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MANZIL

manzilMANZIL, khona, makonest baroi hifzi odam az tasiri obu havo (garmo, sarmo, shamol, barfu boron), inchunin istirohat va koru zindagii inson. Hona sokhtan yake az namudhoi asosi va faoliyati nakhustini binokorii inson meboshad. SHaklhoi M. ba darajai inkishofi quvvahoi istehsolkunanda, munosibathoi ijtimoi, tarzi zist, khususiyathoi moddiyu manavi va muhiti geografi vobasta ast. Dar zamoni jamoai ibtidoi odamon dar zaminkan, chayla va gorho zindagi mekardand. M.-hoi yakka muddati daroz dar bisyor khalqho, makhsusan dar bayni kuchiyon, boqi mondand. Dar davrai paydoishi jamiyati sinfi ba sokhti M. khususiyathoi moddiyu manavii toifahoi gunoguni aholi tasir rasonid. Dar jamoai gulomdori dar barobari M.-hoi oddii benavoyon va gulomon, khonahoi bohashamat, rabot va qasrho sokhta meshudand, ki hujrahoi ziyodi gunogun doshtand. Dar zamoni jamoai feodali farqi ijtimoii M.-ho boz ham ziyod shud. Zamindor va nazdikoni u dar kushkhoi mustahkam, dehqonon dar khonahoi faqirona zindagi mekardand.
SHarthoi umumii gigienii manzilgoh. Sokhtmoni M. az rui loihai yakkhela va muvofiqi talaboti qabulshudai gigieni ba amal barovarda meshavad. Honahoro vobasta ba tainot bo tarzhoi gunogun mesozand: ba shakli kvartira – baroi zisti oila; chun mehmonkhona – baroi oilahoi khurd va odamoni tanho, inchunin baroi musofiron; khobgoh – baroi muvaqqat zindagi kardani donishjuyon, korgaroni sokhtmon va g.
SHaroit va behbudii vazi sanitarii khona ba miqdori oshyonahoi bino vobasta ast. Az rui in alomat binoho ba kamqabat va bisyorqabat (ziyoda az 4 qabat) judo meshavand. Dar binohoi bisyorqabat darajai khizmati sanitariyu tekhniki baland buda, dar onho lift, quburi akhlotpartoi mutamarkaz mavjud ast. Dar ayni zamon kasone, ki dar binohoi kamqabat zindagi mekunand, zamini nazdi hujrai khudro baroi gulkoriyu niholshinoni istifoda burda metavonand. Ba chunin binoho darakhton soya afkanda, tobiston sokinonro az garmi muhofizat mekunand. Dar mahalhoe, ki binohoi kamqabat mavjudand, aholi nisbat ba mahalhoi binohoyashon bisyorqabat khele kam ast.
Sokhti manzil. Honai istiqomati az hujrahoi gunogun (hujrai bachagon, hujrai khurokkhuri, hujrai khob, hujrai kori) va utoqhoi ilovagi (dahlez, oshkhona, vannakhona, mabraz, anborcha) iborat meboshad.
Honaro tavre boyad sozand, ki nagz shamol doda shavad, nuri oftob rasad, hujrahoi istiqomati az oshkhona, vannakhona, mabraz, sanuzel va zinopoya dur joy girifta boshand. Baroi pukhtupaz, shustushu, istirohat va barohat joy giriftani azoi oila boyad sharoiti musoid muhayyo gardad. Joygirii hujraho ba tainoti onho niz vobasta ast. Rafohiyati hujra ba sokhti khona niz vobasta meboshad. Dar hujrae, ki sokhti rostkunjai darozruya dorad, joygir namudani mebel mushkil ast (daruni in guna khona niz torik ast). Holo hujrahoe mesozand, ki darozii onho az 6 m ziyod nest. Agar tanosubi darozi va bari hujra az 1:2 v 3:4 ziyod naboshad, shakli on hujraro khele khub mehisoband. Dar hamai binoho manzilhoi kushodai tobistona (balkon, peshayvon) sokhta meshavand.
