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MASHQHOI BARNOMAVI VA TEHNIKAI IJROI ON

Ba in bob shumo bo mashqhoe shinos meshaved, ki ba barnomai sinfi V dokhil megardand. Onho ba tarzhoi gunoguni varzish – varzishi sabuk, gimnastika, bozihoi varzishi va serharakat, shinovari shomil gashtaand.

Rohravi – tarzi az hama pahngardidai harakat va yake az vositahoi mamuli tarbiyai jismoni ast.

Hangomi rohravi (rasmi 11) shumo ba zamin goh ba yak poy, goh bo hardu takya menamoed, yane doim bo zamin robita dored.

Harakati dast va poy dar rohravi muqobilsamt ast: qadami poyi rost bo peshravii dasti chap muvofiqat mekunad va baraks.

Dar barobari rohravii muqarrari rohravii varzishi ham vujud dorad. Vay az muqarrari bo teladihii boquvvat bo gardishhoi tos dar atrofi davrai vertikali, poyhoi az qismati zonuho rostkardashuda va gayra farq mekunad.

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Talaboti asosi ba tekhnikai rohravii varzishi – chaspishi payvastai poy bo zamin meboshad. Kandashavii yakvaqtai hardu poy az zamin guzashtan ba rohravi hisob meshavad.

Dar darshoi varzish dar maktab navhoi mukhtalifi rohravi:

bo aqibi poy, bo panjai poy, dar holi nimnishast, nishast, bo pahlu yo tarafhoi dokhili va berunii kafi poy va gayra istifoda burda meshavad. In mashqho guruhi muayyani mushakhoi poyro inkishof medihand, baroi peshgirii paydoshavii hamvorgardii kafi poy khizmat menamoyad.

Olimon tasdiq menamoyand, ki inson dar tamomi umri khud rohero, ki barobari masofai az Zamin to Moh ast tay menamoyad. Dar yak ruz inson ba hisobi miyona qarib 20000 qadam memonad. Kudakon in nishondodro benihoyat meafzoyand. Dar 70-solagi inson to 50 million qadam memonad, ki taqriban 384000 kilometrro tashkil medihad. In boshad masofai to Moh ast.

Komyobii jahoni dar rohravi ba serjanti artishi Britaniya Malkolm Barni taalluq dorad, ki baroi holati varzishii khudro nigoh doshtan dar atrofi kazarmaho 16 shabonaruz 10 soatu 22 daqiqa roh rafta, dar in muddat fosilai barobar ba 659 km 330 metrro tay namudaast.

YAke az tarzhoi rohravi – marshirovkai gunogunshakl (rasmi 12) meboshad. In harakat dar tolor yo maydonchai varzishi az rui qatori yaknafara az rui diagonalho, muqobilsamt, morshakl ba amal meoyad. Marshirovkai shakli qobiliyati rohravi dar saf va muayyan kardani fosilaro inkishof medihad.

Dav nisbat ba rohravi fosilai paridan ba amal meorad, ki bad az teladihi sar shuda va ba tamom shudani fosila khotima meyobad. Dav ba masofai kutoh, fosilahoi miyona va daroz judo menamoyand.

Fosilahoi kutoh – 30, 60, 100 m. Fosilahoi miyona – 400, 800, 1000 va 1500 m. Hama fosilahoi boqimonda az 2000 m ziyod ba fosilahoi daroz mansuband.

Dar sinfi V talabagon ba 30 va 60 m (fosilahoi kutoh) va metavonand ba 1000 m va 2000 m (daroz yo tuloni) medavand. In harakathoro mo metavonem dar bozihoi serharakati qadamchenkuni va «Ivazshavii kapitanho» mushohida namoem.

«Qadamchenkunakho» (rasmi 14). Pesh az sarshavii bozi hama ishtirokchiyon darozii qadamhoi khudro chen mekunand. Baroi in fosilai muayyan, masalan 100 m, boyad guzashta qadamhoro hisob kard, sipas in fosilaro ba in shumoraho taqsim kard.

Vazifai bozi az donistan, on iborat ast, ki kadome az bachaho metavonad aniqtar fosilai bayni du uqtahoro: chubho, darakhton yo bayraqchahoe, ki ba zamin khalonda shudaand, muayyan namoyad. Dar markazi maydon (maydoni futbol) – bayraq, az on dar fosilai 5-6 metr bayraqchaho joygir shudaand, har kadom ba har tarafi gunogun, ammo fosilai on az markaz ba sardor malum ast.

qadamHamai shirkatkunandagoni bozi ba juftho taqsim shuda, qalamu kogaz girifta va az chenkunii qadam istifoda mebarand, fosilai to bayraqchai nishondodashudaro muayyan menamoyand. Hamon bozingar golib megardad, ki bo shariki khud chenkunii aniqro anjom medihad.

Sipas ba bozingaroni har yak juft suporish doda meshavad, ki fosilai az markaz to har yak bayraqcharo muayyan sozand. Golibi har yak juftro muayyan menamoyand, bad dar bayni hamai ishtirokchiyon.

