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MAYZADAGi

mayzadagiMAYZADAGi (Alcoholismus), alkogolizm, istemoli az had ziyodi mashruboti spirtdor, ki ba salomati va qobiliyati korii shakhsi mayparast, inchunin ba maishatu osudagii jamiyat zarar merasonad.
Doir ba nushokihoi spirtdor dar makhazhoi khattii qadimtarin malumot vujud dorad. Tarzi maykashi hanuz zamonhoi pesh ba bisyor qabilaho malum bud. Bino ba baze aqidaho dar sabohi inkishofi insoniyat istemoli may kori kollektivi buda, bo on yagon odati qabilavi yo hodisai astronomi (mas., baror giriftani shikor, nav shudani moh – hilol yo pur shudani on – badr va g.) qayd karda meshud. CHi qadare, ki sharoiti zandagii qabilaho dushvor gardad (mas., tahdidi khatar, mushkil gashtani daryofti gizo va g.), hamon qadar beshtar onho baroi bartaraf kardani «shiddati ruhi» hamroh sharobnushi mekardand.
Ba qadri murakkab gashtani sokhti ijtimoii jamiyat istemoli sharob toraft beshtar khususiyati fardi megirad, yane nisbat ba sharob sababu munosibathoi fardi ba vujud meoyad. Okhirhoi a. 19 muqarrar gardid, ki barobari baland shudani nekuahvoli niz M. meafzoyad. Inro tajribai mamlakathoi mutaraqqi sobit namud.
Badmasti sababhoi ruhi niz dorad. Onho majmui dalelhoeand, ki baze odamonro ba istemoli may majbur mesozad. Hastagi, tanhoi, nizo ba atrofiyon, bejurati va g. yak nav holati ruhii garonro ba vujud meorand, ki zeri tasiri sharob muvaqqat raf meshavand. Qayd kardan lozim ast, ki na har shakhs va na hamesha dar lahzahoi dushvor sharob menushad, zero sharoitu munosibati odamon ba on gunogun ast. SHaroiti ijtimoi nafaqat sababi istemoli sharob meshavad, balki onro mahdud niz mekunad. CHunin mahdudsozi metavonad rasmi (qonuni) va gayrirasmi (manavi) shavad. Okhiri az munosibati shakhs nisbat ba nishondodhoi dar in khusus vujuddoshtai jamiyat va akhloqi jamiyati vobastagi dorad. CHi qadare ki shakhs baroi bartaraf kardani vaziyati dushvor imkoni kam doshta boshad, hamon qadar teztar ba maynushi doda meshavad va umedi ikhtiyori bas kardani on niz kam megardad. Vale in qabil ashkhos nisbatan kam buda, beshtar ba kumaki dukhturoni amrozi ruhi muhtojand. Har qadar jamiyat nisbati istemoli mashruboti spirtdor sahlgir boshad va har qadar shakhs ba aqidahoi durusti hayot dar borai araqnushi kam etibor dihad, M. hamon qadar beshtar megardad. Istemoli sharob taqlidi niz meshavad. «Taqlid» mafhumi shartist. Sababi asosii chunin sharobnushi oqibati noguvori M. – ro mulohiza nakarda, ba dilkhushii lahzai sayu kushish kardan ast. Gayr az in vujud doshtani aqidai khato oid ba nerubakhshii araq, tasiri urfu odatho, tasavvuroti galati nishonai boligi, mustaqili va mardonagi budani maynushi niz boisi dar bayni javonon avj giriftani sharobnushi megardad.
Baroi afzoishi M. makhsusan tasiri atrofiyon (padaru modar, rafiqon) va munosibati onho nisbat ba nushokihoi spirtdor kalon ast. Tadqiqi tasiri oila ba M. muqarrar namudand, ki az had ziyod araq nushidani volidayn (yo yake az onho) va tarbiyai nodurusti farzandon (gamkhorii behad, erka namudan, benazorati, jangu jidoli oilavi va g.) sababi paydoishu avj giriftani M. meshavad.