Tahviyai manzil. Tahviyai khona va toza nigoh doshtani havoi on yake az talabothoi asosii sanitariyu gigienii M. meboshad. Malum ast, ki havoi khona bo gazi karbon, namii havoi nafas va zarrachahoi obi dahon, ki hangomi guftugu, sulfa, atsa va khanda ikhroj shuda, mikrobhoi ziyod, az jumla mikrobhoi bemoriovar dorand, oluda meshavad. Bo poyafzor, libos, inchunin ba tavassuti havoi berun ba khona chang medaroyad. Dar vaqti kashidani sigor ba havo nikotin va dig. moddahoi zahrnok ikhroj meshavand. Hangomi nodurust istifoda burdani asbobhoi garmkuni va gaz havoi khona bo oksidi karbon oluda shuda, mumkin ast boisi zahroludii odamon gardad. Inchunin az araqi badan, saru libos, bazan az rutubati devor, oshkhona, mabraz va g. dar khona bui nokhush paydo meshavad.
Baroi tozagii havoi M. boyad dar on gardishi havo nagz boshad, yane havoi khona bo havoi toza ivaz shuda istad. In kor tavassuti tahviya (ventilyatsiya) muyassar meshavad. Baroi tahviyai khubi tabiii havo dar tirezaho bodkhon mesozand. Hajmi bodkhan az 0,3 m2 naboyad khurd boshad.
Baroi salqin shudani khona, mutadil nigoh doshtani harorati on, toza kardani havo az konditsioner istifoda mebarand.
Ravshanoii manzil. M.-ro bo rohi tabii, suni va omekhta ravshan mekunand. Ravshanoii tabii az hisobi nurhoi rosti oftob ast. Ravshanoii khubi M. tavassuti ru ba janub va az yakdigar dar masofai na kamtar az balandii binoi hamshafat sokhtani binoho va bo ranghoi ravshan rangubor kardani onho muyassar megardad. Ravshanii hujra ba darozii on niz vobasta ast. Hujrae, ki daroziash az masofai dukaratai boli chorchubai tireza to farsh ziyod nest, ravshanii khub dorad. Sokhti tireza, odatan, chorkunja buda, tarafi darozi onro dar khonahoi baland ba tavri amudi va dar khonahoi past ba tavri ufuqi joy medihand. Tirezai iflos to 50 foiz va turparda to 40 foizi ravshaniro nigoh medorad. Devor va shifti rangash baland ravshanii khonaro ziyod mekunad, zero nur dar sathi ravshan borho inikos meyobad. Koeffitsienti inikos, ki bad az inikos to kadom daraja boqi mondani rushnoiro nishon medihad, baroi rangi zardtob 0,70 – 0,80, sabzi ravshan 0,42 – 0,47, khokistarrangi past 0,40 – 0,50, jigari 0,11, sabzi baland 0,12 meboshad.
Baroi ravshanii suni az lampahoi elektrii kammasraf istifoda mebarand. Se tarzi ravshansozii sunii M. – i umumi, yaktarafa va omekhta mavjud ast. Ravshansozii omekhta maqbultar ast, zero dar in hol dar barobari khona inchunin joi kor niz ravshan karda meshavad.
Az jihati behdosht rushnoie, ki baroi faoliyati quvvai bosira zarur ast, boyad kamash 50 – 100 lk boshad. Nafaqat iqtidori lampa, balki sarpush, joi istodai charog va dig. omilho niz khele muhimand. Rui shishai charogro zud-zud toza boyad kard, zero agar on iflos boshad, pas az yak moh ravshani 10 – 15 foiz kam meshavad. Hangomi intikhobi sarpushi lampa dar nazar boyad dosht, ki darozii mavji nur gunogun ast. Nuri surkh (darozii mavjash 760 nm) tasiri angezanda dorad; nurhoi darozii mavjashon nisbatan kutoh (sabz va kabud) oromibakhshand.
Baroi ravshansozii umumii hujrai baland qandili iborat az 3 – 5 lamparo tavsiya mekunand. Sarpushho mumkin ast az bolo yo az poyon kushoda boshand. Dar hujrai balandiash 2,7 – 2,8 m charogi iborat az 2 – 3 lamparo ovekhtan lozim ast; charogi sarpushash az poyon kushodaro ba kor burdan joiz nest, zero dar hujrai nachandon baland lampaho yalaqqos mezanand. Dar baze joi khona torsher (charogi poyador) meguzorand, ki nuri halovatbakhsh dorad; onro dar nazdi divan, kursihoi narm mondan khele khub ast.
