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MARSIYAHOI RUDAKI

Marsiyahoi boqimondai Ustod Rudaki, ki namunahoi barjastai marsiyahoi zaboni forsi meboshand, asosan dar navi qasida navishta   shudaand.

Muallifi   kitobi     «Marsiyasaroi dar  adabiyoti forsi» duktur  Nasrullohi  Imomi menavisad:   «Hej  koshonae  nest,  ki  ifriti marg bar  ostonaash qadam naguzorad va gardi anduhu hijron bar on naposhad va hej qavme nest, ki dar margi azizonu azdastraftagoni khesh va baroi buzurgdoshti onon marosime nadoshta boshad. In marosim ba gunahoi mukhtalif bar ashoru  marosii forsi tasir guzoshtaast».146 Rudaki,  qabl  az  hama, dar  margi sukhanvaroni nomii hamzamoni  khud,  shoiron  SHahidi  Balkhi   (vaf. 325/937)  va Murodi, ki dar solhoi okhiri umri Rudaki ba  vuqu payvasta bud, marsiyahoi jigarsuzi purhikmate insho kardaast. In du shoir az dustoni nazdik, yoroni  muvofiq, hamnishinonu hamsuhbatoni khiradmandi Ustod Rudaki budand. Dar sugvorii SHahidi Balkhi meguyad:

 

Korvoni SHahid raft az pesh,

V-oni mo rafta giru meandesh:

Az shumori du chashm yak tan kam

V-az shumori khirad hazoron besh!

Tushai joni khesh az u biraboy,

Pesh, k-oyad-t margi poyogesh!

On chi bo ranj yoftishu ba  zil,

Tu ba osoni az gazofa madesh!

Hesh begona gardad az payi sud,

Hohi on ruz, muzd kamtar desh!

Gurgro kay rasad malomati shot?!

Bozro kay rasad nihebi shakhesh?!

 

In jo az galayoni suzu anduh darak nest. Ammo dar marsiyai ba margi Murodi bakhshidaash Ustod Rudaki bo taassuf az margi dusti khud yod namuda, dardu alam va khotiroti huznangezro bo obu tob meshumorad va bo sukhanoni purhikmatu falsafi maqomi jamiyatii Murodiro ba qalam medihad:

 

Murd Murodi, na hamono ki murd,

Margi chunon khoja na korest khurd!

Joni giromi ba padar bozdod,

Kolbadi tira ba modar supurd.

Oni malak bo malaki raft boz,

Zinda kunun shud, tu guyi bimurd!

Koh nabud u, ki ba bode parid,

Ob nabud u, ki ba sarmo fasurd.

SHona nabud  u, ki ba mue shikast,

Dona nabud  u, ki zaminash fashurd!

 

 

Ganji zare bud dar in khokdon,

K-u du chahonro ba jave meshumurd.

Qolabi khoki suyi khoki fikand,

Jonu khirad suyi samovot burd!

Joni duvumro, ki nadonand khalq,

Misqalae kardu ba jonon supurd.

Sof bud omekhta bo durdi may,

Bar sari khum raftu judo shud zi durd.

Dar safar aftand ba ham, ay aziz,

Marvaziyu roziyu rumiyu kurd,

Honai khud bozravad har yake,

Atlas kay boshad hamtoi burd?!

Homushi kun chun nuqat, ero malik

Nomi tu az daftari guftan suturd!

