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Litosferai avvalin

Dar evolyutsiyai molekula faqat qishri Zamin maqomi muhim bozidaast. Tarkibi qishri Zamin az Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, K va digar unsurho iborat ast. Darajai fahmishhoi geologi holo imkon namedihand, ki oid ba tagyiryobii tarkibi qishri zamin dar har davra khulosai asosnok barorem.

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Gidrosferai avvalin Dar sathi avvalai Zamin kamtar az 0,1 foizi hajmi uqyonushoi hozira vujud dosht.

Muhiti uqyonusi avvalin ishqorii sust bud (pH=8-9). Atmosferai avvalin Atmosferai nakhustini Zamin az gidrogen iborat bud, ki on ba fazoi koinot khorij shudaast; atmosferai duyumin az gazhoi vulqoni ba vujud omadaast. Se tariqi hosil shudani atmosferai yakumin peshnihod gardidaast:

Paydoishi protobiopolimerho masalai nisbatan murakkabtar ast. Zarurati mavjud budani onho dar hama organizmhoi zinda hatmist. Onho dar ravandi fermentatsiya (masalan, gidroliz, dekarboksiloni, aminiloni, dezamiloni, oksidkunii angidridi, gidrogen va gayraho), ba gayr az baze ravandhoi sodda (masalan, turshshavi) va murakkab (reaksiyai fotokhimiyavi, fosforonidan, fotosintez va gayraho) masul meboshand.

Mavjudiyati ob dar sayyorai mo (uqyonusi avvalin) va zarurati mavjud budani on dar hamai organizmhoi zinda sababi monegii termodinamiki dar rohi paydoishi protobiopolimerho dar ravandhoi polikondensatsiya meboshad.

Masalan, baroi dar mahluli obi hosil kardani bandi peptidi muvofiqi reaksiya: sarfi 2-4 kkal energiya zarur ast.

Monegii termodinamiki baroi hosil kardani molekulai safeda dar mahluli obi boz ziyodtar ast. Pas, baroi az biomonomerho sintez kardani makromolekulaho metodhoi makhsusi dur kardani ob zarurand.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Zaminahoi kayhoni va sayyoravii dar Zamin bo rohi abiogeni paydo shudani hayotro nombar kuned.
  2. Baroi dar Zamin az moddahoi gayriorganiki paydo shudani moddai organiki khususiyati barqarorshavi doshtani atmosferai avvalin chi ahamiyat dosht?
  3. Asbob va metodi guzaronidani tajribahoi S.Miller va P.YUriro naql kuned.

Istilohot:

  1. Galaktika – sistemai sitoraho va sayyorahoi onro ihota karda.
  2. Sayyora – jismhoi osmonie, ki dar atrofi Oftob davr mezanand va az on garmiyu rushnoi megirand.
  3. Sintezi abiogeni – hosilshavii molekulahoi organiki az molekulahoi gayriorganiki, biduni organizmi zinda.
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