Baroi khub ravshan kardani joi kor charogro tavre meguzorand, ki rushnoi az tarafi chap buda, ba chashmi kas az pesh rost naaftad. Hangomi mashguliyat yo kor (makhsusan baroi bachaho) nafaqat mizi kori, balki tamomi khona niz boyad ravshan boshad. Hususiyati kor niz ba nazar girifta meshavad. CHunonchi, agar yagon chizi siyohro bo rishtai siyoh dukhtan khohed, khona boyad khele ravshan boshad. CHunin ravshaniro lampai iqtidorash 100 vt dar masofai taqriban 20 sm ba vujud meorad. Hangomi naqshakashi kogazi vatman bo lampahoi iqtidori umumiashon 150 vt dar masofai 80 – 100 sm khub ravshan meshavad. Hangomi muddati daroz khondan va navishtan az charogi ruimizi yo torshere, ki lampai iqtidorash 60 vt dorad, istifoda burdan lozim ast. Boyad rangi lampai charog safed boshad.
Mikroiqlimi M. ba nami, gardishi havo, harorati daru devorho vobasta ast. Azbaski omilhoi mikroiqlim ba organizm tasiri kalon dorand, khona boyad doimo garmii muayyan doshta boshad. Darajai harorati M. vobasta ba iqlimi muhit, faoliyati jismoni, sinnu sol va jinsi odam khele gunogun ast. Baroi shakhse, ki dar holati oromi yo mashguli kori sabuki jismonist, on dar zimiston 20 – 220 , dar tobiston 20 – 250 (dar holati 30 – 60 foiz budani namii nisbi va az 0,25 m/son. ziyod nabudani surati gardishi havo) meboshad. Agar dar joi zisti odam tagiyri harorat dar hududi 0,5 – 1,50 boshad, pas on sharoiti muvofiqi zist ast.
Dar doirai harorati mutadil to 10 foiz kamu ziyod shudani namii nisbii havo ba organizm chandon tasir nadorad. Dar sharoiti musoidi mikroiqlim gardishi havo dar zimiston az 0,5 m/son. va tobiston az 0,25 m/ son. naboyad ziyod boshad. Baroi garmii mutadil zarur ast, ki tafovuti harorati devorho va havoi khona az 20 past naboshad.
Bazan rutubati ziyod mikroiqlimi khonaro khele bad mekunad. In holat dar natijai nodurustii sharoiti zist – nokifoya budani garmi va tahviyai khona, bisyor budani sokinoni on, dar khona jomashui kardan ba vujud meoyad. Nami ba salomatii odam tasiri bad dorad. Az namii nisbatan baland (besh az 70 foiz) odam garmii badanashro bisyor talaf doda, khunuk mekhurad, ikhroji namii pustu shush kam meshavad. Nami khususan ba odamoni giriftori bemorihoi shush, sil tasiri noguvor rasonida, ba khuruji bemori musoidat mekunad. Dar M. – i sernam mikroorganizmho nagz inkishof meyoband. Ba vayron shudani havoi M. – i sernam zanburug va magorhoe, ki dar kunjhoi devor va anjomi khona inkishof yoftaand, niz musoidat mekunand. Ozuqavori niz nam kashida, zud vayron meshavad. Dar natijai zud-zud shamol doda nagz garm kardan namnokii khona nest meshavad. Baroi daromadani nuri oftob pardai khonai sernamro tamomi ruz kushoda memonand. Devori in guna khonaro bo ranghoi ravgani rang namekunand, zero dar rui rang nami beshtar jam meshavad.
Garmkuni sarfi nazar az tagyiri obu havoi berun dar davomi shaboruz boyad harorati khonaro yak khel (tagyiri on, agar khona az pechka garm boshad, to 4 – 60 va agar az sistemai markazi garm shavad, 2 – 30 qobili qabul ast) va mutadil nigoh dorad (farqi harorat dar samti ufuqi az tireza to devori muqobil az 20 va dar samti amudi dar har metr az 10 ziyod naboshad); ba khona mahsuli zararnoki suzish va gazi gubor naboyad dokhil shavad.
