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MAMLAKATHOI IMPERIALISTI DAR ROHI AZ NAV TAQSIM KARDANI JAHON

MAMLAKATHOI JAHON DAR NIMAI DUYUMI ASRI XIX – AVVALI ASRI XX
BOBI VII

SHiddat yoftani ziddiyatho dar bayni mamlakathoi imperialisti. Imperializm ziddiyathoero, ki peshtar dar bayni mamlakathoi purquvvati jahon mavjud budand, bartaraf nakard. Baraks, dar in davra onho boz ham tezu tundtar shudand. Ba siyosati khorijii mamlakathoi sarmoyadori shirkathoi inhisorii puriqtidor tasiri kalon merasonidand. Davlathoi imperialisti suporishi onhoro ijro mekardand. Har yake az in mamlakatho kushish ba kharj medod, ki mamlakathoi beshtarro ba mustamlika tabdil doda, bo hamin tasiri khudro dar jahon mustahkamtar kunad.

Baroi on ki chunin siyosat az tarafi khalq dastgiri shavad, doirahoi hukmron maqsadkhoi sarmoyadoronro umumimilli elon mekardand. Dar zeri shiori poydor gardonidani istiqloliyati milli millatchigiro avj megironidand. Dar qalbi mardum nisbat ba khalqhoi digar kinayu adovat meparvaridand. Millati khudro najodi balandtar hisobida, meguftand, ki on huquqi manavy dorad mamlakathoi aqibmondaro ba mustamlikahoi khud tabdil doda, az boloi onho hukm ronand.

jangi-rusiyaSarmoyadoron az hisobi gorat kardani mustamlikaho daromadi kaloni be dardi miyon ba dast medarovardand. Baroi ba tarafi khud kashidani mardum bazan qismi on daromadro ba u ham medodand. In sistemai gumrohkunii omma ba sarmoyadoron imkoniyat medod, ki khalqro hamchun oloti siyosati goratgaronai khorijii khud istifoda barand.

Davlathoi imperialistii Germaniya, IMA, Angliya, Faronsa, Rusiya va Jopon ba tobe kunonidani mamlakathoi susttaraqqikarda qone nashuda, ba taqsimoti mustamlikahoi mamlakathoi digar muvaffaq shudan mekhostand. Imperiyahoi mustamlikavii derina boshand, khech goh rozy tuda nametavonistand, ki mustamlikahoi yak vaqtho ba dast darovardaashonro akiun mamlakathoi purzuri zamon kashida girand.

Mamlakathoi imperialisti jiddu jahd mekardand, ki sarmoyai bo rohi gorat kardani digar mamlakatho ba dast darovardaashonro boz ham afzuntar gardonand. Bo Hamin sababho onho ba taqsami navi jahon cap kardand. In iqdom ba muborizai shadidi baynihamdigarii mamlakathoi imperialisti ovarda rasond.

SHiddat yoftani munosibatho dar bayni Angliya va Germaniya. Imperializmi Angliya dar nimai duyumi asri XIX his kard, ki az mamlakathoi digari sarmoyadori aqib mondaasg. Ba har hol tamomi quvvayu vositahoro ba kor meburd, to ki dar jahon mavqei peshtaraashro az dast nadihad. Vale in kor baroi Angliya sol to sol mushkiltar megardid.

Sarmoyadoroni Angliya, ki dar istehsoloti sanoaty dar jahon hukmronii khudro allakay az dast doda budand, mekhostand, ki qusuri in bokhtro az hisobi mustamlikaho barorand. Vale in kori oson nabud. Ba imperialnzmi Angliya mamlakathoi digari peshqadami sarmoyadori. pesh az hama, Germaniya sakht raqobat mekardand.

Dar miyonai solhoi 90-um ziddiyathoi bayni Angliya va Germaniya bo tezy shiddat meaftand. Dar hama jo va bo har rohu vosiga Germaniya ba siyosati mustamlikazabtkunii Angliya khalal merasond. YAke az mintaqahoi ziddiyati Angliya va Germaniya Afrika» Januby gardid. Dar in jo Germaniya ba on muvaffaq shudan mekhost, ki Angliya mamlakati Burkhoro ba zeri dasti khud darovarda natavonad, lekin in kor ba u muyassar nashud.

