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MASHGULIYATI SPORTi

mashguliyati-sportiMASHGULIYATI SPORTi. Hangomi muntazam bo varzish mashgul shudan, dar organizmi odam tagyiroti morfologi va fiziologie ba amal meoyad, ki faoliyati tamomi uzvu boftahoro taqviyat mebakhshad. Dar natija muqovamati organizm ba tasiri omilhoi nomusoidi muhit va mutobiqati on ba tahmili gunogun afzuda, jismi odam nagz inkishof meyobad. Dar in tagyirot, ki ba M. s. vobasta ast, sistemai asab mavqei muhim dorad. Quvvai harakat va tavozuni faoliyati asab, hamchunin surati aksulamali muharriki khele ziyod meshavad; faoliyati uzvhoi darrok takmil meyobad; miqdori eritrositho va gemoglobini khun meafzoyad; dar mushakho, maynai sar, mushakhoi dil zakhirai moddahoi energetiki ziyod meshavad. Uzvhoi takyayu tahrika niz tagyir meyoband: ustukhon va bandho mustahkam, miqdor (massa), hajm va nerui mushakho ziyod megardad.
Hangomi M. s.-i muntazam mushakhoi uzvhoi nafaskashi inkishof yofta, hajmi shush kalon meshavad. Nafaskashi chuqur va nafasbarori bardavom megardad. Dil dar sharoiti khele musoid kor mekunad; ba haddi afzudani neru surati kashishkhurii dil kame sust meshavad, ki daleli kori khubi on ast.
SHarti asosii M. s. ba varzishi jismoni tadrijan beshtar va muntazam mashgul shudan ast. CHunonchi, dar marhalai avval dar yak hafta 2 – 3 marotiba mashguliyat guzaronida, minbad fosilai bayni onro kam mekunand. Varzishi jismoniro, odatan, dar bayni soathoi 10 – 13 va 18 – 21, na beshtar az 2 – 2, 5 soat badi nahori va 3 – 3,5 soat badi khuroki peshin meguzaronand. Hurokro boyad badi 30 – 45 daq. varzishi jismoni istemol kard. M. s. – i shabona boyad 2 – 3 soat pesh az khob ba anjom rasad.
Tayyorii hamatarafai varzishgar dar rafti M. s. khele muhim ast. Az in ru dar rafti M. s. payvasta ba gimnastika, varzishi sabuk, bozihoi sporti va g. niz boyad mashgul shud. Ba varzishgar kashidani tamoku va nushidani sharob qatiyan man ast. Dar avval hatto miqdori nochizi nikotin va sharob guyo kasro ba hayajon meorad (purquvvat mekunad), vale sipas yakbora faoliyati sistemai asabhoi markazi khalaldor va qobiliyati kori sust meshavad.
M. s. – i nomuntazam manfiat nadorad, zero quvva va ustuvorii mushakho faqat hangomi mashguliyate, ki odam az on khasta meshavad, ziyod megardad. Dar avvali M. s. khastagi nisbat ba M. s.-i minbada beshtar ba mushohida merasad. Dar rafti M. s.-i muntazam va durust khastagii ziyod naboyad ruy dihad. CHunonki malum ast, varzishgar har qadar ziyodtar mashq kunad, mashqhoi vaznini jismoniro hamon qadar beshtar ijro karda metavonad. Vale hajmi sarborii jismoni naboyad ziyod boshad. Baroi varzishgar istirohate, ki ba barqaror shudani qobiliyati kori musoidat mekunad, khele zarur ast. Vayron shudani tanosubi vaqti kori va barqarorsozii nerui organizm mumkin ast boisi khastagi va ishtidodi barziyod gardad; dar mavridi ba in guna holatho duchor omadan, hatman ba dukhtur murojiat boyad kard.
Hastagii barziyod bar khilofi khastagii fiziologi boisi ba muddati daroz kostani qobiliyati kori megardad. Hangomi khastagii barziyod odam zaif gashta, az ishtiho memonad, mutobiqati harakat sust, shakhs baquvvat va kamtoqat meshavad. Baroi bartaraf namudani in holat muvaqqatan tartibi M. s. – ro boyad digar kard. Gizoi servitamin, khobi barohat va tartibi durusti zist (tahsil, mehnat, istirohat) ba zud barqaror shudani quvva musoidat menamoyad.
Agar dar mavridi paydo shudani nishonahoi avvali khastagii barziyod kas ba dukhtur murojiat nakunad va chorahoi zaruri nabinad, mumkin ast mashqzada shavad. Dar in mavrid vazi umumii organizm bad shuda, odam bekhobi mekashad, tundmizoj, ruhaftoda megardad, qobiliyati kori kam meshavad. Asosi holati mashqzadagi zafi faoliyati olii asab ast. Bazan varzishgar hatto nisbat ba tamrini minbada nafrat his namuda, mumkin ast dar atrofi dil ehsosi nokhush paydo shavad. Odatan, varzishgar az kam shudani miqdori moddahoi nerubakhshi organizm logar megardad. Quvvai muhofizi organizm zaf meyobad; dar natija baze bemoriho az khud darak medihand (khosa amrozi shadidi rohi nafas). Bazan davrai hayzi zanon ikhtilol meyobad. Dar in mavrid bo tavsiyai dukhtur 1 – 2 hafta metavon miqdori mashqhoi serharakat va zurtalabro kam kard, mashqhoro dar havoi kushod (bog, jangal, labi ob) guzarond. Sayrugasht dar havoi kushod, ohista-ohista davidan, shino kardan khele mufid ast. Baroi odam 1 – 3 hafta istirohati faol ahamiyati kalon dorad. Dar in mavrid u boyad faqat ba varzishi pagohiruzi mashgul shavad, kam-kam davad, shino kunad. Dar surati rioya nakardani in tavsiyaho ravandi barqaror shudani nerui kori 1 – 2 moh tul mekashad. Agar varzishgar az had ziyod mashqzada shuda boshad, on goh uro dar bemorkhona tabobat mekunand. Hangomi mashqzada shudan, ishtirok dar musobiqaho qatiyan man ast.
Dar davomi M. s. nazorati doimii dukhtur zarur ast. Varzishgar boyad az vazi salomatii khud hamesha bokhabar boshad.
Ad.: Sportivnaya medisina, M., 1984; Dembo A. G., Vrachebniy kontrol v sporte, M., 1988; Lechebnaya fizicheskaya kultura, M., 2005; Lechebnaya fizicheskaya kultura v pediatrii, Perm, 2005.
E. G. Alieva.

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