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MAORIFPARVARI VA ADABIYOTI TOJIK ASRI HIH

sadriddin_aini-maksim_gorki-603x330Ba Rossiya hamroh shudani Osiyoi Miyona ba ravnaqi madaniyatu sanatu adabiyot obektivona musoidat kard. Olimoni taraqqiparvari Rossiya dar bobati tadqiqi iqtisodiyot, etnografiya, tarikh, zabon, adabiyot, sarvathoi tabii va gayrai Osiyoi Miyona khizmati kalon kardand.

Bisyor mutafakkiron va shoironi Osiyoi Miyona az namoyandagoni ziyoiyoni peshqadami Rossiya sabaq megiriftand. Tadrijan adabiyoti kishvar ham pesh raft. Dar tashakkuli jahonbinii mutafakkiri shahiri on solho Ahmad Mahdumi Donish, mulaqqab ba Ahmadi Kalla (1827–1897) tasiri madaniyati peshqadami Rossiya kalon ast.

Ahmadi Donish yake az foziltarin odamoni Bukhoro ba shumor meraft. U dar borai khud ba tavri haqqoni navishta bud, ki dar simoi yak shakhs dukhtur, shoir, musiqachi, rassom, munajjim, olim va khattotro mujassam namudaast. Ahmadi Donish ba ivazi ozodfikri va aqidahoi tanqidiash ba «kofiri» nom barovarda bud. Bo vujudi hamin ham, donish va malumoti favquloddai u amirro majbur mekard, ki ba vay bo nazari etibor nigarad. Ahmadi Donish ba sifati kotibi saforati amir se marotiba ba Peterburg safar karda bud. SHinosoi bo Rossiya va madaniyati rus dar tamomi hayot va faoliyati u roli halkunanda bozid. Dar hamon sharoiti tarikhie, ki Ahmadi Donish umr ba sar meburd, baroi aloqa paydo kardan bo odamoni peshqadami Rossiya imkoniyat nadosht va ba poyai halli revolyutsionii masalai digargun kardani tarzi zindagoni rasida nametavonist.

U dar ibrozi maqsad va orzuhoi siyosii khud ba shiori khayolparastonai podshohi marifatnok ru meovard. Ba aqidai vay, agar amir ba foidai maorifi khalq «bovar kunonda shavad», guyo khudi hamin baroi ba tarzi nav sokhtani hayoti voqeii Bukhoro kofist. Lekin, dar ayni zamon, Ahmadi Donish baroi tasis namudani idorahoi mashvarati va ba in vosita mahdud gardonidani yakkahukmroni baromad mekard. Ruhi tamomi guftahoi uro mehru muhabbat nisbat ba khalq va gamkhori baroi saodatmandii on faro giriftaast. Ahmadi Donish asli mohiyati hukumati mutlaqai Rossiyaro dark karda natavonista boshad ham, ammo Rossiyaro bo Bukhoro muqoisa karda, tabiist, ki az madaniyat, sanoat va shahrhoi rus ba vajd meomad.

Akhmadi DonishMuhimtarin asari Ahmadi Donish risolai «Navodir-ul-vaqoe» meboshad, ki az majmui porchahoi ilmii falsafi, publisisti va badei faroham omadaast. Ahmadi Donish dar aqidahoi falsafii khud dar mavqei idealist monda, monandi Abuali ibni Sino va Umari Hayyom ba talimoti abadiyati olam va ofaridanashudani on mukhlis budani khudro niz izhor doshtaast, ki in dar sharoiti onvaqtai purtaassubi Bukhoro hamai poyahoro ba larza medarovard. U dar risolai oid ba tarikhi hukmronii sulolai Mangitiyai Bukhoro, ki ba tariqi pinhoni pahn gardida bud, Bukhoroi feodaliro ba zeri tanqidi sakht girifta, oshkoro guftaast:

«Bas, agar holi sultonro taftish kuni fosiqe, zolime, saffoke; va qozi mardi murtashii haromkhore, gosibe; va rais k… bediyonate va asas mukhammir va muqammir, sarguruhi rohzanon va sarkardai soriqon mebud»[1].

Vay hamchunii peshbnni karda bud, ki najot az zulmu istibdod faqat bo yorii khalqi rus muyassar khohad shud.

Tamomi odamoni boistedodu pokvijdoni on solhoi Bukhoro dar atrofi Ahmadi Donish gird meomadand. Ustod Ayni dar «YOddoshtho»-i khud khele zindavu tasirbakhsh ba qalam medihad, ki chi tavr Ahmadi Donish ba tadrij khudro az darbor dur mekashid va dar atrofi khud odamonero jam mekard, ki kushish doshtand mardumro az bandi johili va benavoi raho dihand.