SHarqi Nazlik va SHarqi Miyona ham dar doirai ziddiyathoi in du davlati imperialisty budand. Soli 1898 shohi Germaniya Vilgelmi II ba Konstantinopol tashrif ovard. Sultoni Turkiya ba mehmoni khud vada dod, ki bo sarmoyadoroni Germaniya baroi sokhtani rohi ohani Bagdod konsessiya medihad. Voridshavii Germaniyaro ba Turkiya Angliya hamchun khavf ba manfiathoi khesh dar mamlakathoi SHarq hisoband. Bo hamin sabab khudi hamon sol Germaniya baroi tashkil kardani floti purzuri harbii bahrii khud shuru kard. Dere naguzashga dar in bobat Germaniya az Angliya pesh guzasht.

Badi in ziddiyathoi bayni Angliyayu Germaniya boz ham oshtinopazirtar gardidand. Vale dar chunin sharoiti nomusoid Angliya nametavonist, ki bo Germaniya jang cap kunad. Muboriza bar ziddi Rusiya dar SHarqi Dur va bo Faronsa dar Afrika vayro az in rokh bozmedosht. Bo Germaniya to vaqti muayyane muroso kardan lozim meomad, zero in vaqt muqobili Burkho quvvai ziyodi kharbii Angliya andarmon shuda bud. Baroy hamin, vaqte ki Rusiya Port-Arturro az CHin ijora girift, vaziri mustamlikahoi Angliya Jozef CHemberlen hatto ba diplomatkhoi Germaniya sokhtakorona ham boshad, dar borai ittifoqi anglogermanii ziddi Rusiya guftushunid karda bud.

Hukumatdoroni Germaniya soli 1905 bo sardorii sadri Sitodi kupli Neruhoi musallahi mamlakat A. SHliffen naqshai jangro kashidand. In jang boyad dar du jabha surat megirift – dar Garb bar ziddi Faronsa va dar SHarq bar ziddi Rusiya.

Zabtkorikhoi imperializmi Faronsa. Imperializmi Faronsa mekhost, ki ham az Germaniya qasdi dar jangi solhoi 1870- 1871 shikastkhurdaashro bigirad va ham in raqibi asosii khudro zaif gardonad.

Ba Faronsa muyassar gardid, ki tavassuti siloh Tunis, qismi Afrikai SHimolu Garbi, Madagaskar, qismi Somali va Hinduchinro zabt kunad. Dar nimai duyumi solhoi 90-umi asri XIX va ibtidoi asri XX Faronsa dar zabtkorihoi afrikavii khud ba muqobiliyagi sakhti Angliya duchor gardid. Kamquvvatii khudro khis namuda, imperializmi Faronsa harakat mekard, ki munosibathoyashro bo in mamlakat tezu tund nakunad. Faronsa Germaniyaro dushmani raqami yaki khud mehisobid. Agar munosibatkhoyashro bo Angliya vayron mekard, pas bar ziddi Germaniya muboriza burda nametavonist. In ast, ki Faronsa dar mustamlikazabtkuny munosibatkhoi khudro bo Angliya ba chavkotn muroso darovard. Az hamin sabab Faronsa dar Afrika ba on borkho guzasht karda bud. Ba Faronsa muyassar gardid, ki bo hamin rokh Marokashro zabt kunad. In vosita ba Faronsa baroi ba dast darovardani Kambocha, Laos, Vetnam (Tonkin va Annam) va chazirakhoi ziyodi Ukyonusi Orom ham khizmat kard.

Du jangi Rusiya bar ziddi Turkiya. Jangi solhoi 1853 – 1856 dar bayni Rusiya va Turkiya “Jangi Qrim” nom giriftaast. Rusiya dar zarfi sadho sol maqsad dosht, ki nimjazirai Qrim va Bahri Siyohro ba dast darorad. Vale dar in jang Turkiya bo yorii Angliya va Faronsa bar Rusiya galaba kard va mohhoi fevral-marti soli 1856 baroi bastani Sozishnomai sulh dar bayni in du davlat dar shahri Parij kongressi diplomaty barguzor gardid. Muvofiqi sharthoi Akhdnomai sulhi Parij Rusiya az bahri davokhoi khud guzasht. Turkiya boshad, mavqei khudro dar sohilhoi shimoly va sharqii Bahri Siyoh boz ham mustahkamtar kard.

Mohi apreli soli 1877 jangi navi Rusiyayu Turkiya ogoz yoft. Amaliyothoi harby dar du jabha-dar Balkan va Qafqoz ham dar khushky va ham dar Bahri Siyoh surat giriftand. Rusiya bo bahonai yory ba muborizai ozodikhohonai slavyanhoi nimjazirai Balkan khost, ki mavqei khudro dar in jo mustakhkam karda, ba raqibi derinai khud – Turkiya shikast dihad.