Baroi garm kardani khona az pechka istifod mebarand. Hangomi kor farmudani pechka ba chunin qoidaho rioya namudan zarur ast: shabona ba pechka to soati 20 alav memonand; dar nazdi pechka suzishvori (angisht, hezum) nameguzorand va pechkai dargiriftaro ba nazorati kalonsolon vomeguzorand: hezum va angishti pechkaro muntazam kofta meistand, to ki hamai on barobar suzad; sarpushi dudkashi pechkaro faqat pas az purra sukhtani suzishvori mepushonand. Pechkae, ki darichahoi havonoguzar doshta, qismi joygirshavii suzishvori va dudkashi on az rui konstruksiyai makhsus sokhta shudaast, behtar va khubtar ast. Dar chunin pechka suzishvori ohista-ohista mesuzad va on nagz garm shuda, muddati daroz khunuk nameshavad. Istifodai in guna pechka baroi odam khatari guborgiri nadorad.
Dar mavridi az sistemai garmidihii markazi garm kardani M. obi jush yo bug bo gulbaho jori shuda, ba radiatorho meoyad. Radiatorhoro dar devor va zeri tirezaho joygir mekunand. Harorati miyonai sathi radiatorho boyad kamash 60 – 700 boshad. Dar M.-hoi hozira az usuli garm kardani devor, shift yo farsh niz istifoda mebarand. Harorati sathi chunin garmkunakho az harorati sathi radiatorho past meboshad (baroi sathi shift on dar hududi 28 – 300 , baroi sathi devor takhminan 40 – 450 ast).
Sadonoguzaroni. SHavquni kucha va asbobhoi sanoatii korkhonahoi khurde, ki dar binohoi istiqomati joygirand, sadoi nasos va motorhoi obkashi, sadoi lift, ventilyator, inchunin shavqune, ki az galogulai kudakon, sadoi balandi radiopriyomnikho va g. ba amal meoyad, ba odam tasiri khele noguvor merasonand. SHavqun muassiri quvvai somea va sistemai asab meboshad. Hangomi shavquni nachandon baland khobi kas dushvor va norohat megardad.
Baroi kam shudani shavqun dar M. choh va qismi moshinii lifthoro az hujrahoi istiqomati durtar mesozand; dar nazdi devori hujra gulbai akhlotpartoi va bevosita dar zeri khona tajhizoti moshini, obgarmkuni, nasos va g. sokhta nameshavand. Dar devori bayni khonaho va hujrahoi dokhili M. joy dodani tajhizoti sanitariyu tekhniki hargiz mumkin nest. Hamchunin dar binohoi istiqomati joy dodani stansiyai farii transfarmatori, oshkhonayu qahvakhona baroi ziyoda az 100 naf., oshkhonahoe, ki baroi besh az 500 kas khurok tayyor mekunand man karda shudaast.
Talaboti gigieni baroi baze hujrahoi M. Dahlez hujrahoro az shavqun va havoi khunuki daromadgoh muhofizat mekunad. Barobari ba dahlez daromadan, mehmon oid ba M. – i shumo taassuroti avvalin hosil mekunad. Odatan, dahlez khonai darozruyaest, ki chand dar dorad. Hangomi oroishi dahlez pesh az hama ba on diqqat boyad dod, ki daru devorho ba ham muvofiq boshand. Baroi in ba devor to balandii dari kalontarin takhta mezanand va yo hamai darhoro chunon rangubor mekunand, ki on ba rangi devoru shift muvofiqat kunad. Devori dahlezro gulkogazi rangash khokistari yo zardi ravshan, ki rakhhoi borik dorad, khele bazeb mekunad. Dar dahlez boyad mebeli odii zaruri istad, to ki ba rubuchin khalal narasonad. Bari libosovezak az 1,3 – 1,4 m vase nabuda, boyad 5 – 6 changak doshta boshad. Hub meshud, agar dar nazdi libosovezak oinai barqade joy doda shavad. Az tarafi chap yo rosti oina charog meguzorand. Hangomi intikhob va joygir kardani libosovezak khurdsolonro faromush naboyad kard; changaki libosovezakro tavre boyad joy dod, ki ba on dasti kudak rasad. Agar imkon boshad, dar dahlez baroi poyafzor jevonchai past meguzorand.
