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MAYDONI MAGNITII ZAMIN

YAke az khususiyoti tavajjuhbarangezi Zamin az digar Sistemahoi Oftobi dar on ast, ki vay doroy maydoni magnitii qavi meboshad. Zamin in magniti buzurg ast. Maydoni magnity baroi himoyai organizmhoi zinda az tasiri zararovari afganishi shuoi Oftob ahamiyati buzurg dorad.

Ba in ba akrabaki magnitii kompas( qutbnamo) bovar hosil kardan mumkin ast.

Kompas dar CHini qadim kashf tuda, tayi hazorho sol baroi sayyohon va onhoe, ki dar bahr shino mekunand, khidmat menamoyad. Akrabaki magnitii kompas tahti ta­siri maydoni magnitii Zamin mavqei mushakhkhasro sohib gashta, taqriban ba samti shimol-janub nigaronida shudaast.

maydoni-magniti

Samti aqrabaki kompas dar har nuqta bo meridiani magnity rost meoyad. Aqrabaki kompas ba chy mekashad? In savol az zamonhoi qadim odamonro ba andesha kardan vomedorad.

Bazeho meguftand, ki onro Sitorai Qutb ba sui khud mekashad. Digaron chunin meshumoridand, ki ba on sitorahoi shimoly tasir merasonand. Az in ru, aqrabak ba sui sitoraho mayl mekunad, hamon tavre oftobparast ruy ba oftob meovarad. Savvumiho fikr mekardand, ki sababi «samtyobii» magnit dar qutbi olam, azjumla, osmon, nazdikii qutb ast. Ba iborai digar, onho fikr mekardand, ki in bo kutbi jahoni marbut ast.

Nafaroni digare budand, ki ba fikri ondo sarchashmai jozibai aqrabak az osmon ba Zamin mefaroyad.

Vayro dar andeshai khud dar kuddoi Giperboy, shakhdoi afsonavi va jazirado qaror medodand.

Bori nakhust ba omuzishi khususiyatdoi magnit dar asri XIII olimi faronsavy, muhandis va magistr Pert Peregrin ikdom namuda bud. Vay nakhustin shuda shard dod, ki chy tavr dar tajriba mavqei qutbdoi magniti tabiiro paydo kardan mumkin ast va dar ilm chunin mavfhumdoro chun « Qutbdoi SHimoli va Janubi»vorid kard, ki to kunin hifz shudaand. Peregrin mushodida kard, ki suzan ba qutbdoi magnit nisbat ba nuqtahoi digari on beshtar jazbu kashida meshavad. .

Asrhoi ziyod guzashtand.

Hristofor Kolumb tavassuti uqyonusi Atlantik ba safari nakhustini khesh mebaroyad. 13-umi sentyabrya soli 1492 bahrnavardon bo taajjub mushodida kardand, ki aqrabaki kompas ba garb mayl kardaast. Ruzi digar dubora samti khudro digar kard. 17 -umi sentyabr, azimuti Oftobro dusta shturman ehsos kard, ki dar in chahor 4 ruz aqrabak samti khudro besh az 11 marotiba digar kardaast. Holati shakovari aqrabaki kompas dar dili bahrnavardoni mutaassib vohima barangekht. Mavqei kartushki kompasro noayon az digaron tagyir doda, Kolumb ba bahrnavardon mefahmond, ki in aqrabaki kompas nabuda, balki harakati Sitorai Qutb ast.

Vaqte kishtii Kolumb to ba Dunyoi Nav shinokunon rasid, aqrabaki kompas dubora ba shimol mayl dosht. Dalele hast, ki Hristofor Kolumb na tando Amrikoro, balki tamoyuli magnitiro niz kashf kardaast.

A Kunji bayni meridiani geografy va magnitiro tamoyuli magnity meno mand.

Ikhtirokoroni botajriba ba andeshae omadand, ki agar tamoyul chunon buzurg ast, ki aqrabaki kompas shimolro nishon namedihad, balki yakchand gradus ba tarafi digar tamoyul dorad, bori digar andak ba garb mayl dorad, pas shoyad qutbi magnity dar shimol qaror dorad.

Soli 1546 bori nakhust Merkator muvofiq naomadani qutbi geografii SHimoliro bo qutbi magnity nishon dod va mavqei qutbro muayyan kard.

Bisyore az sayyohoni jasur kushish kardaand, to ba qutbi magnity birasand. 1 iyuni soli 1831 Djeyms Rossi anglis to ba Qutbi Magnitii SHimoly ra­sid. Dar yake az khonahoi barfin Djeyms mushodidadoi khudro anjom dod. Ana aknun aqrabaki avezoni kompas tavri amudi qaror giriftaast. Bilokhira! Nakhod in hamon qutbi magnity ast? Nakhod in hamon joest, ki hama kompashoi jadon ba on ishora mekunand? Djeyms az khonachai khesh berun mebaroyad, to nazar afganad.

Vay chiro mebinad? Dar nazdikii sohil joi bisyor poyon qaror doshta, dar idoma dar daruntari materik, takhminan dar fosilai yak mil teppadoe ba vujud meoyand, ki balandiyashon 50-60 fut meboshand.

Biser khub mebud agar chunin yak joi mashhur doroy yagon nav alomatu nishona boshad. Vale boisi taassuf ast, ki dar in jo hej kuhe, ki chunin yak joi ajoibro nishon bidihad, vujud nadorad.

«Man metavonam onhoro dark kunam, ki soddavu takhayulbarangezona fikr mekard, ki qutbi magnityin yak chizi rozdoru asrorangez misli Sindbodi afsonavy astu in kuhi ohanin va yo magnitest, ki dar buzurgy Monblanro ba yod meovarad. Tabiat dar in jo yagon haykalero bunyod nakardaast, to ki joero, ki khudash chun markazi yake az neruhoi buzurgash va purasrorash intikhob kardaast, buzurg sozad», chunin navishta bud dar yoddoshthoi khesh Ross.

17-umi fevrali soli 1841 Ross hamagy dar masofai 160 mil az qutbi Janubii magnity qaror dosht. Vay ba devori buzurgy yakhin, ki dar pahlui on kishtiho chun puchoqchaho ba nazar merasidand, takya karda, har qadar dar shafati on shino mekard, hech okhiri onro dida natavonist. Ross in devorro Money Bu- zurgi YAkhin nomida bud.

Dar in kor Robert Skott, Ernst SHelktoni anglis, Ru al Amundseni norvegy shirkat karda budand. 15 dekabri soli 1911 dar muqobili sanjishhoi sakht ustuvor istoda, to ba qutbi geografii Januby rasid.

Guruhe, ki tahti rohbarii professori Universiteta Sidney Tomas Devid, fiziki Universiteta Adeland Duglas Mouson va pizishk Elister Makkey mohi yanvari soli 1909 tasis doda shuda bud, to ba Qutbi Magnitii Januby rasid. Mu- shakhkhas gardid, ki Qutbi Magnitii Janubi nuqtaest, ki dar on aqrabaki magnity holati amudiro ba khud megirad va in yak nav galabae az boloi bisyor mushkilot bud.

Pursishho

  1. Dar kharita qutbhoi geografi va magnitii Zaminro paydo kuned.
  2. CHaro nugi aqrabaki shimolii kompas ba poyon mayl dorad?
  3. Kadom odamon pioneroni fathi Qutbi Magnitii SHimoli va Qutbi Geografii Januby shumorida meshavand?
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