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LITOSFERA CHIST?

Kabathoi litosfera. Tavreki medonem, litosferaro kishri Zamin ham meguyand. In kalimaho (mafhumho) az jihati mano ba ham nazdikand. Qishri Zamin gufta mo faqat qabati sakhti boloi Zaminro dar nazar dorem.

Litosfera boshad, gayr az qishri Zamin, inchunin qismi boloi mantiyaro dar bar megirad.

lITOSFERASathi qishri Zamin nohamvor meboshad. Qismi balandi onro khushki (materikho), pastkhamihoro uqyonusho ishgol namudaand. Gafsii on dar zeri uqyonusho 5-10 km, dar zeri hamvoriho 30-35 km. dar zeri kuhho 50-75 km-ro tashkil medihad. On az madan va jinshoi kuhii gunogun tarkib yoftaast. Onhoro odamon bo maqsadkhoi gunogun istifoda mebarand. Hangomi az chuqurihoi qishri Zamin
isgtikhroj kardani mineralho (madanho) dar konho mushohida namudaand, ki barobari ziyod shudani chuquri harorat baland meshavad. Badtar olimon muayyan kardand, ki in harorat ba kishri Zamin az mantiya dokhil megardad.

Hamin tavr, qabatero, ki az qishri Zamin va qismi boloi mantiya tarkib yoftaast. litosfera menomand.

“Litos” kalimai yunoni buda, manoyash “sang” ast. Gafsii in qabat dar hama joi kurai Zamin yak khel nest.

Omuznshi qishri Zamnn. Rui Zamin panokhgoh va muhiti zisti inson ast. Hayoti inson bo on zich aloqamand meboshad. Odamon dar rui Zamin kisht mekunand, chorvo parvarish menamoyand, rohho, khona, korkhona mesozand. Az zeri Zamin madan, neft, angipp, gaz istehsol menamoyand. Barobari afzudani talabot harakat mekunand, ki sarvathoi dar chuqurihoi ziyodi Zamin joygiriftaro ham istifoda barand. Baroi fahmidan va peshgiry kardani ofatkhoi tabiy – lagjishi qabatho otashfishonii vulkonho, zaminjunbi va gayra kushish menamoyand. Halli in masalaho odamonro vodor mesozad, ki na faqat sathi kishri Zamin. balki qabathoi chuquri onro omuzand. Ba in maqsad usulhoi gunoguni tadqikotro istifoda mebarand. YAke az in usulho mushohidai bevositai qismi ba nazar namoyoni rui Zamin meboshad.

Bo kumaki in usul joyhoi ba nazar namoyoni jinshoi kuhii sokhili bakhrho, obkandai soyho, vodii daryoho, nishebii kuhho khub omukhta shudaand. Ammo chuqurii Zamin baroi mo ayon nest. baroi omukhtani  on az digar usulho istifoda mebarand. Jinshoi kuhii kabati az hama boloi Zaminro ba vositai naqbi konhoi chuqur omukhta, tarkib va sharoiti hosilshavii onhoro fahmida megirand. Qabathoi nisbatan chuquri qishri Zaminro bo usuli parmakunii chohhoi az had chuqur – seysmiki (“seysmos” kalimai yunoni buda, manoyash larzish zilzila ast) meomuzand. Holo chohhoi chuquriashon 12-15 km dar Afrikoi Janubi, Amerikoi Lotiny, Ural, Kafkazi SHimoli, nimjazirai Kola kanda shudaand. Dar asosi namunai jinshoi kuhii ba dast ovarda olimon dar borai tarkib, paydoish, sokhti qishri Zamin va zokhirshavii quvvahhoi dokhili, ki onro tagyir medihand, khulosahoi ilmi mebarorand.

Usuli seysmiki ba on asos yoftaast, ki az qabati jinshoi kuhii kovok va sakht mavjhoi seysmiki bo surati gunogun meguzarand. Binobar in dar rui Zamin dar chuqurii muayyan tarkish ba amal meovarand. Ba vositai asbobhoi makhsus surati pahnshavii mavjhoi seysmikiro muayyan namuda, az qabati kadom chinshoi kuhy guzashtani onhoro muqarrar menamoyand. Masalan, surati guzashtani mavjhoi seysmiki dar jinshoi tahshin dar yak soniya ba hisobi miyona 3 km. dar sangi khoro 5 km-ro tashkil medihad. Az rui in malumotkho olimon sokht, tarkibi qishri Zamin va holati qabathoi chuquri onro aniq muayyan mekunand. Oid ba kabathoi dokhilii Zamin farziyaho peshnikhod menamoyand.

Savol va suporish

  1. Kadom qismi Zaminro kishri Zamin menomaid?
  2. Qishri Zamin az chiho iborat ast?
  3. Kadom qismi Zaminro
    litosfera meguyand?
  4. Qishri Zaminro baroi chi meomuzand?
  5. Az naqsha muayyan namoed, ki qismkhoi baland va pasti
    qishri Zaminro chikho ishgol kardaand?
  6. Gafsii qishri Zamin dar zeri materikho va uqyonuskho chand kilometrro
    tashkil medihad?
  7. Qishri Zamin dar zeri materikho
    (khushki) va uqyonusho az kadom qabatkho iborat ast?
  8. Litosfera az kishri Zamin chi farq dorad? Qishri Zaminro bo kadom usulho meomuzand?
  9. ar joyhoi ba nazar namoyoni qishri Zamin kadom jinshoi kuhiro didaed?
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