«Ivazi kapitanho» (rasmi 15). Bozingaronro ba dastahoi barobar judo karda, saf meoroyand. Dar peshi har yak dar fosilai 1,5 – 3 m kapitan bo tub meistad. Ruyro ba tarafi qator gardonida bo amri dovar tubro ba nafari dar avali saf istoda medihad va boz megirad.

Bozingari dihandai tub ba sui kapitan yak qadam pesh meguzorad. Kapitan tubro ba duyumi, seyumi va gayra mepartoyad. Bozingare, ki dar qator az hama okhirin ast, tubro girifta ba joi kapitan meoyad (ivazi kapitan) va kapitani sobiq dar safi peshi dasta memonad.

Boziro to vaqte davom medihand, ki hamai bozingaron dar joi kapitan naistand. Hamon dastae golib donista meshavad, ki mashqro zud ba anjom rasonad. Imkoni dushvor kardani mashqi bozi mavjud ast. Bozingaronro ba dastaho judo karda yak saf meistand. Dar dasti kapitanho, ki dar peshi qator meistad, tubhoi basketbol yo voleybol mavjud ast. Bo amr yo hushtaki dovar yo sardor onho tubro az boloi sar (az bayni po, az pahlu) banafari dar aqibistoda medihand, u dar navbati khud tubro ba nafari seyum medihad. Okhirin nafari dar qatorbuda tubro girifta ba pesh medavad va pesh az kapitan meistad va gayra.

Boziro to muddate davom medihand, ki hamai bozingaron dar peshi qator naoyand. Hamon dastae golib donista meshavad, ki estafetaro zudtar ba anjom rasonad. Agar nafare az bozingaron tubro aftonad, khudi u vazifador ast, ki onro bardorad. Dovar boyad nazorat kunad, ki bozingaron ba yakdigar nazdik nashavand, joyhoi khudro ivaz nakunand, baroi donistani golib behtar ast, ki boziro 3-5 marotiba guzarond.

Baroi shumo yakchand bozihoi serharakat bo davidan peshnihod menamoem, ki onho baroi inkishofi chaqqoni, choloki, chobuki va digar sifathoi shumo kumak merasonad, inchunin baroi behtar az khud kardani tekhnikai davidan.

«S a l ki m a r shem » (r a sm i 16). Du dasta dar yak qator ru ba rui yakdigar muqobili maydon saf meoroyand. Dar peshi onho khati mara meguzaronand. Har yak dasta baroi khud nom meguzorad. Farz kardem, yake – «Umed» digar – «Parvoz». Baroi shuru shudani bozi qura mepartoyand. Bigzor «Umed» sar kunad.

Dovar ba dastai «Umed» taklif mekunad, ki boziro shuru kunad va amr medihad: «Ba maydon bo qadam gard!» – ba muqobili dastai «Parvoz» qadam guzored. Bo hushtaki dovar dastai «Umed» hamlaro qat namuda boshitob bargashta, ba khonai marai az khat berun megurezand va dastai «Parvoz» onhoro medorad.

Bad az on, ki dovar doshtagihoro meshumorad, onho ba dasta barme gardand. Sipas shirkatkunandagoni «Parvoz» hamla menamoyand va ishtirokchiyoni dastai «Umed» onhoro medorand. Boziro 4-8 marotiba tak ror menamoyand. Golibiyat nasibi dastae meshavad, ki bozingaroni beshtar doshtaast.

Gurekhtan va pesh kardan tanho az rui hushtak mumkin ast. Bozingaroni to hushtak doshtashuda hisob ameyoband. Agar dastai hamlakunanda pesh az hushtak gurezad, ba on hamon qadar kholhoi jarimavi hisob karda meshavad, hamon miqdor bozingaroni dasta hastand.

Qapidani bozingar – yane ba u dast rasonidan. Doshtan faqat to khati mara mumkin ast. «Joi kholi» (rasmi 17). Hamai bozingaron dar davra zich ruy ba markaz (dasthoro ba pusht nigoh doshta) meistand. Ogozkunanda dar davra istoda, bad ba tarafi rost dar girdi davra medavad, ba kase az bozingaron bo dastash merasad va davidanro davom medihad. Bozingare, ki dast rasondaast, ba tarafi muqobil medavad, kushish mekunad, ki teztar

«SALKI MARSHEM» «JOI HOLI»

az ogozkunanda ba joi khud rasad. Dar roh vokhurda, onho «salom» mekunand: dasthoi yakdigarro medihand yo menishinand. Joi «kholi»-ro yakumin shuda giriftan zarur ast va boqimondahoi be joy medavand. Bozi 3-4 daqiqa davom mekunad. Boziro dushvor kardan mumkin ast. Masalan, hangomi vokhuri yakchand marotiba dar joy jahidan, gardish namudan va gayra. Dar rohi harakati davandagon moneaho guzoshtan mumkin ast: band kashidan, ki az zeri on guzashtan zarur ast, monea, kursi, ki az boloi on parida guzashtan lozim boshad. Baroi khotirmon shudani bozi az hisobi bozingaroni gurekhta darvoza sokhtan mumkin ast. Dastae golib meoyad, ki shumorai kholhoi az hama ziyod jam ovarda boshad.