Dar in jang ruskho dastbolo shudand va 3 marti soli 1878 dar mahallai San-Stefanoi nazdikii Konstantinopol dar bayni Turkiya va Rusiya shartnomai sulh ba imzo rasid. Muvofiki on Serbiya va Ruminiya istiqloliyat ba dast darovardand. Qismi Besarabiya, ki dar natichai Jangi Qrim az Rusiya kashida shrifta shuda bud, ba Rusiya bargardonida shud. Ba ivazi on Ruminiya az Turkiya obruchai SHimoliro girift. Bulgoriya hamchun davlati tobei Turkiya tashkil yoft. Vale kosh ressi Berlin, ki Mohi iyuni soli 1878 bo tashabbusi Germaniya, Angliya va Faronsa baroi az nav dnda baromadani Sozishnomai sulhi San-Stefano Gapiyaop gardid, aksariyati muzaffariyathoi Rusiyaro barbod dod.

Balkan-mintaqai muqovimati davlathoi imperialista Qismi ziyodi nimjazirai Balkan dar dasti Turkiyai feodaly bud. Avstro-Vengriya ham niyat dosht, ki ba in nimjazira cap darorad. Halqhoi Balkan baroi istiqoliyati khud muboriza meburdand. Lekin ba onho na tanho Turkiya. balki Germaniya va Avstro- Vengriya ham mone meshudand,

Sarmoyadoroni Germaniya az sulolai Gabbsburgho, ki hukmroni Avstro-Vengriya budand, talab mekardand, ki dar Balkan siyosati zabtkori pesh burda shavad. Soli 1908 Avstro- Vengriya Salonikaro zabt karda, baroi khud ba Bahri Egey roh kushod.

Qablan shoh Serbiya jonibdori Avstro-Vengriya bud, vale badi on, ki soli 1903 dar in mamlakati slavyanii Balkan tabadduloti davlati ba amal omad, vaziyat tagyir yoft. Serbiya ba dusti bo Rusiya mayl kard. Halki serb baroi az zeri hukmronii iqtisodii Avstro-Vengriya ozod shudani vatani khud mubornzai ozodikhohonaro pesh girnft.

Badi zabti Salonika Avstro-Vengriya mavqei khudro dar Balkan boz ham mustahkamtar kardany bud. On ruyrost ba zabti mamlakathoi Balkan cap kard. Avstro-Vengriya soli 1909 az Serbiya Bosniya va Hersogovinaro kashida girift. Germaniya boshad, ba Balkan cap darovardani ittifoqchii khudro dastgiri

Namud. Vay inro vositai dar Balkan sustgardonii mavqei Turkiya ham mehisobid. Rusiya boshad, muborizai ozodikhohonai slavyanhoi janubiro dastgiri kard. Vay muqobili dar Balkan mustahkam gardidani mavqei Avstro-Vengriya va Germaniya bud. Italiya ham dar in jo manfiathoi khudro dosht. Soli 1900 in davdat hatto bo rohi kharby Tripoditaniyaro az Turkiya kashida girift. Soli 1912 Turkiya khost, ki bo rohi zury onro az Italiya bargardonida girad, vale shikast khurda, majbur shud, ki Tripoditaniyaro ba Italiya vo guzorad.

Serbiya. Bulgoriya va CHernogoriya “Ittifoqi Balkan”-ro tashkil karda, soli 1912 bar ziddi Turkiya jang cap kardand. Rusiya nisbat ba in ittifoq khayrkhoh bud. Mohi oktyabri hamon sol onho Turkiyaro torumor kardand. Dar tarikh in jang “Jangi yakumi Balkan’ nom giriftaast. In jang va jangi duyumi Balkan, ki on soli 1913 ba amal omada bud, hamai masalahoi davlathoi in nimjaziraro hal karda natavonistakd. Balkan mintaqae gardid, ki mamlakathoi imperialistii Evropa onro dar bayni khud az nav taqsim kardani budand, lekin na ba tavri musolamatomez.

