash ba faulun/faulun/faulun/faul (U— — /U— —/U— —/U—) barobar ast. Az in masnavi 43 bayt dastras ast. Mutoliai amiqi baythoi mutafarriqa moro ba khulosae mebarad, ki in masnavii Ustod Rudaki ramzi buda, ba fikri pajuhishgari gurji David Kobidze, az on ki zikri nomhoi hamosai millii Eron «SHohnoma», az qabili Som, Rustam, Doston va Isfandiyor dar osori Rudaki duchor meoyad, shoyad in doston dar mavzui «SHohnoma» navishta shuda boshad. Vay faqat metavonist, ki az rivoyathoi mardumi va makhazhoi arabi yo pahlavi istifoda barad.173
  2. Masnavi dar vazni   khafifi   aslami   musabbag, ki arkonash ba foilotun (—U— —) mafoilun (U—U—) falon   (— —)   musovi  buda,  az in masnavi to hol 28   bayt   malum   ast.   Masnavi   soli   311/923   suruda shudaast:
  3. Masnavi dar vazni hazaji musaddasi maqsur, ki ruknhoyash barobar ast bo mafoilun/mafoilun/mafoil (U— — — /U— — —/U— —) Az in masnavi to imruz 13 bayt ba dast omadaast.
  4. Masnavi dar vazni muzorei musaddasi mahfuz, ki ruknhoyash ba  mafoilu   (U— —U)   foilotu (—U—U)  faulun  (U-— —) rost meoyad. Az in masnavi hamagi se bayt dar dast ast, ki dar zer sabt megardand:

Javoni gusastu chirazaboni,

Tabam girift niz garoni.

Va:

Ay bulbuli khushovo, ovo deh,

Ay soqi, on qadah bo mo deh!

Va boz:

Bo sad hazor mardum tanhoi,

Be sad hazor mardum tanho ne!

Abyoti    sabtshuda guvohi    onand, ki    in masnaviro Ustod Rudaki dar pironsoli navishta, dar on ba masoili  akhloq  dakhl   namuda,  dar   mavzuhoi   khush  guzarondani vaqt,   ganimat shumurdani    zindagi  va  hedonizm andesha ronda budaast.

  1. Masnavii vazni sarei matvii mavquf, ki arkoni muftailun /muftailun/foilon (—UU—/ —UU—/—U~)-ro doro buda, az on se bayt boqist:

Jomai pursurati dahr, ay javon,

CHirk shudu shud ba kafi kozaron!

  1. D.Kobidze. Rudaki (ba zaboni gurji). Majmuai «Rudaki», Tbilisi, 1957.

Rang hama khomu chunon pechutob,

Muntaziram, to chi baroyad zi ob!

In   masnavi  ham   az  masoili   akhloq  sirishta gardida, bo pandu andarz oro yofta budaast:

Luqmae az zahr zada dar dahan,

Marg fashurdash hama dar zeri gan.

  1. Masnavii hazaji musaddasi akhrabi maqbuzi mahzuf, ki ruknhoyash bo mafulu (— —U) mafoilun (U— — —) faulun (U— —) barobar ast. In masnavi niz az qissahoi ramzi iborat ast:

Na kafshgari, ki dukhtasti,

Na gandumu jav furukhtasti.

Hoji Halifa dar «Kashf-uz-zunun» qayd mekunad, ki «Arois-un-nafois» – forsiyun manzumun li Faridaddin Abuabdulloh Muhammad Ar-Rudaki ash-shoiru min nudamoi al-malik Nasr Ibn Ahmad as-Somoni», yane «Arois-un-nafois» manzumai forsist az Fariduddin Abuabdulloh Rudakii shoir — az nadimoni malik Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoni».174

«Va paydost, ki Hoji-Halifa khud in manzumaro nadidaast, zero ki odati ust, ki har kitobero dida boshad, jumlai nakhustin yo bayt yo misrai avvali ogozi onro meovarad va ba hamin jihat ba hej vajh maqdur nest malum kard kadom yak az in shash masnaviro nom «Arois-un-nafois» budaast».175 S. Ayni, E. E. Bertels va M. I. Zand bo istinod ba Hoji-Halifa sohibi chunin dostone budani Rudakiro etirof mekunand. Aslan, nomhoi «Arois-un-nafois» va «Tavoif-ul-latoif»-ro hanuz Muhammadi Avfi zikr menamoyad: «YAke az juhhol dar nazmi u tana kardu «Arois-un-tafois» va «Tavoif-ul-latoif»-i uro tazyiqe namud. Nizomii Aruzi in bayt dar haqqi u insho kard:

Ay on ki tan kardi dar sheri Rudaki,

In tan kardani tu zi jahlu zi kudakist!