«Ki bisyor?». Har yak bozingar bo navbat tubro ba bolo partofta va medavad, dar roh ashyohoro jam meovarad, ki dar fosilai 1 metr az yakdigar durtar (shashkaho, bayraqchaho, kubikho) guzoshta shudaand. Kase burd mekunad, ki to aftidani tub ba zamin ashyohoi beshtar jam ovarda boshad.

Hargushi bekhona» (rasmi 19). Bozingaronro, ba gayr az sardor ba guruhhoi iborat az 3-5 nafara taqsim mekunand. Har yak dasta davra meistad va 3-6 qadam az yakdigar dur joygir meshavand. Dar yak tarafi davra du nafar sardor meistand: yake az onho – «khargush», digari – «shikorchi». Dovar amr medihad: «YAk, du, se». Bo hisobi «yak» sardor «khargush» megurezad, bo hisobi «se» shikorchi ba doshtani u ogoz mekunad. Hargush baroi az shikorchi raho yoftan metavonad gurezad, ammo shikorchi ba taqibi u shuru menamoyad. Agar shikorchi khargushro dosht, on goh onho naqshi khudro ivaz menamoyand.

SHikorchi metavonad faqat vaqti az khona berun budanash khargushro dorad. Az bayni khona gurekhtani khargush ravo nest.

Joi khargushi gurekhtaro nafare az dar khona istodaho (bo navbat) ishgol mekunad va bozingari gurekhta davida ba joi u meistad.

Bad az chande boziro man karda va shikorchiyonro khargush, khargushhoro shikorchi tabdil dodan mumkin ast.

«Ruzu shab» (rasmi 19). Az bayni maydoncha khat mekashand. Az har du taraf az onho, dar masofai 15-30 qadam muqobili mara meistand. Bozingaronro bo dastaho barobar judo mekunand, ki dar har du tarafi khatti mobayni ru ba pushti yakdigar gashta mesitand.

Muqobili har dasta khatimara voqe ast. Az rui qura yak dasta – «ruz», digari – «shab» nom megirad. Dovar nokhost talaffuz mekunad: «Ruz». Dasta shab ba khona megurezad, ammo dastai ruz onhoro pesh mekunand. Doshtagihoro hisob namuda javob medihand. Sipas dastaho dar nazdi khati mobayni az nav saf mekashand.

Dovar yake az onhoro sado mekunad. Sado boyad nogahon boshad. Bozi 4-8 marotiba guzaronida meshavad, ammo boyad miqdori sadokuniho baroi har du dasta barobar boshad. Golib on dasta hisob megardad, ki bozingaroni doshtai beshtar dorand.

Zud gurekhtan ba khonai khud, to sado kardani dovar man ast. Doshtan tanho to khati khona mumkin ast. Doshtashudaho bad az shumor boz dar bozi dar barobari digaron ishtirok menamoyand.

Aksar qabl az sadoi dovar, baroi diqqati bachahoro jalb namudan taklif menamoem, masalan, dasthoro ba pesh, ba bolo daroz namoyand, dasthoro ba miyon guzoshta nishinand. Mashqhoro purra takror kunand.

Hangomi chunin davidan guzashtan az moneahoi gunogun (chuquriho, zahburho, choh, chub)-ro meomuzand, masalan, baroi az boloi chuquri paridan, lozim ast, ki yakchand metr to on tez davida ba paridan omoda shaved.

Ba zamin bo yak poy furud omadan lozim, baroi on ki davidanro idoma doda, suratatonro past nakuned. Darakhti aftida yo teppachahoi na on qadar balandro bo qadamhoi purquvvat meguzarand.

Ogozi baland (rasmi 20). Amalan dar hamai masofahoi davidan istifoda burda meshavad. Bo amri « Omoda bosh!» talaba ba khati start nazdik meshavad va nugi poi boquvvati khudro meguzorad. Poi digari khudro dar aqib meguzorad, ba zamin bo nugi poy takya doda andom rost shuda, dasthoro ozodona ba poyon sar doda meistad.

Az rui amri «Diqqat!» (rasmi 20 a) talaba ohista poyro kham namuda vazni badanro ba poi peshash meguzaronad. Dastho kame az orinjho kham shuda ast. Nigoh ba pesh ravon gardidaast.

Bo amri «Gard!» (rasmi 20 b) talaba bo tamomi quvvat poyhoro ba zamin tela doda, ba davidan shuru mekunad, mekushad zud suratro ziyod namoyad.

Dar khotir dored, ki bad az anjom yakbora istodan mumkin nest. Boyad boz kame david, to nafaskashi barqaror gardad.

Startho az holathoi gunogun (rasmi 21): az takyai nishast, az takyai holati khob, az holati nishast, rost bo pusht ba samti harakat va gayra – cholokiro inkishof medihad, mutobiqati harakat va surati reaksiyaro ham.