Mustamlikazabtkunii imperializmi IMA. IMA badi az Rusiya kharidani Alyaska ba masalahoi dokhilii khud beshtar mashgul shuda, ba zabtkunii mustamlikaho dertar shuru kard. On ba in kor asosan dar solhoi 90-umi asri XIX ogoz namud. Imperializm»! IMA diqqati asosii khudro ba havzahoi Bahri Karib va ukyonusi Orom nigaronid. Avvalin mustamlikai zabtkardai IMA jazirahoi Gavay budand. Vay in gallachazirahoro az soli 1893 to soli 1898 purra az khud kard. Badi in imperializmi Amerika ba mustamlikahoi Ispaniya ru ovard. Soli 1898 IMA bar ziddi in davdat jang zlon kard. Ispaniyai feodal»! badi Mohi muqovimat shikast khurd. Dar natijai in jazirai Puerto-Rikoi ispany ba IMA guzasht. Vay Kubaro ham bo rohi zury ba khud tobe kunonid,

Badi galaba bar Ispaniya IMA zabtkorihoi khudro ba digar nuqtahoi kurai zamin pahn kardan girift. Dar uqyonusi Orom jazirai Guam va gallachazirahoi Filippinro zabt kard. IMA onhoro baroi ba davlathoi SHarqi Dur cap darovardan hamchun takyagoh istifoda burd. Ba vay muyassar shud,  ki soli 1899 baron hamai davlathoi jahon nisbati CHin siyosati “darhoi kushod’*-ro elon kunad. IMA bovari dosht, ki tavassuti afzaliyati iqtisodii khud az in davdat davlathoi digarro fishor doda mebarorad. Baroy hamin faoliyati tresthoro dar CHin harjoniba

dastgiri va havasmand mekard. Dar tarikh in dillomatiyaro “diplomatiyam dollar”-i IM A nomidaand. IMA chunin siyosatro dar tamomi kurai zamin ba kor meburd, vale agar dar on choe, ki “diplomatiyam dollar” ba kor nameraft, siyosati “darrai kalon”- ro istifoda meburd. Bo hamin on dar ibtidoi asri XX davlathoi Amerikai Lotiniro ba majroi siyosati khorijii khud dokhil kard. CHunin siyosatro ba roi az khud kardani Kanali Panama bar ziddi Kolumbiya istifoda burda bud. In kanal soli 1914 ba istifoda doda shud. Vaqte ki davlati Panama tashkil yoft, IMA onro majbur kard, ki Kanali Panamaro ba vay ba muhlati 100 sol ba ijora bidihad. Hamin tariq, in kanali navbunyod dar amal az IMA shud.

Sarmoyai IMA botezy ba iqtisodiyoti mamlakathoi Amerikai Lotiny vorid gashta, az on jo sarmoyai mamlakathoi Evroparo fishor doda mebarovard. Hamin tariq, IMA dar nimkurai Garby hukmroni yagona gardid. Bo vujudi in IMA bo mamlakathoi digare, ki taksimoti jahonro dar bayni khud davom doda ni budand, raqobat mekard.

Zabtkorihoi Jopon. Mustamlikahoi avvalini Jopon jazirahoi Ryukyu va Tayvan budand. Onhoro soli 1872 ishgol karda bud. Jopon sipas Koreyaro ba zeri tasiri khud darovarda, dar on jo ba korhoi sanoatiyu tichoraty mashgul shud.

Holati nimmustamlikavii Koreya ba imperializmi Jopon maqul nashud. Baroy hamin soli 1894 bo kuvvan kaloni kharby ba Seul khamla karda, kasri shokhi Koreyaro ishgol namud. Hamin tariq, in jang ogoz yoft. Sipas lashkari Jopon ba qismhoi Harbii jinoii dar Koreya buda hujum kard. Bo in jangi Joponu CHin cap meshavad. Nisbat ba CHin lashkaru floti Jopon purzurtar budand. Ba hamin sabab dar in jang CHin shikast khurda, az Jopon sulh talabid. Muvofiqi in Sozishnomai sulh Jopon az CHin tovoni kaloni jang girift va inchunin huquq paydo kard, ki dar qalamravi CHin korkhonahoi sanoatii khudro bisozad.

Oidi masalai Koreya va Manjuriya Jopon bo Rusiya raqobat dosht. Joponro IMA va Angliya bar ziddi Rusiya jang andokhtand. Baroy in kor vayro bo mablagi zarury ham tamin menamudand. In davlatho namekhostand, ki mavqei rusho dar SHarqi Dur va havzai Uqyonusi Orom mustahkam shavad. Solhoi 1904 – 1905 dar bayni Jopon va Rusiya jang ba amal omad, ki dar on Rusiya sharmandavor shikast khurd. Ba Jopon muyassar shud, ki Rusiyaro ham az Port-Artur mahrum kunad va ham qismi janubii chazirai

Sakhalinro az u kashida girad. Badi in galaba mavqei Jopon dar SHarqi Dur va havzai Ukyonusi Orom nihoyat purzur shud. Dar chunnn sharoit Koreya digar khudro az Jopon mukhofizat karda nametavonist. Ba hamin sabab soli 1910 imperatora Koreya “bo ikhtiyori khud” hokimiyai davlatiro “abadi” ba Jopon suporid. Jopon Koreyaro ba general-gubernatorii khud tabdil dod.