Hujrai umumi (khonai kalon, mehmonkhona), odatan, hujrai kalontarini M. ast. In hujra ba chand maqsad kor farmuda meshavad. Mo ruzona dar on ba yagon kor mashgul meshavem, shabongoh, on jo tamomi azoi oila jam shuda suhbat va istirohat mekunand, namoishhoi televizionro mebinand.
Baroi istirohat dar khonai kalon pesh az hama mebelro durust joy dodan lozim ast. Bo in maqsad dar khona gushahoi gunogun tashkil medihand. Gushai istirohatiro boyad tavre tartib dod, ki dar oroishi umumii khona nazarras boshad. Onro dar nazdi tireza joy doda bo gul va rastanihoi khonagi orostan muvofiqi maqsad ast. Baroi gushai istirohat yagon kunji oromro intikhob mekunand. Odatan, dar gushai istirohat mizi rostkunjai past, divan (divan-kat) va du yo se kursii narm, televizor meguzorand. Televizorro dar boloi mizi makhsus tavre joy medihand, ki ekrani on ba chashmoni odami dar rui divan yo kreslo nishasta taqriban dar yak samt boshad.
Aksaran dar mehmonkhona baroi navishtan miz meguzorand. Mizi khatnavisi yo takhtai oddi, ki dar nazdi tireza istodaast, yakjoya bo jevon baroi dars tayyor kardani kudakon musoid ast.
Agar oshkhona khurd boshadu faqat baroi pukhtupaz kor oyad, pas mizi gizoro dar hujrai umumi meguzorand. Tajriba nishon medihad, ki bisyor vaqt dar mehmonkhona faqat bo mehmon khurok mekhurand. Vaqthoi digar azoi oila dar oshkhona tanovul mekunad. Dar in hol gushai istirohat va joi khurokkhuriro dar yak khona joygir kardan mumkin ast.
Dar khonai umumi rakhti khob niz meguzorand. Agar khona yakhujragi boshad, baroi kudak gushae judo karda, onro ba misli khonai kudak oro medihand.
Ba qismho judo kardani hujraro charogpoya va qolini bo ham shinami gushai istirohat khelo bazeb mekunand. Baroi ravshanii hujra 3 – 4 charogro istifoda burda, onhoro dar gushahoi ba ham muvofiq joy medihand. Mamulan, intikhobi charog ba on vobasta ast, ki mo onro ba kadom maqsad – baroi ravshan kardani tamomi hujra, rui miz, hamchun charogi nazdikati yo baroi khondani kitob kor mefarmoem. Kadom charoge, ki naboshad, boyad taqriban nisfi nuri on baroi ravshan kardani tamomi khona ravona shavad.
Odatan, tirezahoi mehmonkhonaro ru ba janubu sharq, janub yo janubu garb mesozand. Az in ru, chunin khona tamomi ruz ravshan buda, tobiston khele garm ast. Baroi kam kardani ravshani va az nuri oftob muhofizat namudani khona az jalyuzho istifoda mebarand, ki az darun ba tireza ovekhta meshavand.
Ba farshi khona beshtar rangi jigarii baland molidan odat shudaast. Ammo rangi jigarii ravshan va zardtob farshro khele khushnamud mekunad. Ba farshi parketi lok memoland. Agar dar khona odam boshad, dar vaqti lok kardani farsh ba tamomi tadbirhoi ehtiyoti rioya namudan lozim ast, zero dar tarkibi lok moddahoi khimiyavi mavjudand va onho bukhor shuda, ba organizm tasiri nomusoid merasonand. Hangomi lokdihii farshi khona bodkhani tirezaro mekushoyand va soni khonavu libosi tanro nagzakak shamol doda, dar tagi dush bo sobun shustushu mekunand.