Omodagii krossi purtoqati, khislathoi surat – quvva, cholokiro inkishof medihad. Jahishho – yake az tarzhoi oddii guzashtan az moneahost. In mashqho quvva, chobuki, cholokiro inkishof medihand.

Dar qismati «Gimnastika» shumo jahishhoi takyadorro az khud menamoed. Onho bo takya ba ashyoho ijro megardad. Hangomi ijroi jahishi takyagi talaba az dur davida, az boloi kharak jahida, bo dastonash az boloi snaryad tela doda, jahishro ba anjom rasonida, ba zamin furud meoyad.

Jahish bo takyai nishast, jahishi khamshuda (rasmi 22). In jahishi takyadorro dukhtaron meomuzand. Poyhoro dar kuprukcha tela doda, badi davrai parish zarur ast bo daston ba ashyoi takyakarda va az on dar holi nishasti takyador ba ashyo guzasht. Zud rost shuda, ba bolo tela doda, khudro rost karda, dastho ba bolo – berun. Ba hamin holat ba zamin furud omad.

Bachaho jahishi takyador bo poyhoi yakjoya az boloi kharak ba daroziro meomuzand (rasmi 23). Pas az tela az kuprukcha dastonro ba takya guzoshta, az qismati badanu shikam kham shuda va poyhoro guzaronid.

Hangomi teladihi kham shudan va ba zamin furud omadanro anjom dodan. Dar jahishi takyador asosan – khub teladihi az kuprukcha ast. Mashqhoi omodakunanda ba jahishhoi gimnastiki parishho ba chuquri (az balandihoi na on qadar kalon) khizmat mekunad, ki usuli furud omadanro takmil medihad (rasmi 24) va jahish az moneahoi na on qadar baland yakjoya bo du poy (rasmi 25), ki inkishofdihandai jahish va khislathoi suratu quvvat meboshad.

Dar qismati «Varzishi sabuk» jahishho ba darozi va ba balandi az khud karda meshavand. Dar jahishhoi varzishi sabuk inchunin peshaki davida, teladihi bo yak poy, parish chubi baland va furud omadan mavjud ast.

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Jahish ba darozi az jo (rasmi 26). Baroi ijro kardani in jahi lozim ast poyhoro barobari pahnii kitfon guzosht, poyro kame ba dokhil tob dihed, baroi on ki bo hamai angushton yakjoya tela dodan.

Bo hisobi 1 dastonro ba bolo bardoshta, ba nugi poy bolo mekhezed;

Ba hisobi 2 kame poyhoro az zonu kham karda, dasthoro ba aqib burda, holati ogoz obboziro qabul mekard;

Ba hisobi 3 zud va bo quvvat bo poyho tela doda, hamzamon har du dastro ba pesh rost karda, jahishro ba pesh anjom medihed. Furudomad bo kafi purrai poy yo bo panjahoi on, ba aqib naaftidan lozim ast.

Usuli jahish ba tarzi «qadampartoi» yo «qaychiho»-ro barrasi menamoem (rasmi 27). On bo sari dav zeri kunji 35-40° ba chenaki balandi ijro megardad. Qadami okhirin az hama kutoh ast. Teladihi bo harakati yakjoyai poi ozod va dast ba pesh – bolo muvofiqat mekunad.

Harakati «qadampartoi» az on iborat ast, ki poi yakbora bolo rafta az planka poyon furomada, teladihanda boshad az zonu khamshuda, az boloi planka (chenak) bo gardishi berun guzaronida meshavad. Badan dar in holat ba tarafi poi teladihanda tob mekhurad, to ki hej joi tanu miyon ba planka (chenak) narasad.

Ba shumo bozihoi serharakat bo jahishhoro peshnihod menamoem. «SHast» (rasmi 28). Baroi bozi bandi 2-3 metra zarur ast, ki dar okhiri on khaltachai regdorro mebandand. Bozingaron girdi davra meistand. Ogozkunanda dar markaz band bo khaltacharo davr mezanonad, ki dar rui farsh lagzish mekhurad. Bachaho bo diqqat menigarand, ki ba onho barnakhurad va hamin ki khaltacha ba poyhoi onho nazdik meshavad, meparand. Ba kase, ki khaltacha yo band barkhurd ba markazi davra istoda va tobdihii onro shuru mekunad.

Hangomi davrzanii band az joi khud raftan ijozat doda nameshavad. Kase ba in roh doda boshad, az bozi berun megardad. Bozi metavon du nav boshad.

YAkum: bozingarone, ki ba khaltacha yo band se marotiba barkhurdaand maglub megardand.

Duyum: bozingaronero, ki dar davra istoda and, ba du dasta (raqamhoi yakum va duyum) taqsim menamoyand. Ogozkunanda hama vaqt yak nafar ast. Hisobkuniro az rui komandaho mebarand. Golib nafare do-nista meshavad, ki bozingaronashon kamtar bo band va khaltacha barkhurdaand. Boziro 3-5 daqiqa davom medihand.

Partob dodan – yake az navhoi mashqhoi jismoni, ki inkishofdihandai quvva, choloki va khislathoi suratnoki meboshad.