Imperiadizmi Jopon ba voqeahoi Evropa va joyhoi digari jahon bo chashmoni harisonai imperialistii khud nigoh mekard va tayyor bud, ki dar taqsimoti minbadai jahon faolona ishtirok kunad.

Tashkilyobii paymonhoi harbi. Tunisro ishgol kardani Faronsa Italiyaro vodor namud, ki sarfi nazar az mukholifathoi dar bayni Italiya va mutlakiyati Gabbsburgho joydoshta ba Germaniya nazdik shavad. 20 mayi soli 1882 Italiya, Germaniya va Avstro-Vengriya dar bayni khud Sozishnomai harby bastand, ki on dar tarikh “Ittifoqi Segona” nom giriftaast. Muvofiqi shartnomai in paymoni harbi dar surati ba Italiya hamla kardani Faronsa du ishtirokchii digari paymon, yane Germaniya va Avstro-Vengriya ba vay yorii harbi merasonidand. CHunin ukhdadoriro Italiya niz ba dushi khud girifta bud, yane dar surati ba Germaniya hamla kardani Faronsa Italiya ba vay dasti yory daroz mekard. Lekin Avstro-Vengriya dar nazdi Germaniya chunin uhdadory nadosht. Sarfi nazar az in, har se shirkatkunandagoni paymon bo khamdigar yorii kharby vada karda budand. Onho ukhdador shudand, ki dar surati ogozi jangi yake az onho bar ziddi yagon davlat du davlati digari azoi paymon mavqei betarafiro ikhtiyor mekunand. Tanho jangi yake az davlathoi Ittifoqi Segona bar ziddi Faronsa istisno bud, Dar in surat du-davlati digari paymon ba davlati ziddi Faronsa jangsarkarda yory merasonidand. Hamin tariq “Ittifoqi Segona” tashkil yoft.

Ba imperiadizmi anglis imperiadizmi javoni Germaniya, ki aknun az Angliya pesh guzashta bud, sakht raqobat mekard. Molhoi dar Germaniya istehsol kardashuda dar bozorhoi chahoni bo molhoi anglisy bomuvaffaqiyat raqobat mekardand. Dar in bobat Germaniya Angliyaro az baze mamlakatho fishor doda barovard.

YAk vaqtho Angliya shohi bahru uqyonushoi jahon bud. Akiun Dar on jo ham mavqei Germaniya toraft purzurtar shudan girift. Vay floti harby va tijoratii puriqtidor tashkil kard. Asliha va sipohash az Angliya behtar bud. Imperiadizmi Germaniya maqsad dosht, ki jahoni taqsimshudaro ba fondam khud az nav taqsim kuna, va hatgo hukmroni jahon shavad. Germaniya, pesh az hama, ba Anglis) qasd dosht. Imperializmi Angliya ham maqsadi Germaniyaro fahmida, ba jang tayyory medid. Lekin az quvvai Germaniya metarsid. Az hamin sabab yakkavu tanho bar ziddi on jang kardany nabud. Ba Angliya iggifokchy lozim bud. Imperialistoni Faronsa va Rusiya niz mekhostand, ki mavqei ba dast darovardai khudro az dast nadoda, az taqsimoti navi jahon hissai khudro bigirand va naguzorand, ki Germaniya hukmroni jahon shavad. CHunin maqsadkho in se davlatro bo ham nazdik kardand.

Soli 1904 avval Angliya bo hamrohii Faronsa bo nomi “Antanta” (“vahdat”, “rizoiyat”) paymonn harby bast. Tavassuti in sozish onho janjolhoi baynihamdigariashonro ham hal kardand. Faronsa hukmronii Angliyaro dar Misr etirof kard. Angliya boshad, ba Faronsa imkoniyat dod, ki Marokashro zabt kunad.

Soli 1907 Angliyayu Rusiya ham bo khamdigar sozishnoma bastand. In davlatho ham az sozishnoma istifoda burda, janjolhoi baynikhamdigarii khudro oidi Tibet va Eron maslihatomezona hal kardand. Onho Eronro ba “mintaqahoi manfiati” khud taqsim kardand: chanubi Eron mintakai manfiati Angliya va shimoli on mintakai manfiati Rusiya shud. Hamon sol dar bayni Angliya, Faronsa va Rusiya paymoni harbi basta shud, yane Rusiya ba “Antanta” dokhil shud.

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