Hujrai kudak. Ba kudakon odatan, hujrai ravshan, garm va oftobruyaro judo mekunand. Baze volidayn hujrai kudakonro az had ziyod garm nigoh medorand, ki in khele khatarnok ast, zero kudak dar davomi ruz dar yak jo nanishasta, ba digar khonaho niz davutoz mekunad. In farqi harorat va namii hujraho ba kudak tasiri nomusoid merasonad. Dar ayni hol boyad kushid, ki mikroiqlimi mutadili hujrai kudak qati rioya karda shavad. Honaro muntazam, alalkhusus dar zimiston, tavre shamol medihand, ki bodgar ba vujud naoyad.
Dar hujrai kudak mebeli makhsusi kudakona meguzorand. Dar khona naboyad yagon ashyoi barziyod istoda boshad. Mebelro tavre joy medihand, ki ba rubuchini khona khalal narasonad. Ba kudak baroi bozihoi serharakat niz joy judo kardan lozim ast (makhsusan baroi kudaki sinni tomaktabi va khurdi maktabi). Dar hujrai kudak baroi mashguliyat va istirohat gushai makhsus tartib medihand. Gushai koriro dar nazdi tireza joygir mekunand, zero on boyad ravshan boshad. Dar joi kori kudaki sinni tomaktabi baroi bozi va mashguliyat (plastilinbozi, rasmkashi) mizi khurd va baroi bozichaho raf meguzorand. Mizi bozii kudak boyad rostkunja boshad, zero hangomi mashguliyat dar pasi mizi mudavvar qafasi sinai kudak ba rui miz jafs va hangomi rasmkashi orinjhoi u ovezon meshavand (in boisi khastagii kudak gardida, ba paydoishi malakahoi zaruri khalal merasonad). Kudaki khurdsol aksar vaqt dar rui farsh bozi mekunad, az in ru dar joi bozii u ba rui farsh qolincha, palos va yo poyandoz gusturdan lozim ast.
Maktabbacha boyad baroi tayyor kardani darsho mizi makhsus doshta boshad va onro dar nazdi tireza tavre meguzorand, ki ravshani rost yo az tarafi chap aftad. Agar miz baland boshad, ba tagi poy yagon qutti yo kursicha guzoshta, poyhoi kursiro daroztar mekunand, to ki qomati bacha hangomi navishtan vazi durust girad. Vazi nodurust giriftani badan dar vaqti navishtan boisi nazdikbini va kajshavii sutunmuhra megardad. Baroi mashguliyati maktabbacha takhtai devori niz lozim ast. Muvofiqi qadu qomati bacha balandiyu pastii takhtaro bo mururi vaqt tagyir medihand.
Hujrai kudak boyad khele ravshan boshad. Az in sabab pardai tirezai onro napushonda, daru tireza va devoru farshro bo ranghoi ravshan rangubor mekunand yo ba devor gulkogazi kushodrang chasponda, mebeli rangash ravshan meguzorand. Makhsusan shishai tirezai hujraro zud-zud shustan lozim ast. Baroi ravshan kardani tamomi hujra charogro dar shift va dar on joe, ki kudak bozi mekunad, meovezand. Dar hujrai kudak shabcharog niz boyad boshad (iqtidorash 8 – 15 Vt).
Joi mashguliyati kudakro niz khub ravshan kardan lozim ast. Pesh az hama az asbobu anjomi purjilo boyad dast kashid, zero on ba quvvai bosira va asabhoi kudak tasiri manfi merasonad. Miz va ashyoi rui on boyad rangi bejilo doshta boshand. Jiloi ashyo ba mavqei charog niz vobasta ast. Ba rui miz yo takhtai kori oinaero guzoshta, durustii joi charogro muayyan mekunand; agar dar oina charog namoyon boshad (az on nuqtae, ki chashmoni kudak joy giriftaand), pas kogzi shaffofi kitob va daftar niz az nuri charog jilo medihad. Dar natija bacha harfhoro nagz nadida, chashmonash zud khasta meshavand. Hangomi intikhobi lampai charogi ruimizi pesh az hama sathi rui mizro ba nazar megirand. Agar kudak hanuz khurd boshad, baroi u charogi devori khele qulay ast, zero onro boloyu poyon karda, ravishi nurro dar rui miz tagyir dodan mumkin ast. Nuri charogro kame az pesh az tarafi chap ravona mekunand, ki masofai on to sari kudak az 40 sm va to rui miz az 50 sm kam naboshad (lampa boyad az zeri sarpush nanamoyad). Agar kudak kalon boshadu dar pasi miz faqat dars tayyor kunad, pas baroi ravshanii miz az charogi ruimizi istifoda mebarand.