Partoftani tubi khurd ba duri (rasmi 29). Baroi partoftan dar maktab tubhoi tennisiro istifoda mebarand. Dar ibtido metavon khaltachahoe, ki az reg yo namak, vazni 100-150 graamiro partoft.

Tub bo pahluhoi panjahoi dasti partobdodashavanda nigoh doshta meshavad. Se angusht az pushti tub joygirand, angushti kalon va khurd onro az pahlu nigoh medorand.

Dar usuli partobdihi se davraho judo gardidaand:

  • az sari dav (davrai omodagi),
  • partobdihi (davrai asosi),
  • boz istodan badi partobdihi (davrai khotimavi).

Tub az rui khati rost ba aqib az kitf bo gardishi yakborai andom ba tarafi partobdihi guzaronida meshavad.

Dar sinnu soli shumo baroi inkishofi mushakhoi badan, dast, obutobdihii shikam az partob dodani tubhoi bo reg purkardashudai vaznashon 1 va 2 kg az holathoi gunogun metavon istifoda burd. Partob dodanro bo yak yo har du dast anjom medihand.

Mashqhoi omodagi:

  1. Holati muqarrari (HM) – ruy ba tarafi partobdihi istoda, poyho dar barobari kitfon, dast bo tub ba bolo. Dastro ba aqib partofta, tubro zeri kunji 40-45° partoed. 4-6 marotiba.
  1. HM – ruy ba tarafi partobdihi isted, poyho dar barobari kafho, dast bo tub ba bolo. Dastro ba aqib namo dar qismati kitf ba poyon – aqib – ba bolo, tubro bo harakati tezi dast partob dihed. 6-8 ma-rotiba.
  1. HM – aynan hamon. Dar lahzai partoftani tub dast ba aqib namon, hamon poyro muvofiqi dast kame ba aqib bared, hamai vazni tanro ba on guzaronida va yakpahlu ba samti partoftan istoda, amali partof-tanro ijro namoed. 5-6 marotiba.
  1. HM – aynan hamon. Lahza yo vaqte ki hamai vazn dar poi ba aqibburdashuda joygir ast, dast rost shuda, harakat bo panjai poi takyadihanda aqib kuned va ba vositai holati kitfu sina «kamoni tarang» harakati zudi dastonu andomro anjom dihed. 6-8 marotiba.

Bozihoi serharakat baroi mustahkamkunii partob dodan yori merasonand «Tubro ba baranda nadeh» «Bo barf ba tub» Bozihoi serharakati peshkashgardida baroi tahkimi partobdihi kumak merasonand.

«Tubro ba ogozkunanda nadeh» (rasmi 29). Bozingaron dar fosilai dasthoi kushoda davra megirand, yak yo du bozingarro ogozkunanda intikhob mekunand, ki ba dokhili davra medaroyand. Bozingaron tubi voleybolro bo yakdigar mepartoyand yo megelonand.

Ogozkunanda kushish menamoyad, ki ba tub dast rasonad. Agar ba ogozkunanda in kor muyassar gardad, on goh ba joi u bozingare meoyad, ki tub az dasti u khato khurda bud. Agar tub az davra berun baroyad, on goh bozingaron boyad har chi zudtar onro girifta boziro idoma dihand.

Boziro mumkin ast murakkabtar kard: bozingaron dar atrofi davra harakat mekunand; bo qadam yo dar holi davidan tubpartoiro davom medihand.

«Bo barf ba tub» (rasmi 30). Bozingaronro ba du dasta judo karda dar 10-12 metr az markazi maydoni barfi qator mesozand. Har kas peshaki yakchand lulai barfi tayyor mekunad. Pesh az komandaho, ki muqobili yakdigar istand, dar bayn khat dar mobayni maydoncha tubi voleybolro meguzorand.

Bo hushtaki dovar hamai bozingaron yakbora bo partoftani hadafnoki tub ogoz menamoyand. Hangomi bo kululai barf zadan tub gel mekhurad, az nav ba «bombaboronkuni» duchor megardad va bo hamin tarz

dar maydon joy ivaz menamoyad. Agar tub ba khati ru ba ru gel khurad dastai mukholif sohibi 1 khol meshavad. Sipas onro az nav ba mobayn meguzorand va barfpartoi idoma meyobad.

Agar tub az khatti pahlui berun shavad dovar onro dar mobayn dar hamon qismati maydoncha, ki az on berun shuda bud, meguzorad.

Bad az 3-5 daqiqai bozi kholhoi dastahoro hisob menamoyand. Hangomi partoftani barfporaho zer kardani khate, ki peshaki bozingaron kashida budand mamnu ast. Bozingare, ki ogohi girift az muborizai minbada barkanor megardad.