M. dar hama tarzhoi hayoti fardi va jamiyati inikos meyobad. Nafaqat muntazam, balki tasodufan istemol kardani nushokihoi spirtdor niz ba salomati zarar dorad, aksar vaqt boisi kharobii oilayu tarbiyai badi farzandon megardad. Az tasiri araq odamon hissi masuliyatro dar nazdi jamiyat va davlat gum karda, raftori noshoista menamoyand. M. ba istehsolot zarar meorad, mahsuli mehnatro past karda, boisi falokat va margi odamon megardad. Dar natijai M. saviyai manavi past va nakuahvolii mardum bad meshavad.
M. ba tamomi uzvu boftahoi inson tasiri bad merasonad. Muntazam nushidani sharob shakhsro khumori mekunad, u miqdori mai nushidaashro nazorat nakarda, tadrijan ba bemorihoi gunogun (mas., psikhoz, nevrit, gastrit va g.) giriftor meshavad (nig. Mayzadagii muzmin). Tagyir yoftani ruhiya (ba hayajon omadan, ruhaftodagi va g.), ki hatto az istemoli andaki sharob niz sar mezanad, aksar vaqt hangomi masti sababi afzudani hodisahoi khudkushi megardad. Muvofiqi malumoti omorii rasmi dar Angliya 70% khudkushi dar holati masti ba amal meoyad; khudkushi dar bayni mayzadaho nisbat ba shakhsone, ki araq namenushand, 8 – 10 marotiba ziyod ast. Tamomi alomathoe, ki hangomi masti ruy medihand (kalavidan, bediqqati, khub dark nakardani muhit va g.) boisi afzudani hodisahoi nokhush meshavand.
Ikhtiloli mubodilai vitaminho (khususan vitaminhoi guruhi V) va bevosita tasiri zahrnok doshtani sharob sistemai asabi kanoriro illati karda, nevrit, polinevrit barin bemoriho ba vujud meorad. Hangomi M.-i muzmin dar natijai larzidani angushtoni dast, pilki chashm, nugi zabon (khususan subh to nushidani araq) shakhs kori muqarrarii khudro ijro karda nametavonad. Qarib dar hamai badmaston alomathoi ikhtiloli sistemai asabhoi nashvi (seraraqi, khunuk budani kafi dast va g.) mushohida meshavad; quvvai bosira, shomma va someai chunin odamon sust megardad.
SHarob ba luobpardai meda tasir rasonda faoliyati onro taboh mesozad (dar natija shirai meda kam yo nest meshavad). CHi qadare, ki M. tul kashad, luobpardai meda hamon qadar beshtar oseb meyobad.
SHarob khususan ba jigar tasiri bad merasonad; dar natijai duru daroz va muntazam istemol namudani on sirrozi alkogolii jigar sar mezanad. M. yake az sababhoi asosii bemorihoi gadudi zeri meda (pankreatit, diabeti qandi), ziqi dil, saktai dil ast. Aterosklerozi raghoi iklilii dil va raghoi mayna dar odamone, ki sharobi bisyor menushand, nisbat ba digaron 4 – 5 marotiba va bemorii gipertoniya boshad, 3 – 4 marotiba beshtar ruy medihad; aterosklerozi raghoi mayna va raghoi dil dar javononi sharobdust hanuz dar 25 – 30-solagi mushohida meshavad.
M. ba gadudhoi dokhili, khususan ba gadudhoi jinsi, zarar dorad. Tasiri sharob dar mardho mubosharatro sust karda, dar zanho boisi qati barmahali hayz va past gashtani qobiliyati naslovari megardad.
Muntazam istemol namudani sharob odamro barmahal pir mesozad. Umri mayzadaho az hisobi miyonai umri digaron 15 sol kam ast.
M. ba istehsolot niz tasiri noguvor merasonad; bisyor idorayu muassisaho dar natijai ba kor nabaromadani korgaron, majruh shudani onho, falokat, duzdi va past shudani samarai mehnat zarari jiddi mebinand. Mahsuli mehnati bemoroni giriftori M.-i muzmin nisbat ba mahsuli mehnati odamoni solim ba hisobi miyona qarib 10% past ast. Hangomi shirakayfi mahsuli mehnati korgaroni purtajriba 30% va hangomi mast budan, 70% past megardad. Gaybat (progul)-i shakhsone, ki muntazam araq menushand, dar yak sol 35 – 75 ruzi koriro tashkil mekunad.
