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MAMLAKATHOI JANUBTARI SAHROI KABIR VA AFRIKAI JANUBI (asri XIX)

Zabtkorihoi mamlakathoi imperialisti. Afrikai janubtari Sahroi Kabirro odatan ba se khati az Uqyonusi Atlantik va Uqyonusi Hind tulkashida taqsim mekunand: Sudon (Garbi va SHarqi), Afrikai Tropiki (Garbi va SHarqi), Afrikai Janubi va jazirai Madagaskar.

Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX va makhsusan dar choryaki okhirini in asr dar bayni mamlakathoi abarqudrati evropavi taqsimoti mustamlikavii in mintaqaho khele mutashannij surat megirad. Dar zeri zamini janubtari Sahroi Kabir va Janubi Afrika zakhirahoi beshumori ashyoi khomi qimatbaho, az on jumla, almos va tillo khobida budand. Gayr az in sanoati sarmoyadoroni Evropa ba bozorhoi nav ehtiyoj dosht. Baroi dar muddati kutoh va harchi kami mablag vorid namudani ashyoi khomi afrikavi va molhoi evropairo ba joyhoi durdasttarin burda rasonidan zarur bud, ki dar in jo rohhoi ohanu shohrohho, bandarhoyu anborho sokhta shavand. Hamai in ba sohiboni zavodhoi madangudozi va moshinsozii davlathoi abarqudrati Evropa baroi bo tezi afzudani daromad durnamoi umedbakhsh mekushodand.

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Dar muboriza baroi taqsimoti Afrika, Angliya va Faronsa raqiboni hamdigar budand. Badi chande ba qatori in davlatho Germaniya, Belgiya, Italiya va IMA niz dokhil gardidand.

Dar solhoi 60-umi asri XIX shirkathoi evropavi dar nazdikii joi bo ham yakshavii daryohoi Vaal va Norinji konhoi almos va tillo yoftand. Az Evropa odamone ba in jo meomaland, ki orzu doshtand sanghoi qimatbaho va porahoi tilloro yofta, zud boy shavand. Bo hamin sabab tillokobonu zarshuyhoi evropavi dar joyhoi noobodi Afrikai Janubi sokin shuda, shahru boshishgohhoi az on khurdtari muhojironi evropaviro bunyod mekardand. Kamberli va Iohannesburg az qabili hamin shahrho budand.

Imperalistoni anglis baroi on jiddu jahd mekardand, ki az Keyptaun to Qohira mustamlikahoi bisyor ishgol kunand. Dar in roh raqiboni asosii Angliya Portugaliya va jumhurihoi burho budand. Angliya mustamlikazabtkunii khudro ham dar samti shimoli (dar mamlakati zulusho) va ham dar shimolu garbi (dar Bechuanalend) amali karda, mekhost, ki tavassuti mulkhoi khud Norinji va Jumhurii Afrikai Janubi (Transvaal)-ro muhosira kunad. Okhiri solhoi 70-um Angliya ba zabti Zululend shuru kard. Peshvoi olii zulusho Kegchanvo ba difoi mamlakat tayyorii khub dida, artishro bo sipohi otashfishon musallah namud. Soli 1878 anglisho ba Ketchayvo talabnoma peshnihod kardand, ki ijroi on intihoi istiqloliyati Zululendro dar nazar dosht. SHuroi peshvoyoni zulusho qaror kard, ki in talabnomai anglisho rad karda shavad. Badi in artishi britani ba mamlakati zulusho zada daromad. Zulusho vatani khudro qahramonona difo mekardand. In jang shash moh davom kard va dar on Angliya golib baromada, dahho hazor zulushoro qir karda, Zululendro ba kharobazor tabdil dod. Istilogaroni anglis Ketchayvoro asir girifta, ba London firistodand. Soli 1887 Angliya Zululendro rasman ba hayati mustamlikai Natali khud hamroh kard. Dere naguzashta anglisho tamomi qalamravi sohilhoi Uqyonusi Atlantikaro to Mozambiki Portugaliya ishgol karda, burkhoro az bahr mahrum sokhtand.

Imperializmi Germaniya niz az raqiboni khud aqib mondani nabud. Va istilogaroni germaniyavi sarmoyadoron roh mekushodand. Soli 1883 tojiri tamokufurushi Bremen Lyuderits tavassuti mablagi nochiz va 260 miltiqi kuhna az peshvoyoni mahalli qalamravi nazdisohilii Afrnkai Janubu Garbiro az rezishgohi daryon Norinji to bandari Aigre-Pekenaro kharida girifta, dar on jo korkhonayu dukonhoi khudro bunyod mekunad. Dere naguzashta hamai in mintaqa mahalli takhti pushtibonii Germaniya elon karda shud. Ashkhosi az tarafi hukumati Germaniya vakolatdoshta bo usuli anglisi amal karda, bo peshvoyoni goggentogho va gerero dar borai pushtiboni onho etirof karda shudani Germaniya sozishnomaho ba imzo merasonand.

Nemisho Afrikai Janubu Garbiro ishgol karda, aholii mahalliro berahmona istismor mekardand. Javoban ba in qabilahoi gottentotho va gerero ba muborizai ozodikhohi dast zadand, ki on ziyoda az 20 sol davom kard. In shurish dar solhoi 1904 – 1907 nihoyat shadid bud. Mohi yanvari soli 1904 gottentotho tahti rohbarii peshvoi khud Hendrik Vitboy shurish bardoshtand. Dar in shurish qabilahoi gerero niz faolona shirkat varzidand. Jangi nobarobari gottentothoyu gerero bar ziddi Germaniya to soli 1908 davom kard. Dar in jang artishi Germaniya galaba kard. Badi in galaba imperializmi Germaniya dar Janubu Garbii Afrika rejimi mustamlikavii shadidi khudro tashkil namud.

Angliya kalamravi Bechuanalendro sarosemavor zabt kard, to ki jumhuriyathoi burhoro az mustamlikahoi germaniyavi judo sozad. Kalakhari baroi mustamlikadoroni anglis on qadar ahamiyati kalon nadoshta boshad ham, pushtibon budani khudro elon namuda, bad zaminhoi nisbatan hosilkhezi dar janubi on budaro ba mustamlikai Kap hamroh kard. Dar ishgoli bayni daryohoi Zambezi va Limpopo shirkati britanii Afrikai Janubi, ki soli 1889 tashkil karda shuda bud, sahmi kalon guzoshtaast va makhsusan rohbari vay Sasil Rods, Namoyandagoni Rods ba gardani peshvoi olii qabilai matabela Lobengul shartnomaero bor kardand, ki on ba anglisho dar taqsimi qalamravi mamlakati in qabila va istehsoli madanhoi qimmatbahoi vay huquqhoi vase medod. Anglisho tavassuti in Sozishnomai mushkilfahm didayu donista Lobengudro fireb dodand. Dar in bora u borho ba malikai Britaniya Kabir Viktoriya arz namudaast. Soli 1893 anglisho bar ziddi qabilai matabela ba jang daromadand. Artishi matabela bar ziddi artishi dushmani bo sipohi zamonavin otashfishon khub musallahbuda istodagari karda natavonista shikast khurd. Hazoron nafar jangovaroni in qabila az tarafi anglisho qir karda shudand. Anglisho mohi yanvari soli 1894 Lobengudro ham qatl kardand. Onho mamlakati goratkarda va garqikhunshudai khalqiyathoi mashon va matabelaro bo nomi anglisi “Rodeziya” nomguzori kardand.

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