Barfporaro metavon bo tubhoi lattagi yo tennis ivaz namud. Agar bozingaron ziyod boshand, on goh dar khatti bayn ba joi yak tub du tub memonand. Qoidahoi boziho chun pesh boqi memonand. Baromadan bo band ba qismi «Gimnastika» mansub ast. Mashqhoi ba

bolo baromadan quvvai mushakhoi dast va kitfho, purtoqati, chobuki, inchunin choloki va digar khislathoi shakhsiyatro inkishof medihad. CHande az mashqho, ki ba shumo baroi azkhudkunii tarzi istifodai bandro bo poyho meomuzonand, peshkash menamoem.

Qapidan band bo tarzhoi gunogun (rasmi 31).: Gireh – ba balandii 2-3 metr baromada, poyhoro zich kardan lozim ast, bo poyho bandro doshta, bo yak dast nugi poyoni bandro girifta va onro ba band dar sathi sina girehmekunand, dasti digarro ba pesh daroz menamond (a);

Rost– dar hamon balandi, bo harakati davrii poy ba pesh, ba chap va aqib bandro dar girdi poy tob doda, onro bo kafhoi poy qapidan, az beruni kafi poi chap meguzarad, az poyoni on va bo boloravi poi rost, bandro dar zeri kash rost megirand va dasthoro ozod menamoyand (b);

Haluk – dar hamon balandi, poyhoro ba pesh bardoshta va zich karda, onhoro ba band mepechonand, bo yak dast bandro az poyon girifta, onro az ron guzaronida va az bayni poyho sar medihand, bandro az poyon bo dasti digar girifta va onro az bayni roni poi digar partoft, bandro bo yak dast medorand (v).

Baroi khub ba bolo baromada tavonistan, boyad quvvai dastonro inkishof dodan zarur ast. Baroi in az mashqho bo sanghoi vaznashon 0,5 kg istifoda burdan mumkin ast.

Dar mashqi bolobaroi imkon dored in tarzhoi qapidani band bo poyhoro istifoda bared (rasmi 32):

Az band qapida bo daston ba bolo kashidan, poyhoro kham karda va bandro bo kafi poy va zonuho qapida, poyhoro rost namuda, bo daston khudro bolo kashida va bolotari bandro doshtan b).

Inchunin bo daston az band doshta, poyhoro kham karda bandro bo «kafhoi poy» doshta, poyhoro rost namuda, bo daston khudro bolo bardosht va az bolotari band qapidan (g).

Ba sifati mashqhoi omodagi baroi azkhudkunii bolobaroi bo band metavoned mashqho bo sanghoi vaznashon 0,5 kg, kashidan dar turnikho, khamshavi, khamshavii dastho bo takya va gayra istifoda bared.

Mashqhoi akrobati. Kalimai «akrobatika» dar tarjuma az yunoni manoi bo nugi poy gashtan, bolo baromadan dorad. Imruz tahti mafhumi akrobatika mashqhoi varzishi va pesh az hama mashqhoi gimnastikiro mefahmand.

Baroi akrobatika mutamarkaziyati khub va hamohangsozii tamomi mahoratu malakaho, hissiyoti khubi inkishofyoftai muvozinat, quvvai jismonii kalon zarur ast.

Gelkhuri ba pesh (rasmi 33). Az takyai nishast, ba pesh kham shuda vazni badanro ba dastho guzarondan; onhoro kham karda va sarro ba sina kham kardan, pushti sarro ba gilemi gimnasti nazdik namudan; bo poyho tela doda, muloim ba pesh gel khurdan, bo daston az qismati nazdikii zonuho qapidan.

Gelkhuri ba aqib (rasmi 34). Az holati takyai nishast, zonuho yakjoya, sarro ba pesh kham karda va manahro ba sina zer namuda bo daston va poyho az mati gimnastiki tela doda va gelkhuriro ba aqib ijro namud, harchi zudtar kafhoi dastro az boloi sar nazdiktar ba kitfon guzosht.

Ba dastho takya namuda, bo sar gel khurdan va ba holati takyai nishast guzashtan, yane holati avvalaro giriftan.

Mashqhoi omodakunanda

  1. Gelkhuriho ba pesh va aqibro az holati takyai nishasta ijro namudan. 6-8 marotiba.
  1. Gelkhuri bo guzoshtani dast nazdi sar, manahro ba sina zer namuda, ba zonuho nigoh kardan. 6-8 marotiba.

Rost istodan ba sar va dastho (pisaron) (rasmi 35). Bo takyai nishast dastonro ba gilemi gimnastiki (dastho dar barobari kitfon) mahkam sokhta, sarro dar qismati boloii on dar pesh meguzorem. Bo tela yo zuri quvva ba bolo to holati vertikali bardoshtan. Nigoh doshtani vazni badan barobar dar se nuqta.

Mashqhoi omodakunanda (rasmi 36):

  1. Az holati takyai nishast holati takya ba se nuqtaro (du dast va qismi sar) qabul menamoem. Ohista pushtro aqib burda, poyhoro rost mekunem, bo nugi poy ba farsh takya menamoem. Sipas poyhoro bardoshta, kame poyro az farsh judo menamoem. Hamin ki shumo in mashqro az khud namuded, metavoned ba digarash guzared.
  1. Rost istodan bo sar va dastho bo poyhoi khamshuda. Az holati takyaho ba se nuqta bo tela dodani po holati rost istodan ba sar va daston bo poyhoi khamshudaro qabul namudan.