On kas, ki sher donad, donad, ki dar jahon

Soqibqironi shoiri Ustod Rudakist!» 176.

Ba fikri S. Nafisi, Ustod Rudaki shoyad manzumai marufi «Ardovirofnoma»-ro,  ki  oid ba meroji Zardusht ba zaboni pahlavist, niz nazm karda boshad.177 Dar hamin khusus u boz menavisad: «Oqoi Muhammad Dabiri Sayoqi dar qismati chahorumi maqolote, ki pesh az in bad-on ishorate raft, meguyad: «Marhum Dehkhudo in bayti Rudakiro «CHor gunda, karbasha bo kajdumon — Hurd eshon pusti ruyi mardumon» az «Ardovirofnoma» — manzumai maruf dar aqoidi zardushtiyon ba zaboni pahlavi medonistaast va agar in nukta muhaqqaq shavad, metavon guft Rudaki «Ardovirofnoma» — ro niz ba sheri dari darovarda budaast».178 Mutaassifona, in masala hamono nomakshuf ast.

Tamomi masnavihoi Rudaki doroi janbai akhloqi buda, dar onho ba gayr az pandu andarz mojarohoi ishqi, hikoyathoi pandomuz, sarguzashthoi bikhradonu donoyon va ashkhosi buzurg, koru bori dehqonon, kishovarzon, tojiron va ahli hunar, hikoyoti hayvonotu hasharot, makri zanon, bazm (YAke bazmi khurram biyorostand, — Mayu rudu romishgaron khostand), manzarahoi bahor (Durakhsh ar nakhandad ba vaqti bahor, — Hamono nagiryad chunin abr zor), razm (Rasidand zi shahi CHindon faroz, — Sipah khayma zad dar nishebu faroz), sharhi ahvoli muallif (Javoni gusastu chirazaboni, — Tabam niz girift garoni), tamsilho, latifaho, mutoyabaho va amsoli inho farovon budaast, ki inro az abyoti parokandai boqimondai onho niz metavon pay burd:

Bihishtoyin saroero biyorost,

Zi har guna dar u timsolho sokht.

Zi udu chandal uro ostona,

Darash siminu zarrin polikona.

In du bayt shahodat medihad. ki masnavii bahri hazaji Ustod Rudaki qissahoi rangini «Husravu SHirin», «YUsufu Zulaykho» va yo shabehi onhoro faro megiriftaast.

Hullasi kalom, Ustod Rudaki chandin masnavi ejod karda, dar in joda niz az saromadoni in navi adabi budaast. Aksari pajuhishgaroni ejodiyoti Rudaki aqida dorand, ki u muallifi nuh masnavi meboshad. Ammo Abdurahmon Tohirjonov ba khulosa omadast, ki alhol Ustod Rudakiro guyandai ponzdah  (15)  masnavi shumurdan  mumkin   ast,  ki   az  inho  iboratand:   «Kalilavu Dimna», «Sindbodnoma», «Davroni    Oftob», «Ardovirofnoma»,   «Toj-ul-masodir»,   «Lugati   tajnisoti   arabi ba forsi»,  «Arois-un-nafois»,  «Tavoif-ul-latoif», yak masnavi roje ba nujum va yak   masnavii digar roje ba mavzui digar, ki har du dar bahri muzore suruda shudaand. Dostone, ki dar vazni mutaqorib tanzim gardida, az jihati mazmun hamosavi meboshad    va boz du masnavie, ki dar shokhahoi gunoguni bahri hazaj navishta shuda va yak masnavi dar bahri sare insho gardidaast.  Vale masnavii «Vomiqu Uzro»,  ki onro ba qalami Ustod Rudaki mutaalliq medonand, aslan ishtiboh buda, chunin    masnaviero Ustod  Rudaki nanavishtaast».

Hamin tariq, Ustod Rudaki nakhustin sukhanvari buzurgi forsizabon budaast, ki bo kamoli ustodi va jamoli mahorat anvoi gunoguni sherii az jihati mundarija rangorang va gani ofaridaast. Dostonsaroi, gazalnavisi, qasidapardozi va ruboiguiro dar adabiyoti forsu tojik bar poyai ustuvor guzoshtaast, ki to imruz etirof karda meshavad. 

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