M. bisyor vaqt boisi jinoyatkori megardad. Dar aksar holatho avboshi, odamkushi va zurovari barin raftorhoi bad nafaqat dar natijai muntazam, balki az tasodufan nushidani sharob niz sar mezanand.
Past gashtani saviyai manaviyu akhloqi, mayli beshtar ba sharob, ruy gardondan az oila va yoru rafiqon, paydo kardani dustoni nav, ki ba masti, avboshi va duzdiyu goratgari mashguland, oqibat ba on ovarda merasonad, ki shakhs faqat baroi istemoli sharob pul mejuyad. Dar chunin mavrid u qodir ast khudro khonavayron kunad, khori kashad va hatto jinoyat sodir namoyad.
M. – i padaru modar ba tarbiyai farzand tasiri bad merasonad. Muhiti fosiqi oila, barham khurdani hurmatu ehtirom nisbat ba padaru modar natanho kudakro tundmizoju damduzd mekunad, balki raftoru kirdori uro tagyir doda, maynush va bejogardu jinoyatkor mesozad. Muvofiqi baze malumot 70% navrasone, ki qonunro vayron kardaand, dar oilai mayzadaho tarbiya yoftaand.
Sistemai chorahoi ziddialkuhuli az majmui tadbirhoi tarbiyavi, marifatiyu sanitari va tibbi iborat meboshad. Jihati muhimi propagandai ziddialkuhuli ba yakdigar vobasta kardani tarzi korhoi ommavi va fardi ast. Okhiri ba shakhsone dakhl dorad, ki baroi dast kashidan az sharobnushi irodaashon susti mekunad. CHunin tarzi kor gayr az suhbathoi tavzehi (bo ishtiroki kormandoni tibbi, mamuriyat, namoyandagoni tashkiloti jamiyati), inchunin sanjishi sharoiti zindagi yo hayoti oilaviro, ki shakhsro ba istemoli araq majbur sokhtaast, darbar megirad.
Padaru modarone, ki mayzada gashtaand az huquki volidayni marhum karda meshavand. Dar jumhurii mo ba noboligon furukhtani hama namudi nushokihoi spirtdor (az jumla pivo) man ast. Ba sharobnushi jalb kardani noboligon, yane muntazam mast kardani onho, qati nazar az kheshu tabor budan, chun raftori jinoi mahkum karda meshavad.
Baroi dar holati masti ba kor baromadan, dar vaqti kor yo hangomi khuroki nisfiruzi sharob nushidan niz jazo peshbini shudaast. Mas., dar asosi Kodeksi qonunho oid ba mehnati JT dar idorayu muassisaho tamomi ruz (smena) ba kor roh dodani korgaroni mast man ast. Hangomi masti dar kor yo joi digar zakhmdor shudan, hodisai nokhushe shumorida meshavad, ki bo aybi khudi kas rukh dodaast. Dar chunin holatho hangomi muolijai ambulatori va dar bemorkhona budan, varaqai bemori doda nameshavad.
Huquqi jinoi muqarrar mekunad, ki shakhsoni dar holati masti jinoyat sodirkarda az javobgari ozod nameshavad va dar baze holatho masti gunohro vaznintar (mas., dar ronandagon) megardonad. Dar jumhurii mo ba idora kardani vositahoi naqliyot hatto hangomi shirakayf budan niz roh doda nameshavad. Vayron kardani in qonun amaliyoti barqasde mahsub meyobad, ki baroi sar zadani falokati naqliyot ravona gashtaast va vobasta ba sharoit ba gunahkor jazoi mamuri (jarima, muvaqqatan yo doimi az huquqi ronandagi mahrum kardan) yo jinoi doda meshavad.
Ad.: Gulyamov M. G., Umarov S. E., Istoriya, sovremennoe sostoyanie i meri uluchshenie prinuditelnogo lecheniya bolnikh khronicheskim alkogolizmom, «Zdravokhranenie Tadjikistana», 1973, №1; Bolotova Z.N., Alkogolizm – obshestvennoe zlo, Kiev, 1982; Gudvin D. U., Alkogolizm, M., 2002; Lapin I. P., Stress. Trevoga. Depressiya. Alkogolizm. Epilepsiya, SPb., 2004.

N. M. SHarofova.

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