Vaqte, ki shumo dar se nuqta khudro nigoh doshtanro yod megired, metavoned tadrijan poyhoyatonro ba bolo rost namoed.

Badi azkhudkunii gelkhuri va rost istodan bo sar va daston say namoed in faoliyathoi harakatiro bo amaliyoti akrobatiki payvast namoed, faoliyathoi harakatii azkhudnamudaatonro istifoda bared.

Kupruk az holati khob ba pusht bo gardish ba takyai nishast (dukhtaron) (rasmi 37). Baroi ijroi in mashq zarur ast, ki ba pusht khobida dasthoro ba sar nazdiktar guzored va kame poyhoro kham kuned.

Bo quvva bolo shudan, takya ba dastho va poyho namuda khub kham shurda, poyho va dasthoro harchi imkon ast nazdiki yakdigar kuned. Bo in holat 3-4 soniya istodan lozim. Sipas, vazni badanro ba dasti rost (yo

chap) guzaronida, ba rost (ba chap) ba holati nishast tob khured. Hangomi ijroi in harakat lozim ast, baroi dar holati aftidan dast oseb nabinad, zud dasti takyakunandaro gired. In mashq lozim ast, ki bo kumak ijro gardad.

Dar tajribai maktabi vazifai khonagi az varzish mavjud ast. Inho metavonand baroi ijroi mashqho dastras boshand, masalan ovezonshaviho, takyaho, kashidan dar turnik va gayra. Bozihoi varzishi Dar barnoma baroi omuzishi bozihoi varzishi soathoi ziyod judo gardidaast. Dar kitobi mazkur mo suporishhoi oddi va dastras medihem, ki onhoro metavon dar maktab va khona ijro namud.

Basketbol. Nomi bozi az kalimai anglisii «basket» – khalta, «bol» – tub ba vujud omadaast. Asosi boziho dar basketbol harakathoi tabiii gunogun, davidan, jahish, partobdihi va doshtani tub ba hisob meravad.

Omezishi kombinatsiyahoi tekhniki va muborizai payvasta baroi tub baroi bozingaron va tamoshobinon shavqu havas va ragbati kalon paydo mesozad. Mashguliyat bo basketbol mushaku ragu payho, sistemai dilu meda va dastgohi nafaskashiro mustahkam mesozad, tabdili moddahoro dar organizm behtar menamoyad; khislathoi ravoni – jismoni

va mahoratu malakahoro ba vujud meovarad, ki dar faoliyati mehnati zarurand – purtoqati, halkunandagi, chobuki, muayyansozi, daqiqi va gayraro hosil menamoyad.

Tibqi manbahoi tarikhi bozii basketbolro hinduhoi Meksikaikhtiro kardaand. Badan bachahoi khalqhoi mukhtalifi Amrikoi Janubi va SHimoli ba chunin bozi shugl mevarzidand.

On dar maydoncha bo tubhoi az kauchuk sokhtashuda meguzasht va asosan khususiyati marosimi dosht. Ba bozingaron ba tub bo kafi daston rasidan ijozat nabud, valebozi kardan tanho bo orinjho, kitfon va pahluho mumkin bud.

Tekhnika va qoidahoi bozi az on davra to imruz khele tagyir yoftaast. Avvalin dashoi basketboli na az 5 nafar, balki az 9 nafar iborat bud. Basketbolboz on vaqt nametavonist bo tub harakat kunad, balki boyad zud onro ba bozingari digar medod. Holo basketbolboz tubro doshta huquq dorad na ziyoda az du qadam guzorad, dar dastash onro nigoh doshta, inchunin metavonad bo tub dar maydon, hatman onro ba farsh zada, harakat kunad. Bozi chi dar maydoni kushod va chi dar tolor guzaronida meshavad.

Baroi onhoe, ki tekhnikai bozi dar basketbolro khub medonand musobiqa baroi fikrronii zud, tahammulnoki, partobi daqiq ast. Odamone, ki basketbolbozi mekunand, chun qoida qadi baland dorand, ammo bozingaroni na on qadar qadi balanddoshta ham metavonand khudro nishon dihand, dar bozi tezii fikr, tekhnikai partob ba halqa, surati balandi harakatkuni dar maydon ahamiyati kalon dorad.

Dar bozi tu hujumkunanda yo himoyatgar meshavi. Agar tub dar dasti tu yo rafiqoni hamdastaat boshad, pas tu hujumkunandai.

SHumo boyad tubro ba halqai mukholif partoed dihed. Vaqte ki tub dar dasti rafiqoni hamkomandaaton ast shumo hujumkunandai betub hasted.