Hujrai khob. Vobasta ba masohati kvartira (manzilgoh) va shumorai azoi oila chand namudi hujrai khob mavjud ast: hujra faqat baroi khob, hujrai khob yakjoya bo hujrai kudak, hujra baroi khob va mashguliyat. Hujrae, ki baroi khob muayyan shudaast, boyad alohida va orom boshad. Holo hujrai khobro tavre mejihozonand, ki on ruzona chun hujrai kori istifoda burda meshavad, zero na har kas imkon dorad dar in khona garnituri khob guzorad. Dar nazdi tirezai hujra baroi mashguliyat mizi makhsusi gunshavanda meguzorand, ki khele qulay ast.
Dar aksar M.-hoi hozira joi jevonhoro peshaki muayyan mekunand. Baroi ravshan kardani khujrai khob, gayr az charogi umumi, inchunin charoghoi devori va baroi ravshan sokhtani miz charoghoi ruimizi kor mefarmoyand.
Oshkhona boyad az digar hujraho judo boshad. Asbobu anjomi oshkhona ba sokhti M. va shumorai azoi oila vobasta ast. Majmui zarurii mebele, ki ba talaboti gigienii pukhtupaz muvofiqat mekunad, chunin ast: miz-jevon baroi shustanu pora kardani mahsuloti khuroki va nigoh doshtani zarfho; jevonhoi devori baroi guzoshtani ozuqavorii khushk va kosayu tabaq; plitai gazi (yo elektri), yakhdon va dastshuyak.
Dar daruni jevonchai zeri dastshuyak satili akhlot, jorub, latta va dig. chizhoi zaruriro meguzorand. Havoi oshkhona boyad muntazam ivaz shuda istad. Agar tahviyai havo bad boshad, dar oshkhona nafaqat harorat, balki nami niz meafzoyad, zero hangomi sukhtani 1m3 gaz 800 g ob hosil meshavad.
Baroi az gazi karbon va dud toza kardani havoi oshkhona dar boloi plita elektrofiltr ovekhtan muvofiqi maqsad ast. Az jihati gigieni plitai elektri khubtar meboshad.
Farshi oshkhonaro bo masolehe rupush mekunand, ki ba se talaboti gigieni muvofiq ast (shaffof, badosht, «garm»). In guna masoleh plastik meboshad. Plastik badosht buda, nagz toza meshavad. Farshro bo kafel yo sement rupush kardan joiz nest; in guna farsh nagz toza shavad ham, khele khunuk ast.
Devori oshkhonaro bo yagon masolehi ba nami tobovar rupush mekunand (to ki bo lattai nam yo isfanj pok karda shavad). Az jihati gigieni rangi ravganii ravshan khele khub ast. Inchunin ba devori oshkhona gulkogazi shustashavanda niz mechasponand.
Dar oshkhona ba ravshanii joi pukhtupaz diqqati makhsus medihand. Ba odame, ki dar oshkhona mashguli pukhtupaz ast, ravshani boyad az tarafi chap yo az bolo aftad.
Mustaro (sanuzel) az vannakhona bo dastshuyak va mabraz iborat buda, mavjudiyati on dar har yak manzil hatmist. Vannakhona boyad vanna, dastshuyak, obi garmu khunuk, sachoqovezak va charog doshta boshad. Agar dar vannakhona obi garm naboshad, az termeks yo kolonkai gazi istifoda mebarand. Vannakhona va mabraz boyad hamavaqt toza boshand. Nishastgohi mabrazro har ruz bo chutkai makhsus meshuyand.
Bad az obbozi vannaro nagzakak shustan lozim ast. Baroi posh nakhurdani obi dush dar vanna az pardai obnoguzar (plyonka) istifoda mekunand. Hangomi shustani vanna joi obravi onro az boqimondahoi sobun, nakhi dastmol va muy, panjarai ventilyatsioni (havodaro)-ro az chang boyad toza kard.

S. R. Miraliev.

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