 

Ba andeshai Rudaki,  marg unsurhoi ruhoni va jismonii odamro az ham gusasta, har kadomi onro ba mabdai aslii onho tahvil medihad. Roje ba marsiyai dar margi  Murodi   inshokardai Rudaki     A.  M. Mirzoev chunin aqida meronad: «Rudaki dar masalai tain namudani mohiyat va munosibati jismu ruh az tarifoti materialistona ba kulli dur ast. Vale dar in jo on tarafi tarifoti u beshtar qobili diqqat ast, ki shoir mahalli aslii unsuri ruhiro bo unvoni «padar» va unsuri moddiro ba sifati «modar» tasvir kardaast, ki gumon namekunam in tarif ba aqoidi islomii zamoni shoir muvofiqat doshta boshad».147

Ba gufti Said Nafisi, «dar raftani shoire donishmand va musohibe purkhirad bayone az in fasehtaru manoie az in balandtar hej kasro dast nakhohad dod».148 Lekin dar bayni osori boqimondai Rudaki qitai zerin, ki dar on mavzui taassuf khurdan az margi duston, tasalli dodan va dildori namudani azodoronu musibatzadagon maqomi asosi dorad, ba tavajjuhi khos molik ast. SHiblii Numoni khotirnishon menamoyad, ki Rudaki «marosii ziyode gufta va alhaq ham khub az uhda baromadaast, az jumla marsiyae, ki dar vafoti pisari vaziri azam sokhta, zaylan mulohiza kuned, ki chi guna bo tarze hakimona vayro ba sabru shikeboi targib kardaast».149 Ba on qita diqqat gumored, ki onro Bayhaqi niz chun namunai behtarini ashori gamangezi tasallibakhsh zikr mekunad:150

 

Ay on ki gamginiyu sazovori

V-andar nihon sirishk hame bori!

Az bahri on kujo bibaram nomash,

Tarsam zi sakht anduhu dushvori!

 

Raft, on ki raftu omad on-k omad

Bud, on ki bud, khira chi gam dori?!

Hamvor khohi kard getiro?!

Getist, kay pazirad hamvori?!

Masti makun, ki nangarad u masti,

Zori makun, ki nashnavad u zori!

SHav, to qiyomat oyad, zori kun,

Kay raftaro ba zori boz-ori?!

Ozori besh z-in gardun bini,

Gar tu ba har bahona biyozori!

Guyi  gumoshta-st baloe u,

Bar har ki tu dil ba u bigmori!

Abre padid nevu kusufe ne,

Bigrift mohu gasht jahon tori!

Farmon kuni va yo nakuni, tarsam,

Bar kheshtan zafar nadihi bore.

To bishkani sipohi gamon bar dil,

On bih, ki may biyoriyu bigsori!

Andar baloi sakht padid orand

Fazlu buzurgmardiyu solori!

 

Agar in marsiyaro nek mavridi mulohiza qaror bidihem, chunin ba mushohida merasad, ki dar on hujumi tufoni ranji anduhu gam na in ki tasvir megardad, balki faqat jonkoh budani on dar in jahoni nopoydor gushzad shuda, pandu andarzu hikmat dar on mavqei buzurg dorad va ruhiyavu ohangi onro ba vujud meorad. Harchand  SHiblii Numoni onro «dar favti pisari vaziri azam sokhta shuda» meguyad, mushakhkhasan ki budani on vaziri azam malum nashud. Hudi shoir niz nom burdani uro lozim nameshumorad va ba kase makhsus khitob namekunad. Honandavu shunavandai on marsiya ham biduni on ki ki budani shakhsi sohibazoro bidonad, dar zehni khud on ehsosi huznangezu gamovarro ehyo gardonda, mekhohad, ki ba shakhsi musibatzada (hatto musibatzadagoni hamzamon va oshnoi khud ham) tasalli dihad va oromie bakhshad.

Rudaki behuda budani suzu gudoz, rukaniyu mukani va giryavu nolai bepoyon va khastagarro bo dalelhoi mantiqi ba isbot rasonda, shakhsi musibatzadavu azodorro bo sukhanoni hakimona pandu tasalli medihad, ki dar in khel holatho ba juz sabru burdbori chorae nest, zero «Andar baloi sakht padid orand—Fazlu buzurgmardiyu solori!» Musallam ast, ki ohangi falsafi chunin marsiyahoro ba marsiyahoi dilangez tabdil doda, ba vasilai jambastkuni alami onhoro az hodisai shakhsi ba voqeiyati jamiyatii doroi arzishi umumiinsoni mubaddal megardonad. Javharu khamirmoyai marsiyahoi digari Rudakiro niz, ki baze porcha va abyoti parokandai onho ba dast daromadaand, ba joyi afsusu dareg pandu nasihat, ibrat giriftan az nobasomonihoi ruzgor, dar nazar doshtani noguzir budani marg baroi har kas va az hamin lihoz dar sadadi khayrkhohi mardum budan tashkil medihad:

Mihtaroni jahon hama murdand,

Margro sar hama furu kardand.

Zeri khok -andarun shudand onon,

Ki hama kushkho barovardand.

Az hazoron hazor nimatu noz

Na ba okhir ba juz kafan burdand!

Bud az nimat on chi pushidand,

V-on chi dodandu on chiro khurdand!

 

Ohangi oromona va khulosahoi falsafi az baythoi digari Rudaki ham ba gush merasad, ki shoyad az marsiyahoi digari surudai u boshand:

 

Guspandemu chahon hast ba kirdori nagil,

CHun gahi khob buvad, suyi nagil boyad shud!

 

Voqean, dunyo joyi muvaqqatist. Hoh-nokhoh onro padrud boyad guft. Rudaki dar joyi digar chunin khulosai falsafi mebarorad:

 

Jumla saydi in jahonem, ay pisar,

Mo chu sava, marg bar soni zagan!

Har gule pajmurda gardad z-u, na der,

Marg bifshorad hama dar zeri gan!

 

Jolibi tavajjuh ast, ki lahni beparvoyona, ohangi samimi, jambastkunihoi falsafi va khulosabarorihoi hakimona sirishti aglabi abyoti marsiyahoi Rudaki meboshand. Tanho dar khotir boyad dosht, ki in jambastkuniho natijai tajribai gany va donishi farovoni khudi Rudaki meboshand:

 

In jahon pok khobkirdor ast,

On shinosad, ki dil-sh bedor ast!

Nekii u ba joygohi badist,

SHodii u ba joyi timor ast!

CHi nishini bad-in jahon hamvor,

Ki hama kori u na hamvor ast?!

Donishi u na khubu chehrash khub,

Zishtkirdori khubdidor ast!

 

Albatta, in abyot mumkin ast aslan az marsiyae naboshandu az yagon qasidai falsafi boshand, vale bo mohiyati khud ba marsiyahoi u khele nazdikand, binobar hamin, mo onhoro dar juzvi marsiyahoi Ustod Rudaki ovardem.

Nuktai digare, ki qobili zikr menamoyad, on ast, ki Ustod Rudaki baroi ibrozi marsiya   na faqat qolabi qasidaro  ba  kor  meburdaast.  Baroi izhori dardu alam az favti ashkhosi davati margro labbayk gufta, qolabi  ruboiro  niz  ustodona  va  mohirona istifoda mekardaast,  ki   ruboii  zayl   namunai aloi onhost:

 

Taqdir, ki bar kushtanat ozarm nadosht,

Bar husnu javonet dili narm nadosht.

Andar ajabam zi jonsiton, k-az chu tue

Jon bistudu az jamoli tu sharm nadosht?!

 

Mutolaai ruboi fikrero talqin menamoyad, ki Rudaki onro dar margi javone khushsuratu barno suruda budaast. Agar bo diqqati tom mulohiza namoed, baroyaton oshkor megardad, ki shoiri buzurg dardi judoiro az yak nafar aqraboi javoni khesh chi guna dar kamoli soddagi bayon menamoyad. Albatta, sugvorii chunin javoni nekruyi khubjamol az sadoqati farovon barkhurdor ast. Ammo shoiri ravshandili durandesh zarur namedonad, ki jazau fazaro ba tasvir bigirad.

CHuninand baze mushohidahoi mo roje ba marsiyahoi bozmondai Ustod Rudaki.

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