Hohu nokhoh tu dar bozi ishtirok dori, harchand ki be tub ham boshi: az aqibi on medavi, vaqte ki rafiqonat ba tu medihand yo vaqte ki tub az halqa ba kanor meparad va gayra. Tu boyad ba davidan, istodanho, jahidan, doshtani tub hamesha omoda boshi. Tu boyad dar maydon bo hamai omodagi yo tayyori istoda boshi: poyho boloi zonuho kham shuda, yak poy nim qadam berun shuda, gardan kame ba pesh khamgashta. Rost peshi khudro nigar. Dastho ba poyon ovezonand (rasmi 39-41). Tarzi az hama oddii istodan bo qadam. Bo in tarz istoda du qadam memoned. Az rui qoida dar holate ijozat doda meshavad, ki agar tub dar dastaton boshad.

peshko

Hamin tavr kame ba tarafe tob khurda qadami pesh az okhirro guzored kam-kam bo yak poy nishined, hamin, ki tu ba zamin guzoshti . Qadami darozi okhirinro guzoshtan.

Agar nogoh tavaqquf kuni, khohi, ki samti davro digar namoi va az himoyagaron guzari, maslihati moro ba khotir biyor: pesh az tavaqquf davidanro sust namo, bo surati miyona bidav, vaqte ki samtro digar yo ivaz mekuni, ba pesh yakbora baro. On goh hatman tu az himoyagaron raho meyobi.

Ba barnomai bozihoi Olimpi basketboli mardona dar soli 1936 va zanona dar soli 1936 dokhil karda shudaast. Pas az malumotnomai kutohi tarikhi ba barrasii tekhnikai mashqkunii basketboliston, ki ba barnoma dokhiland, meguzarem.

Usulhoi basketbol az yak qator alomatho iborat ast, ki asosan tub dodan, doshtan, tubro nigoh doshta burdan, partoftan ba halqa, gardishho va gayra.

Tavaqquf yo ist bo jahish. Az hisobi istodan bo jahish zarur ast, ki quvvai harakatro boz dorad va holatero qabul sozad, ki bozingar tavonad ba samthoi mukhtalif davida tavonad. In vaziyat – holati bo poyhoi khamshuda istodan meboshad. Dar in holat vazninii badan ba poi ba aqibistoda meguzarad.

Doshtan va dodani tub ba hamdasta bo qadamguzori va bo ivazkunii joy (rasmi 44). Baroi on, ki ijro karda tavonistani doshtan va dodani tub dar harakatro yod gired, lozim ast tarzi qadamguzoriro doned.

Dar vaqti qadamhoi daroz amali doshtan ijro megardad, dar vaqti qadami kutoh tubro ba hamdastaaton medihed, yane bozingar tubro sar medihad, to ki davodavi naboshad.

Burdani tub bo tagyirdihii samt dar in harakat alomate ast, ki kalidi ijroi on meboshad, – gardishi andom va aqibgardii yakbora ba samthoi nav.

Mashqho baroi burdani tub

  1. Dar holi nishast, burdani tub bo dasti rost, chap – ba chap.
  2. Poyho yakjoya istoda, kame zonuhoro kham karda burdani tub dar atrofi khud bo dasti rost va chap. Mashq dar hardu taraf ijro megardad.
  1. Burdani tub bo dasti rost (chap) hangomi davi ivazshavanda, bo surati davi ivazshavanda va suratnokii zarbahoi tub ba farsh.
  1. Burdani tub bo dasti rost (chap) hangomi davidan bo baland bardoshtani pahluho.

In mashqhoro shumo metavoned mustaqilona dar havli yo maktab dar darshoi ilovagi ijro namoed.

Partoftani tub bo yak dast az joy (rasmi 46). Tubro bo dasti rost doshta, poyhoro rost karda va bo harakati dast ba bolo tubro ba pesh bolo tela dodan.

Mashqho baroi takmildihii partoftanhoi mazkur

  1. Namoishi partobdihi. Dar holati asosi bozingar panjai dasti tubdorashro dar kitf nigoh doshta, tub dar kafash meistad, ba pesh ravona gardidaast. Orinjho kham shudaand. Hamshavii po yakjoya bo harakati dast bo tub ba pesh – bolo ogoz yofta va harakati panja ba pesh – ba poyon khotima meyobad.
  1. Safi duqatora. Partoftani tub ba bolo bo kham kardani poyho.

Bo harakatkunii panja tubrobozingar ba safi muqobil mepartoyad. Partoftani tub ba halqa bo du dast az sina pas az burdan bo bargasht az takhta (rasmi 47). Baroi tavonistani in usuli partoftani tub lozim ast, ki zarbi du qadamro az khud namoed. YAkum, bo qadami daroz tubro bo du dast medored va ba sina mekashed. Duyum, bo qadamhoi kutoh, dar pahlui takhta qaror girifta tubro ba halqa mepartoed. Pas az partoftan bozingar ozodona az tagi takhta davida meguzarad.

Bozihoi serharakat baroi musoidati halli bomuvaffaqiyati vazifahoi makhsusi omodagii varzishi va takmili omodakunii umumii jismoni istifoda burda meshavad. Mo ba shumo baze az onhoro peshnihod menamoem.

Boziho: «Tub ba bozingari cholok», «Tubro doda nishastan», «Partoftan ba halqa», «Bozi bo tub», «Ba bozingari davanda tub nadihed».

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