Ba in tariqa fikru aqidahoi Ahmadi Donish, bo vujudi on hama mahdudiyathoi sinfii khud, nisbat ba on zamon aqidahoi peshqadam va progressivi budand. Buzurgtarin khizmati Ahmadi Donish az in iborat ast, ki u tavonist dar atrofi khud yak guruh payravon – maorifparvaroni asri HIH tojikro muttahid kunad.

Abdulqodirkhojai Savdo (vaf. 1874), Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh (1828–1894), Iso Makhdumi Bukhoroi (1826–1887), SHamsiddin Mahdumi SHohin (1857–1893), hayrati Bukhoroi (1876– 1902) barin shoironi mahfili Ahmadi Donish harchand shoironi zabardasti okhiri asri HIH budand, vale az jihati aqidavu mafkura ba darajai in mutafakkiri buzurg rasida natavonistand.

Ba Rossiya hamroh shudani Osiyoi Miyona dar viloyati Fargona, ki az jihati taraqqiyoti sanoat nisbatan pesh budu bar khilofi amorati Bukhoro khud ba hayati general-gubernatorii Turkiston dokhil meshud, ba inkishofu ravnaqi aqidahoi jamiyatiyu siyosii khodimoni in kishvar khele musoidat namud. Dar atrofi shahru dehoti aholii mahalli paydo shudani mahallahoi rusho, aloqavu robita bo rushoi taraqqiparvar va revolyutsioneroni rus, ki ba khoki kishvari Turkiston badarga shuda budand, shinosoi bo harakathoi revolyutsionii Rossiya dar okhiri asri HIH, sokhtmoni rohi ohan va ziyodshavii raftuomad ba nohiyahoi markazii Rossiya va gayra ba adabiyoti maorifparvaronai nimai duvumi asri HIH va ibtidoi asri HH khele tasir kardand. Namoyandagoni peshqadami in guna adabiyot dar viloyati Fargonai kishvari Turkiston — Muqimi, Furqat, hamza hakimzoda, Dilshod va Anbarotun budand.

Dar ejodiyoti Muhammadaminkhojai Muqimi (1850–1903) hajv maqomi namoyon dorad. Muqimi mahz bo tavassuti hajv beinsofiyu bedodiyu khudsariyu zolimii amaldoroni idorahoi podshohi, zavodchiho, sohiboni fabrikaho, riyokori, muftkhuri va johiliyu nodonii mullohoro fosh mekunad.

Zokirjon Furqat (1858–1909) ba Rossiya, ba madaniyati rus husni tavajjuhi makhsus dosht, dustiyu rafoqati khalqi rus va khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyonaro doimo targibu tashviq mekard.

Ejodiyoti shoiri maorifparvar hamza hakimzoda (1889–1929) badi revolyutsiyai yakumi Rossiya khele ravnaqu rivoj yoft.

Omilhoi asosii tashakkuli aqidahoi peshqadami maorifparvaroni khalqhoi tojik va uzbek zindagii vaznini khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona va shinoso shudani shoironu mutafakkironi Osiyoi Miyona bo markazhoi ilmiyu madanii Rossiya ham dar khudi hamin jo, yane Turkiston va ham dar markazi in mamlakati bekaron bud. Dar tashakkuli aqidahoi jamiyatiyu siyosii Dilshod (1800–1905/06) va Anbarotun (1874–1908/09) niz in omilho yake az omilhoi muhimtarin budand.

Dilshod va Anbarotun misli tamomi digar ravshanfikron khudsariyu bedodii hukumatdoron, hokimiyati vahshiyonai feodalho, istismori gushnoshunidi khalqro mahkum karda tavonistand. Onho riyokori, harisi, fosiqi, johili va berahmii boyhoro foshu oshkor karda, muftkhuron, molimardumkhuronro zeri hajvi sakht megiriftand.[2]

5. ADABIYOTI TOJIK DAR IBTIDOI ASRI HH

Faoliyati adiboni peshqadami tojik

sadriddin_aini-300x240
Sadriddin Ayni

Dar ibtidoi asri HH faoliyati baze adiboni peshqadami tojik baso vusat yoft. hayrat, Sahbo, Asiri, Ayni va baze digaron az jumlai on adibon budand. SHinosoi bo adabiyoti rus ba ejodiyoti onho tasiri buzurg rasond.

hayrat (1878–1902) shoiri boistedod va gazalsaroi zabardast bud. Ammo shaklu mazmuni kuhnai nazm ba hayrat tangi mekardand va u dar nazm rohhoi nav mejust. Dar hayoti tiravu tori amorati Bukhoro vay nuri umede nadida, ruhaftoda shud va dar ejodiyotash ham ohanghoi yasu huznu gamu anduh khele afzud. Vale guftan darkor, ki hayrat sherhoe niz dorad, ki dar onho ohanghoi ijtimoi ravshan ba nazar merasand va shoir dar in sherhoyash khalqro ba marifat davat namuda, dar rohi behbudii mardum jahd kardanro sifati olii inson meshumorad. Sahbo khudash amaldori olimartaba bud, unvoni tuqsabo dosht. Ammo avomfirebiyu harisiyu johilii darboriyon va amaldoroni amir ba in shoiri pokvijdon maqul nashud. Sahbo az darbor raft. Ashori vay asosan liriki boshad ham, vale hajvi sakht ham bisyor ba nazar merasad. Soli 1918 Sahbo bo farmoni amir baroi ishtirok dar nehzati ozodikhohii khalq ba qatl rasonida shud.

