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MADANIYATI MODDI VA MANAVI DAR NIMAI AVVALI ASRI XIX

Binokori va memori. Darajai taraqqiyoti sanati memorii Osiyoi Miyona, alalkhusus dar bobati sokhtmoni binohoi boshukuh, dar nimai avvali asri XIX nazar ba asrhoi guzashta khele poyon raft. Bo hamin sabab az yodgorihoi memorii in davra to zamoni mo kam boqi mondaand. Az binohoi boqimonda madrasai Halifa Niyozqul, ki beshtar bo nomi CHormanor mashhur ast va silsilai imorati khalifa Hudoydod dar Bukhoro diqqati har binandaro ba khud jalb menamoyand.

Dar Samarqand yakchand binohoi kalon sokhta va yo sokhtmoni nimkoramondai imorathoi kuhna anjom shudand. Masalan, dar miyonai asri XIX dar tahkursii kuhna binoi Masjidi Hazrati Hizr sokhta shud (namudi hozirai bino dar natijai aznavsozii soli 1915 paydo shudaast).

Namunai khati Mirhusayni Istaravshani
Namunai khati Mirhusayni Istaravshani

Dar hamin davra dar Hujand, Uroteppa, Hisor, Panjakent va digar shahrho niz imorathoi bisyor sokhta shudand. Masalan, masjidu yakchand madarasahoi nachandon kalon dar Hujand sokhta shuda budand, qisman Masjidi SHaykh Muslihiddin, Maqbarai Tupkhona va masjid dar CHorbog tamir shudand. Devorhoi atrofi shahri Hujand va Uroteppa tez-tez tamir meshudand. binohoi kalon sokhta va yo sokhtmoni nimkoramondai imorathoi kuhna anjom shudand. Masalan, dar miyonai asri XIX dar tahkursii kuhna binoi Masjidi Hazrati Hizr sokhta shud (namudi hozirai bino dar natijai aznavsozii soli 1915 paydo shudaast).

Az yodgorihoi memorii Uroteppa binoi Madrasai Rustambek qobili zikr ast. In bino solhoi 50-umi asri XIX az tarafi hokimi in mulk Rustambek sokhta shuda bud. Binoi mazkur duoshyona buda 49 hujra dosht. Dar du gushai peshi Madrasa du manor sokhta shuda budand. Peshtoqi Madrasa bo porai koshii surkhu kabud va safed oroish dosht. Dar du tarafi peshtoqi Madrasa du hayvon tasvir yofta bud, ki ba palang yo asphoi afsonavi monandi doshtand. Az sokhtmonhoi kaloni onvaqtai Uroteppa Madrasai Namozgoh, Ayvoni Tillokori dar poytakhti qarorgohi hokim dar boloi Mugteppa, hammom, korvonsaroy va masjid bino yofta budand.

Dar hamin davra baze imorathoi Registoni Hisor (Madrasai Nav), Madrasai Mirolim Dodkhoh dar Panjakent sokhta shudand.

Dar khonii Huqand niz binokori vusati ziyode paydo karda bud. Dar shahrhoi in mamlakat bisyor imorathoi muhtasham, qasrho, korvonsaroy, hammom, qalavu manoraho, inchunin masjidu Madrasa va maqbaraho sokhta shudand. Az binohoi muhtashami in davrai Huqand Maqbarai Modari Hon va Dakhmai SHohon joliband. Taqriban dar yak vaqt bo in binoho Masjidi Honaqoh dar Margelon va Masjidi CHinorlik dar Huqand, Maqbarai Hucham Qabri dar Namangon va digar binoho sokhta shudand. Sarfi nazar az baze jihathoi norasoii binohoi mazkur, ustoho dar sokhtmoni onho asosan ananai memorii klassikii davrai asri miyonai Fargonaro davom dodaand.

Ammo dar binokorihoi ommavi qati anana va tanazzul mushohida nameshavad. Baraks, mahz dar in davra navhoi mahallii manzilhoi Osiyoi Miyona komilan tashakkul meyobad. Zimnan, dar tarh, oroish va masohat du nav bino – manzili odamoni davlatmand va manzili odamoni benavo az ham tafovuti jiddi paydo mekunand. CHor tarafi manzilgoh bo devorhoi baland ihota megardidand. Ba taqozoi iqlim dar har manzilgoh, sakhni havli ahamiyati kalon dosht, zero sokinoni on aksari ruzhoi solro dar zeri soyai darakhton meguzarondand.

Havli az du qismat iborat bud: havlii darun va havlii berun. Dar havlii darun khonai zist, oshkhona va gayra joy megirift. Dar havlii berun odatan saiskhona, mehmonkhona, darvozakhona joygir meshud. Goho havlichai makhsusi khojagi va qitai bogro ham judo mekardand. Aksaran dar peshi khonaho ayvon mesokhtand. Binoho nafaqat yakoshyona, balki duoshyona va goho seoshyona ham bunyod megardidand.

Dar binokorihoi dehot havli va qitai bog bo devorhoi balandi gili ihota gardida, rabot va yo qurgon aksar vaqt zevarbandi karda meshud. Behtarin namunahoi chunin manzilho dar Samarqand boqi mondaand.

Honavu ayvonho chunon sokhta meshudand, ki kasro dar tobiston az garmo va zimiston az sarmo muhofizat mekardand. Honai zist gayr az dari asosi daricha va tobadon ham dosht, ki baroi ravshanoi va toza kardani havoi khona khizmat mekard. Dar daruni khona baroi khurokpazi oshkhona judo mekardand, ki otashdonu muri dosht. Baroi garm shudan dar fasli zimiston dar khonaho sandali mavjud bud.

Baroi oroishi qismati dokhilii sokhtmon tamomi navhoi hunari amalii mardum, az qabili kandakorii chub, gajkori, naqshunigor va gayra istifoda burda meshud. Ammo in hama zeboi ba manzili odamoni doro mutaalliq bud. Mardikorone, ki baroi onho khizmat mekardand, dar kulbahoi haqir, bazan dar tahkhonaho mezistand.

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