Toshkhuja Asiri (1864–1915) dar Hujand zindagoni mekard. Bo kosibi kambagalona ruz meguzarond, kasbash sangiosiyotaroshi bud. Asiri shoiri insondust bud va meguft, ki vazifai adabiyot tavsifi aqlu donish ast. Asiri dar ashorash boyu mullohoi riyokorro sakht tanqid karda, onhoro «khudozadagoni rohi din» menomad va dar joi digar meguyad: «hama khumorii maykhonai sharoratand, chi muhtasib, chi mudarris, chi qoziyu, chi rais».[3] Dar yak sherash Asiri menavisad:

Oh, az in jinsi najosattinatoni zuhdkesh.

Juz ba obi teg natvoni mutahhar doshtan.

Ankabutonand hangome, ki girand etikof,

Saydi mazlume garaz dar zeri chodar doshtan.

Sufpushonand, ammo dar gami deboi Rum,

Az kuloh in jo havoi zebi qaysar doshtan.

Jumla tarroroni rohi dinu imoni tuand.

CHashm bar hamyoni simu kisai zar doshtan.

Az saru kori namozu ruzai eshon mapurs!

Heshro dar zeri bori okhirat dar doshtan.[4]

Asiri targibotchii faoli ilmu donish bud va aqidae dosht, ki bo rohi marifat khalqro az jaholat va taassubi dini raho dodan mumkin ast. Vay imoni komil dosht, ki maktabhoi dunyavi, ilmu madaniyat mardumro khushbakht karda metavonand. Masalan, vay dar yak sherash meguyad:

SHumoro shoyad aknun jahd kardan,

Gami islohi kori khesh khurdan,

Makotibhoi nav ejod kardan,

Rahi darsi nave irshod kardan,

Qiroatkhonaho barpo namudan,

Maqomi maslihat insho namudan,

Ba avlodi aziz minnat nihodan,

Ba nuri didagon fan yod dodan,

Saru kori digar boyad giriftan

Ba rohi toza boyad pesh raftan,

Sari khud dar hama surokh khastan,

Zi har dar rohi istiqbol justan.[5]

Sadriddin Ayni (1878–1954) ham az adiboni taraqqiparvari on davra bud, ki soli 1909 avvalin kitobi darsii dunyavi «Tahzib-us-sibyon»-ro talif kard. Dar hamon solho Ayni bisyor sherhoe navishta bud, ki ba masalahoi muhimmi ijtimoi bakhshida shudaand.

Tamomi adiboni mazkur dar ejodiyoti khud khususiyathoi musbati maorifparvarii Ahmadi Donishro mahfuz doshta, bo rohi marifat ba khalq khizmat mekardand, amoratro zeri tanqid megiriftand va bo Rossiya aloqavu robita kardanro tashviq menamudand. Vale boyad qayd kunem, ki onho faoliyati maorifparvarii khudro bo vazifayu talaboti revolyutsiya, ki ruz az ruz vusat meyoft, mutobiq karda natavonistand, ba hamin sabab, aqidai onho va, umuman, faoliyati onho ba andozae mahdud va liberali bud. Ziyoda az in baze az in adibon payravi ideologiyai jadidizm shudand. Tadrijan, adiboni ravshanfikr va dilsofu pokvijdon ba andozai rivoji revolyutsiya bovari hosil kardand, ki ba kuchai jadidi daromada khato raftaand. Onho bo mururi zamon fahmidand, ki faqat partiyai kommunisti qudrat dorad ba khalq ozodii haqiqi va marifat ovarad. Ba qavli ustod Ayni, partiya uro va u barin bisyor ziyoiyoni pokvijdoni juyandaro «az botloqi jadidizm berun kashid». In qabil odamoni botinan taraqqiparvar jadidiro qatiyan tark karda, ba mavqei binokori sotsializm, ba mavqei marifati kommunistii khalq qaror megiriftand.

[1] Ahmadi Donish, 1959, s. 72.

[2] Mufassal dar borai onho nig.: Mukhtorov A., 1969.

[3] Rajabov 3.SH., 1974, s. 45.

[4] Dar hamon jo, s. 44.

[5] Dar hamon jo, s. 44.

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